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νη. ἃς 
4 ᾿ ὃ 
RY MAY} 


THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 


EDITED BY 
BE. CAPPS, Pu.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, Lirt.D, W. Η. Ὁ. ROUSE, Litt.D. 


APOLLODORUS 
THE LIBRARY 


I 





APOLLODORUS 


THE LIBRARY 


WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 


SIR JAMES GEORGE FRAZER, 
F.B.A., F.R.S. 


FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 


IN TWO VOLUMES 
I 


LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
. NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS 
MOMXXI 





Univ. Library, Univ. Cait., sania Cruz 


PA 
3870 
AT 
[44] 
γ.! 


ΤῸ 


MY OLD TEACHER AND FRIEND 


HENRY JACKSON, O.M. 


Digitized by Google 


INTRODUCTION 


SUMMARY . 


CONTENTS 


PAGB 
@ e e oe . Φ Φ Φ Γ . Φ Φ e ° ix 
e Φ e e e e e Φ Φ Φ e xlv 


SYMBOLS EMPLOYED IN THE CRITICAL NOTES ..... lix 


BOOK I . 


BOOK II 


BOOK III 


ς: @ e@ ee ὁ. ὁ @ @ @ τ χρῷ 1197 
: Mew Sie a κ᾿ ἂς τος, VO 


ERRATA, 


Vou. 1. 
P. 83 For “ Thestius” read “ Agrius.” 


Vou. 11. 
P. 54. For ‘later version” read ‘‘ earlier version.” 








INTRODUCTION 


I.—Tue Autuor anno His Book. 


Noruine is positively known, and little can be 
conjectured with any degree of probability, con- 
cerning the author of the Library. Writing in the 
ninth century of our era the patriarch Photius calls 
him Apollodorus the Grammarian,! and in the manu- 
scripts of his book he is described as Apollodorus 
the Athenian, Grammarian. Hence we may con- 
clude that Photius and the copyists identified our 
author with the eminent Athenian grammarian of 
that name, who flourished about 1408.c. and wrote 
a number of learned works, now lost, including an 
elaborate treatise On the Gods in twenty-four books, 
and a poetical, or at all events versified, Chronicle in 
four books.2 But in modern times good reasons 
have been given for rejecting this identification,® 

1 Photius, Brbliotheca, p. 142a, 37 sq., ed. Bekker. 

2 W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur (Nord- 
ingen, aloe 455 ΚΝ ne in Pauly-Wissowa, 

clopadie de sitchen Altertumswissenscha ft, 
᾿ pind sqq. The fenaeeee of Apollodorus are collected 
in C. Miiller’s Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, i. 428 sqq. 

8 This was first fully done by Professor C. Robert: in his 
learned and able dissertation De Apollodori Bibliotheca 


(Berlin, 1873). In what follows I accept in the main his 
arguments and conclusions. 


1x 


INTRODUCTION 


and the attribution of the Library to the Athenian 
grammarian is now generally abandoned. For the 
treatise On the Gods appears, from the surviving 
fragments and references, to have differed entirely 
in scope and method from the existing Library. 
The aim of the author of the book On the Gods seems 
to have been to explain the nature of the deities on 
rationalistic principles, resolving them either into 
personified powers of nature! or into dead men and 
women,” and in his dissections of the divine nature 
he appears to have operated freely with the very 
flexible instrument of etymology. Nothing could 
well be further from the spirit and method of the 
mythographer, who in the Library has given us a 
convenient summary of the traditional Greek myth- 
ology without making the smallest attempt either to 
explain ‘or to criticize it. And apart from this 
general dissimilarity between the works of the 
grammarian and of the mythographer, it is possible 
from the surviving fragments of Apollodorus the 
Grammarian to point to many discrepancies and 
contradictions in detail.’ 

Another argument against the identification of 
the mythographer with the grammarian is that the 
author of the Library quotes the chronicler Castor ; 4 

1 Joannes Lydus, De Mensibus, iv. 27; Fragmenta 
Historicorum Graecorum, iv. 649. 

* Athenagoras, Supplicatto pro Christiants, 28, p. 150, ed. 
Otto; Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, i. 431, frag. 12. 


* See C. Robert, De Apollodors Bibliotheca, pp. 12 eqq. 
4 Apollodorus, Biblsotheca, ii. 1. 3. ᾿ . 


Χ 





INTRODUCTION 


for this Castor is supposed to be a contemporary of 
Cicero and the author of a history which he brought 
down to the year 618.c.!_ If the chronicler’s date is 
thus correctly fixed, and our author really quoted 
him, it follows that the Library is not a work of the 
Athenian grammarian Apollodorus, since it cannot 
have been composed earlier than about the middle 
of the first century p.c. But there seems to be no 
good ground for disputing either the date of the 
chronicler or the genuineness of our author’s re- 
ference to him; hence we may take it as fairly 
certain that the middle of the first century B.c. is 
the earliest possible date that can be assigned to the 
composition of the Library. 

Further than this we cannot go with any 
reasonable certainty in attempting to date the work. 
The author gives no account of himself and never 
refers to contemporary events: indeed the latest oc- 
currences recorded by him are the death of Ulysses 
and the return of the Heraclids. Even Rome and __ 
the Romans are not once mentioned or alluded to 
by him. For all he says.about them, he might have 
lived before Romulus and Remus had built the future 
capital of the world on the Seven Hills. 


1 Suidas, 8.0. Κάστωρ ; Strabo, xii. 5. 3, p. 568; W. Christ, 
Geschichte der griechiechen Intteratur, p. 430. He married 
the daughter of ae Deiotarus, whom Cicero defended in 
his speech Pro rege Detotaro, but he was murdered, together 
with his wife, by his royal father-in-law. Among his 
writings, enumerated by Suidas, was a work Χρονικὰ ayvoh- 
para. 


xi 








INTRODUCTION 


And his silence on this head is all the more 
remarkable because the course of his work would 
naturally have led him more than once to touch 
on Roman legends. Thus he describes how Her- 
cules traversed Italy with the cattle of Geryon 
from Liguria in the north to Rhegium in the 
south, and how from Rhegium le crossed the 
straits to Sicily.1 Yet in this narrative he does not 
so much as mention Rome and Latium, far less tell 
the story of the hero’s famous adventures in the 
eternal city. Again, after relating the capture and 
sack of Troy he devotes some space to describing 
the dispersal of the heroes and their settlement in 
many widely separated countries, including Italy 
and Sicily. But while he mentions the coming of 
Philoctetes to Campania,? and apparently recounted 
in some detail his wars and settlement in Southern 
Italy, he does not refer to the arrival of Aeneas in 
Latium, though he had told the familiar stories, so 
_dear to Roman antiquaries, of that hero’s birth from 

Aphrodite 4 and his escape from Troy with his father 
Anchises on his back. From this remarkable silence 
we can hardly draw any other inference than that 
the writer was eithet unaware of the existence of 
Rome or deliberately resolved to ignore it. He 

1 The Lit - oe : 

3 Epitome, vi. ἮΝ ᾿ Ἢ is to πε fete eet eg that this 
passage is not found in our manuscripts of Apollodorus but 
has been conjecturally restored to his text from the Scholia 


on Lycophron of Tzetzes. 
* The Lébrary, iii. 12. 2. 5 Epitome, iii. 21. 


xii 








INTRODUCTION 


cannot have been unaware of it if he wrote, as is 
now generally believed, under the Roman Empire. 
It remains to suppose that, living with the evidence 
of Roman power all around him, and familiar as he 
must have been with the claims which the Romans 
set up to Trojan descent,! he carefully abstained from 
noticing these claims, though the mention of them 
was naturally invited by the scope and tenor of his 
work. It must be confessed that such an obstinate 
refusal to recognize the masters of the world is 
somewhat puzzling, and that it presents a serious 
difficulty to the now prevalent view that the author 
was a citizen of the Roman empire. On the other 
hand it would be intelligible enough if he wrote in 
some quiet corner of the Greek world at a time 
when Rome was still a purely Italian power, when 
rumours of her wars had hardly begun to trickle 
across the Adriatic, and when Roman sails had not 
yet shown themselves in the Aegean. 

As Apollodorus ignored his contemporaries, so 
apparently was he ignored by them and by posterity 
for many generations. The first known writer to 
quote him is Photius in the ninth century a.p., and 
the next are John and Isaac Tzetzes, the learned 
Byzantine grammarians of the twelfth century, who 
made much use of his book and often cite him by 


1 Juvenal repeatedly speaks of the old Roman nobility 
as Trotugenae (i. 100, viii. 181, xi. 95); and the same term 
is used by Silius Italicus (Punic. xiv. 117, xvi. 658) as 
equivalent to Romans. 


xiii 


INTRODUCTION 


name.! Our author is named and quoted by scholiasts 
on Homer,? Sophocles,’ and Euripides. Further, 
many passages of his work have been interpolated, 
though without the mention of their author’s name, in 
the collection of proverbs which Zenobius composed 
in the time of Hadrian.5 But as we do not know 
when the scholiasts and the interpolator lived, their 
quotations furnish us with no clue for dating the 
Library. 

Thus, so far as the external evidence goes, our 
author may have written at any time between the 
middle of the first century B.c. and the beginning of 
the ninth century a.p. When we turn to the in- 
ternal evidence furnished by his language, which is 
the only remaining test open to us, we shall be 
disposed to place his book much nearer to the earlier 
than to the later of these dates. For his Greek 


_ style, apart from a few inaccuracies or solecisms, is 


fairly correct and such as might not discredit a 
writer of the first or second century of our era. 
Even turns or phrases, which at first sight strike 
the reader as undoubted symptoms of a late or 
degenerate Greek, may occasionally be defended by 
the example of earlier writers. For example, he 


1 See e.g. Tzetzes, Scholia on Lycophron, 178, 355, 440, 
1327 ; td., Chiltades, i. 557. 

2 Scholiast on Homer, 1}. i. 42, 126, 195; ii. 103, 494. 

8 Scholiast on Sophocles, Antigone, 981, ταῦτα 8 ἱστορεῖ 
᾿Απολλόδωρος ἐν τῇ Βιβλιοθήκῃ. 

4 Scholiast on Baripides. Alcestis, 1. 

5 As to the date of Zenobius, see Suidas, 8.0. Ζηνόβιος. 


xiv 


INTRODUCTION 


once uses the phrase ταῖς ἀληθείαις in the sense of 

“in very truth.”? Unquestionably this use of the 
plural is common enough in late writers,* but it is 
not unknown in earlier writers, such as Polybius,® 
Alcidamas,‘ and even Isocrates.5 It occurs in some 
verses on the unity of God, which are attributed to 
Sophocles, but which appear to be undoubtedly 
spurious.° More conclusive evidence of a late date 
is furnished by our author’s use of the subjunc- 
tive with ἵνα, where more correct writers would 
have employed the infinitive;’ and by his occasional 
employment of rare words or words used in an 
unusual sense.® But such blemishes are comparatively 
rare. On the whole we may say that the style of 
Apollodorus is generally pure and always clear, 


1 ii. 7. 7. 

2 For examples see Babrius, Ixxv. 19, with Rutherford’s 
note; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 522; Scholiast on 
Homer, 17. ix. 557 ; Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, ii. 178, 
iv. 815. 8 Polybius, x. 40. 5, ed. Dindorf. 

* Alcidamas, Odysecus, 13, p. 179 in Blass’s edition of 
Antiphon. However the genuineness of the Odysseus is 
much disputed. See Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie der 
classichen Altertumswissenscha ft, i. 1536. 

5 Isocrates, xv. 283, vol. ii. p. 168, ed. Benseler. 

* The Fragments of Sophocles, edited by A. C. Pearson 
(Cambridge, 1917), vol. iii. p. 172, frag. 1126, with Jebb’s 
note, p. 174. 

7 i. 4, 2, συνθεμένων δὲ αὐτῶν Wa... διαθῇ : i. 9. 15, Prhoaro 
παρὰ μοιρῶν Iva... ita iii, 12. 6, ποιησαμένου εὐχὰς 
Ἡρακλέους ἵνα αὐτῷ παῖς γένηται: Hpttome, v. 17, δόξαν δὲ 
τοῖς πολλοῖς ἵνα αὐτὸν ἐάσωσι. 

8 For example ἐκτροχάζειν, “to run out” (ii. 7. 3), προσ- 
ανέχειν, ““ἴο favour” (ii. 8. 4). For more instances see 
C. Robert, De ApoWlodors Biblsotheca, pp. 42 sqq. 

xv 


INTRODUCTION 


simple, and unaffected, except in the very rare 
instances where he spangles his plain prose with a 
tag from one of his poetical sources.t But with all 
his simplicity and directness he is not an elegant 
writer. In particular the accumulation of participles, 
to which he is partial, loads and clogs the march of 
his sentences. 

From a consideration of his style, and of all 
the other evidence, Professor C. Robert inclines 
to conclude that the author of the Library was a 
contemporary of Hadrian and lived in the earlier 
part of the first century a.p.2_~ Another modern 
scholar, W. Christ, even suggested so late a date 
for the composition of the work as the reign of 
Alexander Severus in the third century a.p.2 To 
me it seems that we cannot safely say more than 
that the Library was probably written at some time 
in either the first or the second century of our era. 
Whether the author's name was really Apollodorus, 
or whether that name was foisted on him by the 
error or fraud of scribes, who mistook him or desired 
to palm him off on the public for the famous 
Athenian grammarian, we have no means of de- 
ciding. Nor, apart from the description of him by 
the copyists as “ Apollodorus the Athenian,” have 

1 See for example his description of the Cretan labyrinth 
as οἴκημα καμπαῖς πολυπλόκοις πλάνῶν Thy ἔξοδον (iii. 1. 3, 
compare iii. 15. 8) ; and his description οὗ Typhon breathing 
fire, πολλὴν δὲ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τ: Hin ghee (dAny (i. 6. 3). 


* C. Robert, De Apollodors Bibliotheca, pp. 40 sg. 
aw. Christ, Geschichte der gricchiochen σέων, p. 571. 


xvi 








INTRODUCTION 


we any clue to the land of his birth. He himself is 
silent on that as on every other topic concerning 
himself, But from some exceedingly slight indi- 
cations Professor C. Robert conjectures that he was 
indeed an Athenian.! 
q7 Turning now from the author to his book, we may 
describe the Zibrary as a plain unvarnished summary 
of Greek myths and heroic legends, as these were 
recorded in literature; for the writer makes no 
claim to draw on oral tradition, nor is there the least 
evidence or probability that he did so: it may be 
taken as certain that he derived all his information 
from books alone. But he used excellent authorities 
and followed them faithfully, reporting, but seldom 
or never attempting to explain or reconcile, their 
discrepancies and contradictions.2_ Hence his book 
possesses documentary value as an accurate record 
of what the Greeks in general believed about the 
origin and early history of the world and of their 
race. The very defects of the writer are in a sense 
advantages which he possessed for the execution 
of the work he had taken in hand. He was neither 
a philosopher nor a rhetorician, and therefore lay 
under no temptation either to recast his materials 
under the influence of theory or to embellish them 
1 C. Robert, De ee Bibliotheca, pp. 348g. Amongst 
these indications is the author’s acquaintance with the ‘‘ sea 
of Erechtheus ” and the sacred olive-tree on the Acropolis of 


Athens. See Apollodorus, iii. 14. 1. 
2 This is recognized by Professor C. Robert, De Apollodors 
54, 


Bibliotheca, p. 
xvii 
VOL. 1. b 


INTRODUCTION 


for the sake of literary effect. He was a common 
man, who accepted the traditions of his country in 
their plain literal sense, apparently without any 
doubt or misgiving. Only twice, among the many 
discrepant or contradictory views which he reports 
without wincing, does he venture to express a_pre- 
ference for one over the other. The apples of the Hes- 
perides, he says, were not, as some people supposed, 
in Libya but in the far north, in the land of the 
Hyperboreans ; but of the existence of the wondrous 
fruit, and of the hundred-headed dragon which 
guarded them, he seemingly entertained no manner 
of doubt.1 Again, he tells us that in the famous 
dispute between Poseidon and Athena for the 
possession of Attica, the judges whom Zeus appointed 
to adjudicate on the case were not, as some people 
said, Cecrops and Cranaus, nor yet Erysichthon, but 
the twelve gods in person.” 
- How closely Apollodorus followed his authorities 
may be seen by a comparison of his narratives with 
the extant originals from which he drew them, such 
as the Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles,’ the Alcestis 4 
and Medea® of Euripides, the Odyssey,® and above 
all the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius.’ The 

1 Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11. 2 Apollodorus, iii. 14. 1. 

2 Apollodorus, iii. 3. 5. 7 sqq. 4 Apollodorus, i. 9. aa 

δ sears paar i. 9. 28. * Apollodorus, Epitome, v 

Apollodorus, ii. 9. 16-26. However, Apollodorus allowed 

himee f occasionally to depart from the authority of Apollonius, 
for veel a in regard to the death of Apsyrtus. See i. 


19. 24 with the note; and for other variations, see C. Robert, 
De Apollodors Bibliotheca, pp. 80 δα. 


XVili 








INTRODUCTION 


fidelity with which he reproduced or summarized the 
accounts of writers whose works are accessible to 
us inspires us with confidence in accepting his 
Statements concerning others whose writings are 
lost. Among these, perhaps, the most important 
was Pherecydes of Leros, who lived at Athens in the 
first half of the fifth century B.c. and composed a 
long prose work on Greek myth and legend, which 
more than any other would seem to have served as 
the model and foundation for the Library of 
Apollodorus. It is unfortunate that the writings of 
Pherecydes have perished, for, if we may judge 
of them by the few fragments which survive, 
they appear to have been a treasure-house-of Greek 
mythical and legendary lore, set forth with that 
air of simplicity and sincerity which charm us in 
Herodotus. The ground which he covered, and the 
method which he pursued in cultivating it, coincided 
to a large extent with those of our author. Thus 
he treated of the theogony, of the war of the gods 
and the giants, of Prometheus, of Hercules, of the 
Argive and the Cretan sagas, of the voyage of the 
Argo, and of the tribal or family legends of Arcadia, 
Laconia, and Attica; and like Apollodorus he 
seems to have paid great attention to genealogies.! 
Apollodorus often cites his opinion, and we cannot 
doubt that he owed much to the writings of his 
1 See W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur 
. 249; Fragmenta His tstoricorum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller,. 

1, 70 gq. 
xix 

b 2 


INTRODUCTION 


learned predecessor.!. Other lost writers whom our 
author cites, and from whose works he derived 
materials for his book, are the early Boeotian 
genealogist Acusilaus, who seems to have lived 
about 500 8.c., and Asclepiades of Tragilus, a pupil 
of Isocrates, in the fourth century 3.c., who com- 
posed a treatise on the themes of Greek tragedies.® 

Compiled faithfully, if uncritically, from the best 
literary sources open to him, the Library of Apollo- 
dorus presents us with a history of the world, as 
it was conceived by the Greeks, from the dark 
beginning down to a time when the mists of 
fable began to lift and to disclose the real actors 
on the scene. In other words, Apollodorus conducts 
us from the purely mythical ages, which lie far 
beyond the reach of human memory, down to the 
borderland of history. For I see no reason to doubt 
that many, perhaps most, of the legendary persons 
recorded by him were not fabulous beings, but 
men of flesh and blood, the memory of whose 
fortunes and family relationships survived in oral 


1 As to the obligations of Apollodorus to Pherecydes, see 
C. Robert, De Apollodors Bibliotheca, pp. 66 8qq. 

2 For the fragments of Acusilaus and Asclepiades, see 
Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, i. 
101 s8qq., iii. 301 sqg. Another passage of Acusilaus, with 
which Apollodorus would seem to have been acquainted, has 
lately been discovered in an Egyptian papyrus. See The 
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part XIII, edited by B. P. Grenfell and 
A. 5. Hunt (London, 1919), p. 133; and my note on Apollo- 
dorus, Epitome, i. 22, vol. ii. p. 151. As to the obligations 
of Apollodorus to Acusilaus and Asclepiades, see C. Robert, 
De Apollodori Bibliotheca, pp. 68 sqq., 72 eqq. 


Xx 


INTRODUCTION 


tradition until they were embalmed in Greek liter- 
ature. It is true that in his book, as in legend 
generally, the real and the fabulous elements blend 
so intimately with each other that it is often difficult 
or impossible to distinguish them. For example, 
while it seems tolerably certain that the tradition 
of the return of the Heraclids to Peloponnese is 
substantially correct, their ancestor Hercules a few 
generations earlier looms still so dim through the 
fog of fable and romance that we can hardly say 
whether any part of his gigantic figure is solid, in 
other words, whether the stories told of him refer to 
a real man at all or only to a creature of fairyland.! 


1 In favour of the view that Hercules was a man of flesh 
and blood, a native of Thebes, might be cited the annual 
sacrifice and funeral games celebrated by the Thebans at one 
of the gates of the city in honour of the children of Hercules 
(Pindar, Isthm. iv. 61 (104) eqqg., with the Scholiast) ; the 
statement of Herodotus (v. 59) that he had seen in the 
sanctuary of the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes a tripod bearing 
an inscription in ‘‘Cadmean letters” which set forth that 
the tripod had been dedicated by Amphitryon, the human 
father of Hercules; and again the statement of Plutarch 
(De gento Socratis,5; compare td. Lysander, 28) that the 
grave of Alcemena, mother of Hercules, at Haliartus had been 
opened by the Spartans and found to contain a small bronze 
armlet, two jars with petrified earth, and an inscription in 
strange and very ancient characters on a bronze tablet, which 
Agesilaus sent to the king of Egypt to be read by the 

riests, because the form of the inscription was supposed to 
Egyptian. The kernel round which the Theban saga of 
Hercules gathered may ΠΕΡ have been the delivery of 
Thebes from the yoke of the Minyans of Orchomenus; for 
according to tradition Thebes formerly paid tribute to that 
ancient and once powerful people, and it was Hercules who 
not only freed his people from that badge of servitude, but 


Xxi 


INTRODUCTION 


Again, though the record of the old wars of Thebes 
and Troy is embellished or defaced by many mythical 
episodes and incidents, we need not scruple to be- 
lieve that its broad outlines are true, and that the 
principal heroes and heroines of the Theban and 
Trojan legends were real and not mythical beings. 
Of late years it has been supposed that the heroes 
and heroines of Greek legend are “faded gods,” that 
is, purely imaginary beings, who have been first ex- 
alted to the dignity of deities, and then degraded to a 
rank not much above that of common humanity. So 
far as I can judge, this theory is actually an inversion 


gained so decisive a victory over the enemy that he reversed 
the relations between the two cities by imposing a heavy 
tribute on Orchomenus. There is nothing impossible or even 
improbable in the tradition as recorded by Apollodorus 
(ii. 4. 11). Viewed in this light, the delivery of the Thebans 
from the Orchomenians resembles the delivery of the Israelites 
from the Philistines, and Hercules may well have been the 
Greek counterpart of Samson, whose historical existence has 
been similarly dimmed by fable. Again, the story that after 
the battle Hercules committed a murder and went to serve 
Eurystheus as an exile at Tiryns (Apollodorus, ii. 4. 12) 
tallies perfectly with the usage of what is called the heroic 
age of Greece. The work of Apollodorus contains many 
instances of banishment and servitude imposed as a penalty 
on homicides, The most famous example is the period of 
servitude which the great god Apollo himself had to undergo 
as an expiation for his slaughter of the Cyclopes. (See 
Apollodorus, iii. 10. 4.) A homicide had regularly to submit 
to a ceremony of purification before he was free to associate 
with his fellows, and apparently the ceremony was always 
performed by a foreigner in a country other than that in 
which the crime had been committed. This of itself entailed 
at least temporary banishment on the homicide. (See Index, 
8.vv. ‘* Exile” and ‘* Purification.”’) 


Xxii 








INTRODUCTION 


of the truth. Instead of the heroes being gods on the 
downward road to humanity, they are men on the up- 
ward road to divinity ; in other words, they are men 
of flesh and blood, about whom after their death fancy 
spun her glittering cobwebs till their real humanity 
was hardly recognizable, and they partook more and 
more of the character of deities. When we consider 
the divine or semi-divine honours paid in historical 
times to men like Miltiades,! Brasidas,? Sophocles,® 
Dion,‘ Aratus,5 and Philopoemen,® whose real exis- 
tence is incontestable, it seems impossible to deny 
that the tendency to deify ordinary mortals was an 


21 Herodotus, vi. 38. 2 Thucydides, v. 11. 

3 Etymologicum Magnum, 8.v. Δεξίων, Ὁ. 256. 6; Istrus, 

uoted in a life of Sophocles, Vitarum Scriptores Graeci 

tnores, ed. A. Westermann (Brunswick, 1845), p. 131; 
Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, i. 425. 
The poet was worshipped under the title of Dexion, and “‘ the 
sanctuary of Dexion” is mentioned in an Athenian inscription 
of the fourth century n.c. See Ch. Michel, Recuesl d’In- 
scriptions Grecques (Brussels, 1920), No. 966, p: 761 54ᾳ.; 
G. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum*, No. 1096 
(vol. iii. pp. 247 eg.). Compare P. Foucart, Le culte des Héros 
chez les ὀΐω (Paris, 1918), pp. 121 sgq. (from the Mémoires 
de 1 Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letires, tome xlii.). 
In this valuable memoir the veteran French scholar has 
treated of the worship of heroes among the Greeks with 
equal judgment and learning. With his treatment of the 
subject and his general conclusions I am happy to find myself 
in agreement. 4 Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 20. 

δ Polybius, viii. 14; Plutarch, Aratus, 53; Pausanias, 
ii. 8. 1, ii. 9. 4 and 6. 

6 Diodorus Siculus, xxix. 18, ed. L. Dindorf; Livy, xxxix. 
50. Heroic or divine honours are not mentioned by Plutarch 
in his impressive ‘description of the funeral of Philopoemen 
(Philopoemen, 21) ; but he says that the Messenian prisoners 
were stoned to death at the tomb. | 


XXili 


INTRODUCTION 


operative principle in ancient Greek religion, and 
that the seeds of divinity which it sowed were pro- 
bably still more prolific in earlier and less enlightened 
ages ; for it appears to be a law of theological evolu- 
tion that the number of deities in existence at any 
moment varies inversely with the state of knowledge 
of the period, multiplying or dwindling as_ the 
boundaries of ignorance advance or recede. Even in 
the historical age of Greece the ranks of the celestial 
hierarchy were sometimes recruited, not by the slow 
process of individual canonization, as we may call it, 
but by a levy in mass; as when all the gallant men 
who died for the freedom of Greece at Marathon and 
Plataea received the first step of promotion on the 
heavenly ladder by being accorded heroic honours, 
which they enjoyed down to the second century of 
our era.! 

‘ Yet it would be an error to suppose that all Greek 
heroes and heroines had once been live men and 
women. Many of them were doubtless purely 


1 As to the heroic honours accorded to the dead at Mara- 
thon, see Pausanias, i. 32. 4; Corpus Inscriptionum Atts- 
carum, ii. No. 471. Remains of the sacrifices offered to the 
dead soldiers have come to light at Marathon in modern times. 
See my commentary on Pausanias, vol. ii, 433 45. As to the 
heroic honours enjoyed by the dead at Plataea, see Thuey- 
dides, iii. 58 ; Plutarch, Artetides, 21; G. Kaibel, Epsgram- 
mata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta (Berlin, 1878), No. 461, p. 
183 ; Inscriptiones Graecae Megaridis Oroptae Boeotsae, a 
G. Dittenberger (Berlin, 1892), No. 53, pp. 31 45. In the 
iascription the dead are definitely styled ‘‘ heroes,” and it 
is mentioned that the bull was still sacrificed to them by the 
city ‘‘down to our time” (nexpls ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν). 


XXiv 














INTRODUCTION 


fictitious beings, created on the model of the others 
to satisfy the popular craving for supernatural 
patronage. Such in particular were many of the so- 
called eponymous heroes, who figured as the ancestors 
of families and of tribes, as the founders of cities, 
and as the patrons of corporations and trade guilds. 
The receipt for making a hero of this pattern was 
simple. You took the name of the family, tribe, 
city, corporation, or guild, as the case might be, 
clapped on a masculine termination, and the thing 
was done. If you were scrupulous or a stickler for 
form, you might apply to the fount of wisdom at 
Delphi, which would send you a brevet on payment, 
doubtless, of the usual fee. Thus when Clisthenes 
had created the ten Attic tribes, and the indispens- 
able heroes were wanted to serve as figure-heads, 
the Athenians submitted a “long leet’ of a hundred 
candidates to the god at Delphi, and he pricked the 
names of ten, who entered on their office accordingly.! 
Sometimes the fictitious hero might even receive 
offerings of real blood, as happened to Phocus, the 
nominal ancestor of the Phocians, who got a libation 
of blood poured into his grave every day,’ being 
much luckier than another hero, real or fictitious, at 
Phaselis in Lycia, who was kept on a low diet of fish 


t Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 21; Etymologicum 
Magnum, 8.0. ᾿Επώνυμοι ; Scholiast on Aristides, Panathen., 
vol. iit. p. 331, ed. G. Dindorf (where for Καλλισθένης we 
must read Κλεισθένη). As to the fictitious heroes, see 
P. Foucart, Le culte des Héros chez les Grecs, pp. 47 846. 

2 Pausanias, x. 4.10. As to Phocus in his character of 
eponymous hero of Phocis, see Pausanias, x. 1. 1. 

XXV 











INTRODUCTION 


and had his rations served out to him only once a 
year.! It is difficult to conceive how on such a scale 
of remuneration the poor hero contrived to subsist 
from one year’s end to the other. | 

The system of Euhemerus, which resolves the gods 
into dead men, unquestionably suffers from the vice 
inherent in all systems which would explain the in- 
finite multiplicity and diversity of phenomena by a 
single simple principle, as if a single clue, like 
Ariadne’s thread, could guide us to the heart of this 
labyrinthine universe; nevertheless the theory of 
the old Greek thinker contains a substantial element 
of truth, for deep down in human nature is the 
tendency, powerful for good as well as for evil, to 
glorify and worship our fellow-men, crowning their 
mortal brows with the aureole as well as the bay. 
While many of the Greek gods, as Ouranos and Ge, 
Helios and Selene, the Naiads, the Dryads, and so 
on, are direct and transparent personifications of 
natural powers; and while others, such as Nike, 
Hygieia, and Tyche, are equally direct and trans- 
parent personifications of abstract ideas,? it is possible 

1 Athenaeus, vii. 51, pp. 207 E-298,. 

2 The personification and deification of abstract ideas in 
Greek and Roman religion are illustrated, with a great 
wealth of learning, by L. Deubner in W. H. Roscher’s 
Lexikon der grtechtschen und rémischen Mythologte, iii. 
2068 844. What Juvenal says (x. 365 84.) of the goddess of 
Fortune, one of the most popular of these deified abstractions, 
might be said with equal truth of many other gods and 
goddesses : 

Nos te, 
_ Nos factmus, Fortuna, deam caeloque locamus. 
χχνὶ 











INTRODUCTION 


and even probable that some members of the 
pantheon set out on their career of glory as plain 
men and women, though we can no longer trace 
their pedigree back through the mists of fable to 
their humble origin. In the heroes and heroines 
of Greek legend and history we see these gorgeous 
beings in the chrysalis or incubatory stage, before 
they have learned to burst the integuments of earth 
and to flaunt their gaudy wings in the sunshine of 
heaven. The cerements still cling to their wasted 
frames, but will soon be exchanged for a gayer garb 
in their passage from the tomb to the temple. 

But besides the mythical and legendary narratives 
which compose the bulk of the Library, we may 
detect another element in the work of our author 
which ought not to be overlooked, and that is the 
element of folk-tale. As the distinction between 
myth, legend, and folk-tale is not always clearly 
apprehended or uniformly observed, it may be well 
to define the sense in which I employ these terms. 

By myths I understand mistaken explanations of 
‘phenomena, whether of human life or of external 
nature. Such explanations originate in that in- 
stinctive curiosity concerning the causes of things 
which at a more advanced stage of knowledge seeks 
satisfaction in philosophy and science, but being 
founded on ignorance and misapprehension they are 
always false, for were they true they would cease to 
be myths. The subjects of myths are as numerous 
as the objects which present themselves to the mind 

xxvii 


INTRODUCTION 


of man; for everything excites his curiosity, and of 
everything he desires to learn the cause. Among 
the larger questions which many peoples have 
attempted to answer by myths are those which 
concern the origin of the world and of man, the 
apparent motions of the heavenly bodies, the regular 
recurrence of the seasons, the growth and decay 
of vegetation, the fall of rain, the phenomena of 
thunder and lightning, of eclipses and earthquakes, 
the discovery of fire, the invention of the useful arts, 
the beginnings of society, and the mystery of death. 
In short, the range of myths is as wide as the world, 
being coextensive with the curiosity and the igno- 
rance of man.} 

By legends I understand traditions, whether oral 
or written, which relate the fortunes of real people 
in the past, or which describe events, not necessarily 

1 By a curious limitation of view some modern writers 
would restrict the scope of myths to ritual, as if nothing but 
ritual were fitted to set men wondering and meditating on the 
causes of things. As a recent writer has put it concisely, 
‘“‘ Dee ἀρ bpd sont lea explications des rites” (Ε΄. Sartiaux, 
‘© La philosophie de Vhistoire des religions et les origines du 
Christianisme dans le dernier ouvrage de M. Loisy,” Revue 
du Mots, Septembre-Octobre, 1920, p. 15 of the separate 
reprint). It might have been thought that merely to open 
such familiar collections of myths as the Theogony of 
Hesiod, the Zabrary of Apollodorus, or the Metamorphosee 
of Ovid, would have sufficed to dissipate so erroneous a con- 
ception; for how small is the attention paid to ritual in 
‘these works! No doubt some myths have been devised to 
explain rites of which the true origin was forgotten ; but 
the number of such myths is small, probably almost infini- 


tesimally small, by comparison with myths which deal with 
other subjects and have had another origin. 


XXVili 





INTRODUCTION 


human, that are said to have occurred at real places. 
Such legends contain a mixture of truth and false- 
hood, for were they wholly true, they would not be 
legends but histories. The proportion of truth and 
falsehood naturally varies in different legends; gene- 
rally, perhaps, falsehood predominates, at least in 
the details, and the element of the marvellous or 
the miraculous often, though not always, enters 
largely into them. 

By folk-tales I understand narratives invented by 
persons unknown and handed down at first by word 
of mouth from generation to generation, narratives 
which, though they profess to describe actual occur- 
rences, are in fact purely imaginary, having no other 
aim than the entertainment of the hearer and making 
no real claim on his credulity. In short, they are 
fictions pure and simple, devised not to instruct or 
edify the listener, but only to amuse him; they 
belong to the region of pure romance. The zealous 
student of myth and ritual, more intent on explain- 
ing than on enjoying the lore of the people, is too 
apt to invade the garden of romance and with a 
sweep of his scythe to lay the flowers of fancy in 
the dust. He needs to be reminded occasionally 
that we must not look for a myth or a rite behind 
every tale, like a bull behind every hedge or a canker 
in every rose. The mind delights in a train of 
imagery for its own sake apart from any utility to 
be derived from the visionary scenes that pass before 
her, just as she is charmed by the contemplation of 

xxix 


INTRODUCTION 


a fair landscape, adorned with green woods, shining 
rivers, and far blue hills, without thinking of the 
timber which the woodman’s axe will fell in these 
green glades, of the fish which the angler’s line will 
draw from these shining pools, or of the ore which 
the miner’s pick may one day hew from the bowels 
of these far blue hills. And just as it is a mistake 
to search for a mythical or magical significance in 
every story which our rude forefathers have be- 
queathed to us by word of mouth, so it is an error to 
interpret in the same sad and serious sense every 
carving and picture with which they decorated the 
walls of their caverns. From early times, while 
some men have told stories for the sheer joy of 
telling them, others have drawn and carved and 
painted for the pure pleasure which the mind takes 
in mimicry, the hand in deft manipulation, and the 
eye in beautiful forms and colours! The utilitarian 
creed is good and true only on condition that we 
interpret utility in a large and liberal sense, and do 


1M. Marcellin Boule has lately made some judicious 
observations on the tendency to push too far the magical 
interpretation of prehistoric cave paintings. Without denying 
that magic had its place in these early works of art, he con- 
cludes, with great verisimilitude, that in the beginning ‘Part 
nest probablement qu'une manifestation particuliére Tun 
esprit général dimitation déja st développé chez les stnges.” 
See his book, Les Hommes Fossiles (Paris, 1921), p. 260 note. 
A similar view of the origin of art in emotional impulses 
rather than in the aye =v urposeful action of ma 
and religion, Bs aie st pag τ᾿ Βαταὺ Chandra Roy in ἮΝ 
able work, ml ate Methods of Physical Anthro- 
pology Peat 1990), 2 pp. 87 84. 


XXX 








INTRODUCTION 


not restrict it to the bare satisfaction of those bodily 
instincts on which ultimately depends the continu- 
ance both of the individual and of the species. 

If these definitions be accepted, we may say that 
myth has its source in reason, legend in memory, 
and folk-tale in imagination; and that the three 
riper products of the human mind which correspond 
to these its crude creations are science, history, and 
romance, — 

But while educated and reflective men can clearly 
distinguish between myths, legends, and folk-tales, 
it would be a mistake to suppose that the people, 
among whom these various narratives commonly cir- 
culate, and whose intellectual cravings they satisfy, 
can always or habitually discriminate between them. 
For the most part, perhaps, the three sorts of narra- 
tives are accepted by the folk as all equally true or 
at least equally probable. To take Apollodorus, for 
example, as a type of the common man, there is not 
the least indication that he drew any distinction in 
respect of truth or probability between the very 
different kinds of narrative which he included in 
the Library. To him they seem to have been all 
equally credible; or if he entertained any doubts as 
to their credibility, he carefully suppressed them. 

Among the specimens, or rather morsels, of popu- 
lar fiction which meet us in his pages we may instance 
the tales of Meleager, Melampus, Medea, Glaucus, 
Perseus, Peleus, and Thetis, which all bear traces 
of the story-teller’s art, as appears plainly enough 

xxxi 





INTRODUCTION 


when we compare them with similar incidents in 
undoubted folk-tales. To some of these stories, 
with the comparisons which they invite, I have 
called attention in the notes and Appendix, but 
_ their number might no doubt easily be enlarged. 
It seems not improbable that the element of folk- 
tale bulks larger in Greek tradition than has com- 
monly been suspected. When the study of folk-lore 
is more complete and exact than at present, it may 
be possible to trace to their sources many rivulets of 
popular fiction which contributed to swell the broad 
and stately tide of ancient literature.! 

In some respects the Library of Apollodorus re- 
sembles the book of Genesis. Both works profess 
to record the history of the world from the creation, 
or at all events from the ordering of the material 
universe, down to the time when the ancestors of 
the author’s people emerged in the land which was 
to be the home of their race and the scene of their 

1 Among recent works which mark a distinct advance 
in the study of folk-tales I would particularly mention 
the modestly named Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und 
Hausmdrchen der Briider Grimm by Johannes Bolte and 
Georg Polivka, published in three octavo volumes, Leipsic, 
1913-1918. A fourth volume, containing an index and a 
survey of the folk-tales of other peoples, is promised and 
will add greatly to the utility of this very learned work, 
which does honour to German scholarship. Even as 
it is, though it deals only with the German stories 
collected by the two Grimms, the book contains the fullest 
bibliography of folk-tales with which I am acquainted. I 
regret that it did not reach me until all my notes were 


passed for the press, but I have been able to make some use 
of it in the Appendix. 


Xxxii 








INTRODUCTION 


glory. In both works the mutations of nature and 
the vicissitudes of man are seen through the glamour, 
and distorted or magnified by the haze, of myth and 
legend. Both works are composite, being pieced 
together by a comparatively late redactor, who 
combined materials drawn from a variety of docu- 
ments, without always taking pains to explain their 
differences or to harmonize their discrepancies. But 
there the resemblance between them ends. For 
whereas the book of Genesis is a masterpiece of 
literary genius, the Library of Apollodorus is the dull 
compilation of a commonplace man, who relates 
without one touch of imagination or one spark of 
enthusiasm the long series of fables and legends 
which inspired the immortal productions of Greek 
poetry and the splendid creations of Greek art. 
Yet we may be grateful to him for saving for us 
from the wreck of ancient literature some waifs 
and strays which, but for his humble labours, might 
have sunk irretrievably with so many golden argosies 
in the fathomless ocean of the past. 


II.—Manuscripts AND EDITIONS. 


1. Manuscripts. A fair number of manuscripts of 
the Library are known to exist, but they are all late 
and of little value. All are incomplete, ending 

1 This account of the manuscripts is derived from Mr. R. 
Wagner’s preface to his critical edition of the text (Teubner, 
Leipsic, 1894). 
xxxiii 
VOL. 1. c 


INTRODUCTION 


abruptly in the middle of Theseus’s adventures on 
his first journey to Athens. This of itself raises a 
presumption that all are copies of one defective 
original. The latest editor, Mr. Richard Wagner, 
enumerates fourteen manuscripts, of which he has 
employed ten for his recension of the text. Among 
them he singles out one as the archetype from which 
all the other extant manuscripts are derived. It is 
a fourteenth century manuscript in the National 
Library at Paris and bears the number 2722. Mr. 
᾿ Wagner designates it by the symbol R. The other 
nine manuscripts employed by him he arranges in 
three classes, as follows :— 

The first class comprises two manuscripts, namely 
orf of the fifteenth century in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford (Laudianus 55), and one of the fifteenth 
or sixteenth century at Paris (numbered 2967). 
Mr. Wagner designates the Oxford manuscript by 
the symbol O and the Paris manuscript by the 
symbol R°. 

_ The second class, designated by the symbol B, 
comprises three manuscripts, namely a Palatine- ὁ 
Vatican manuscript of the sixteenth century, num- 
bered 52 (symbol P); a Paris manuscript of the 
sixteenth century, numbered 1653 (symbol ΚΒ"), and 
another Paris manuscript of the fifteenth century, 
numbered 1658 (symbol R°). 

The third class, designated by the ays C, com- 
prises four manuscripts, namely a Vatican manuscript 
of the fifteenth century, numbered 1017 (symbol V) ; 


XXXIV 








INTRODUCTION 


a manuscript of the fifteenth century in the Lauren- 
tian Library at Florence, numbered LX. 29 (symbol 
L); a manuscript of the fifteenth century at Naples, - 
numbered III. A 1 (symbol N); and a manuscript of 
the fifteenth century at Turin numbered C II. 11 
(symbol T). 

Besides these, Mr. Wagner mentions four manu- 
scripts which appear not to have been accurately 
collated. They are: a manuscript of the sixteenth 
century in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (d’Orvil- 
lianus X. I. 1, 1); a manuscript of the sixteenth 
century in the British Museum (Harleianus 5732) ; 
a manuscript of the sixteenth century at Turin 
(B IV. 5); and a manuscript of the sixteenth century 
in the Barberini palace at Rome (T 122). Of these 
the British Museum manuscript is reported to be 
well written, and the two Italian manuscripts to be 
very bad. 

Such were the materials which existed for estab- 
lishing the text of the Library down to 1885, when 
Mr. R. Wagner, examining some mythological works 
in the Vatican Library at Rome, was so fortunate as 
to discover a Greek manuscript (No. 950), of the end 
of the fourteenth century, which contains an epitome 
of the Library, including the greater part of the 
portion at the end which had long been lost.. Two 
years later Mr. A. Papadopulos-Kerameus discovered 
fragments of a similar epitome in a Greek manuscript 
at Jerusalem. The manuscript formerly belonged to 
the monastery (laura) of St. Sabbas and hence is 


XXXV 
c 2 


INTRODUCTION 


known as the Codex Sabbaiticus. It is now preserved 
in the library of the patriarch at Jerusalem and bears 
the number 366. By a curious coincidence the 
discoverers published the two epitomes almost simul- 
taneously, but without any knowledge of each other.! 
The text of the two epitomes, though in general 
agreement, does not always coincide exactly. Where 
the text of the Vatican epitome differs from the 
Sabbaitic, it sometimes agrees with the text of 
Apollodorus as quoted by Tzetzes, and this agree- 
ment has led Mr. Wagner to conclude that Tzetzes 
is the author of the Vatican epitome. Certainly 
Tzetzes was well acquainted with the Lebrary of 
Apollodorus and drew upon it largely in his learned 
commentary on Lycophron. It would not, therefore, 
be surprising if he had made an abridgment of it for 
his own use or that of his pupils. The hypothesis 
of his authorship is confirmed by the observation that 
the same manuscript, which contains the Vatican 
epitome, contains also part of Tzetzes’s commentary 
on Lycophron. 

1 The Vatican epitome was published by Mr. R. Wagner 
in a separate volume, with Latin notes and dissertations, at 
Leipsic in 189], under the title Hpitoma Vaticana ex Apol- 
lodors Bibliotheca, edidit Richardus Wagner, Accedunt Curae 
Mythographae de Apollodori fontibus. The Sabbaitic frag- 
ments of the epitome were published by Mr. A. Papado- 
pulos-Kerameus in Rhetnisches Museum, N.F. xlvi. (1891), 
pp. 161-192 under the title Apollodors Bibliothecae fragmenta 
Sabbaitica. The Sabbaitic manuscript was examined again 
by Mr. H. Achelis, and some corrected readings which he 


reported were published by Professor Hermann Diels in the 
same volume of the Rheintsches Museum, pp. 617 sq. 


XXXVI 








INTRODUCTION 


2. Editions. The first edition of the Library was 
published by Benedictus Aegius at Rome in 1555. 
In it the Greek text is accompanied by a Latin 
translation and.followed by some notes. The second 
edition was prepared by the scholar and printer 
Hieronymus Commelinus and published posthumously 
at his press in Heidelberg in 1599. It contains the 
Latin version of Aegius as well as the Greek text, 
and prefixed to it are a few critical notes by Com- 
melinus, chiefly recording the readings of the Palatine 
manuscript. The next edition was brought out by 
Tanaquil Faber (Salmurii, 1661). I have not seen it, 
but according to Heyne it contains some slight and 
hasty notes not unworthy of a scholar. The next 
editor was the learned English scholar Thomas Gale, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Regius 
Professor of Greek in the University. He edited 
Apollodorus along with the mythological treatises of 
Conon, Ptolemaeus Hephaestionis, Parthenius, and 
Antoninus Liberalis, in a volume entitled Historiae 
Poeticae Scriptores Antiqut, which was published, or at 
all events printed, at Paris in 1675. For his recen- 
sion of Apollodorus he used the readings of at least 
one Oxford manuscript, but according to Heyne he 
was not very diligent in consulting it. His text of 
Apollodorus and the other mythographers is accom- 
panied by a Latin translation and followed by critical 
and exegetical notes. 

All previous editions of Apollodorus were super- 


seded by the one which the illustrious German 
XxXVvii 


INTRODUCTION 


scholar C. G. Heyne published with a copious critical 
and exegetical commentary. It appeared in two 
volumes, first in 1782 and 1783, and afterwards, 
revised and improved, at Géttingen in 1803.1 Though 
he did not himself consult any manuscripts, he used 
the collations of several manuscripts, including the 
Palatine, Vatican, Medicean, and two in the Royal 
Library at Paris, which had been made many years 
before by a young scholar, Gerard Jacob van 
Swinden, for an edition of Apollodorus which he 
had planned. Heyne also made use of some extracts 
from a third manuscript in the Royal Library at 
Paris, which were procured for him by J. Schweig- 
hauser. With the help of these collations and his 
own admirable critical sagacity, Heyne was able to 
restore the text of Apollodorus in many places, and 
to purge it of many alien words or sentences which 
had been interpolated from scholia or other sources 
by the first editor, Aegius, and retained by later 
editors. His commentary bears ample witness to 
his learning, acumen, and good sense, and fully 
sustains his high reputation as a scholar. 

A new edition of Apollodorus was published in 
two volumes, with a French translation and notes by 
E. Clavier, at Paris in 1805, and another with notes, 


1 This second edition was issued in two forms, one in 
octavo, the other in smaller volumes. I have used the 
octavo edition. The first volume contains the Greek text 
with introduction and critical notes, but no translation. 
The second volume contains the exegetical commentary. 


XXXVill 





INTRODUCTION 


apparently in Latin, by Chr. L. Sommer at Rudol- 
stadt in 1822. These two editions, like the early 
one of Faber, I have not seen and know them only 
by report. In the first volume of his great edition 
of the fragments of the Greek historians,! C. Miiller 
included the text of Apollodorus with a Latin trans- 
lation. He had the advantage of using for the first 
time a collation of the Paris manuscript 2722, which, 
as we have seen, is now believed to be the archetype 
of all the extant manuscripts of Apollodorus. The 
text of Apollodorus was edited, with critical notes, 
by A. Westermann in his collection of ancient Greek 
mythologists° (Scriptores Poeticae Htstoriae Graeci, 
Brunswick, 1843), but he collated no manuscripts 
for the purpose. And contrary to his usual practice 
the great scholar Immanuel Bekker also collated no 
manuscripts for the edition of Apollodorus which he 
published (Teubner, Leipsic, 1854). Nevertheless, 
relying on his own excellent judgment, profound 
knowledge of Greek, and long experience of the 
ways of copyists, he produced a sound text, cor- 
rected in places by his conjectures. The edition of 
R. Hercher which followed (Weidmann, Berlin, 
1874) is characterized by the introduction of many 
conjectural readings, a few of them plausible or 
probable, and by such copious excisions that this 


1 Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, five volumes, Paris. 
The preface to the first volume is dated February, 1841; 
the preface to the fifth volume is dated November, 1869. 


XXXIX 


INTRODUCTION 


slashing critic may almost be said .to have mangled 
rather than emended his author. 

Lastly, the text of Apollodorus, supplemented for 
the first time by the Vatican and Sabbaitic epitomes, 
was edited with a concise critical apparatus and 
indices by Mr. Richard Wagner (Teubner, Leipsic, 
1894). By means of his extensive collation of 
manuscripts, and particularly by a comparison of the 
Vatican and Sabbaitic epitomes, which are clearly 
independent of our other manuscripts and often 
contain better readings, Mr. Wagner succeeded in 
restoring the true text in many places. He has 
earned the gratitude of all students, not only οἱ 
Apollodorus but of Greek mythology, by his fortunate 
discovery of the Vatican epitome and by his careful 
and judicious recension of the text. 

In the present edition the text is based on that of 
Mr. Wagner, but in doubtful passages I have com- 
pared the editions of Heyne, Miller, Westermann, 
Bekker, and Hercher, and occasionally the older 
editions of Aegius, Commelinus, and Gale; and I 
have exercised my own judgment in the selection of 
the readings. All variations from Mr. Wagner's 
text are recorded in the footnotes. I have collated 
no manuscripts, and my references to their readings 
are, without exception, derived from my predecessors, 
almost all from the critical apparatus of Mr. Wagner, 
whose symbols I have used to designate the manu- 
scripts. Conjectural emendations of my own have 


been very rarely admitted, but in this respect I have 
xl, 





INTRODUCTION 


allowed myself a somewhat greater latitude in 
dealing with the text of the Epstome, which rests on 
the authority of only two manuscripts and has not, - 
like the rest of the Library, been subjected to the 
scrutiny of many generations of scholars. 

In printing the Eyitome, or rather that portion of 
it only which begins where the manuscripts of the 
unabridged work break off, I have departed from 
Mr. Wagner's arrangement. He has printed the 
Vatican and the Sabbaitic versions in full, arranging 
the two in parallel columns. This arrangement has 
the advantage of presenting the whole of the manu- 
script evidence at a glance to the eye of the reader, 
but it has the disadvantage of frequently compelling 
him, for the sake of the comparison, to read the same 
story twice over in words which differ little or not 
at all from each other. To avoid this repetition, 
wherever the two versions present us with duplicate 
accounts of the same story, I have printed only one 
of them in the text, correcting it, where necessary, 
by the other and indicating in the footnotes the 
variations between the two versions. In this way 
the text of the Epitome, like that of the rest of the 
Library, flows in a single stream instead of being 
diverted in many places into two parallel channels. 
I venture to believe that this arrangement will 
prove more convenient to the ordinary reader, 
while at the same time it will sufficiently meet the 
requirements of the critical scholar. The differ- 
ences between the Vatican and the Sabbaitic 

xli 


INTRODUCTION 


versions are often so slight that it was not always 
easy to decide which to print in the text and which 
to relegate to the footnotes. I have endeavoured to 
give the preference in every case to the fuller and 
better version, and where the considerations on each 
side were very evenly balanced, I have generally, I 
believe, selected the Vatican version, because on 
the whole its Greek style seems somewhat purer 
and therefore more likely to correspond with the 
original. 

As the Library is no doubt chiefly used as a work 
of reference by scholars who desire to refresh their 
memory with the details of a myth. or legend or to 
trace some tale to its source, I have sought to consult 
their convenience by referring in the notes to the 
principal passages of other ancient writers where 
each particular story is told, and have often, though 
not always, briefly indicated how far Apollodorus 
agrees with or differs from them. Further, in 
commenting on my author I have illustrated some 
᾿ points of folk-lore by parallels drawn from other 
peoples, but I have abstained from discussing at 
length their origin and significance, because such 
discussions would be foreign to the scope of the 
series to which this edition of Apollodorus belongs. 
For the same reason I have barely alluded to the 
monumental evidence, which would form an indis- 
pensable part of a regular commentary on Apollo- 
dorus. Many of the monuments have already been 
deseribed and discussed by me in my commentary 
xlii 





- INTRODUCTION 


on Pausanias, and in order to avoid repetition, and 
to save space, I have allowed myself not infrequently 
to refer my readers to that work. Even so, I fear I 
have considerably transgressed the limits usually set 
to annotation in this series; and | desire to thank 
the General Editors for the kind indulgence which 
has permitted and pardoned the transgression. 


J. G. FRAZER. 
1, Brick Court, TEMPLE, 
Lonpon. 
5th April, 1921. 


7 


xliii 


SUMMARY’ 


I.—THEOGONY. 
Book 1., Chaps. 1.-v1. 


Orrsprine of Sky and Earth: the Hundred-handed, 
Cyclopes, Titans, i. 1-3. The Titans attack and mutilate 
Sky, origin of the Furies, i. 4. The children of Cronus 
and Rhea, the birth of Zeus, i. 5-7. Zeus conquers the 
Titans and divides the kingdom with his brothers, ii. 1. 
Offspring of the Titans, ii. 2-5. Offspring of Sea and 
Earth, ii. 6-7. 

Children of Zeus by Hera, Themis, Dione, Eurynome, 
Styx and Memory (the Muses), iii. 1. Children of the 
Muses: Calliope’s children Linus and Orpheus, iii. 2, 
Clio’s child Hyacinth (Thamyris), iii. $, Euterpe’s child 
Rhesus, Thalia’s children the Corybantes, Melpomene’s 
children the Sirens, ili. 4. Hephaestus, iii. 5. The 
birth of Athena, ili. 6. Asteria, Latona, the birth of 
Artemis and Apollo. Apollo slays the Python, iv. 1, 
Tityus, iv. 1, and Marsyas, iv. 2. Artemis slays Orion, 
iv. 3-5. 

Children of Poseidon and Amphitrite, iv. 6. 

Pluto carries off Persephone. Demeter comes to 
Eleusis (Triptolemus). Persephone remains with Pluto 
(Ascalaphus), v. 

Battle of the gods and giants, vi. 1-2. Typhon, vi. ὃ. 


1 Translated, with some modifications, from the Arygu- 
mentum prefixed to R. Wagner’s edition of Apollodorus. 


xlv 


SUMMARY 


I].—Tue Famity or DEvcALion. 
Book I., Chaps. v11.-1x. 


Prometheus creates men, and for the theft of fire is 
nailed to the Caucasus, vii. 1. Deucalion and .Pyrrha 
saved from the flood, vii. 1-2. Deucalion’s children. 
Hellen’s sons Dorus, Xuthus, Aeolus and their children, 
vii. 2-3. 

Aeolus’s daughters and their offspring: Perimede, 
Pisidice, Alcyone, vii. 3-4. Canace (the Aloads), vii. 4. 
Calyce, Endymion, Aetolus, Pleuron and Calydon and 
their children (Marpessa), vii. 5-10. Oeneus, grandson 
of Pleuron, father of Deianira and Meleager, viii. 1-2. 
The hunting of the Calydonian boar (list of the hunters, 
vili. 2), death of Meleager, viii. 2-3. Tydeus, son of 
Oceneus. Death of Oeneus, viii. 4-6. 

Aeolus’s sons and their offspring : Athamas, father of 
Phrixus and Helle (the Golden Fleece), ix. 1. The 
deaths of Athamas and Ino, ix. 2. Sisyphus and his 
stone, ix. 3. Deion, ix. 4. Perieres, ix. 5. Magnes, 
ix. 6. Salmoneus and his mock thunder, ix.7. Tyro, 
daughter of Salmoneus, mother of Neleus and Pelias, 
ix. 8-10. Cretheus, husband of Tyro. His grandsons 
Bias and the seer Melampus (the kine of Phylacus), 
ix. 11-13. Admetus, son of Pheres (son of Cretheus), 
and husband of Alcestis, ix. 14-15. Jason, son of Aeson 
(son of Cretheus), sent by Pelias to fetch the Golden 
Fleece, ix. 16. 

The Argonauts,—The building of the ship Argo. List 
of the Argonauts, ix. 16. The Argonauts put in at the 
island of Lemnos, ix. 17, they kill Cyzicus, king of the 
Doliones, by mistake, ix. 18, they leave Hercules and 
Polyphemus in Mysia (Hylas), ix. 19, Pollux conquers 
Amycus, king of the Bebryces, ix. 20, at Salmydessus 
they rid Phineus of the Harpies, ix. 21, they pass 
through the Symplegades, ix. 22, they are received by 
Lycus, king of the Mariandynians, ix. 23, they arrive in 
Colchis. Jason, with the help of Medea, tames the bulls, 


xlvi 


SUMMARY 


conquers the earth-born men, and carries off the Golden 
Fleece. The Argonauts set out with Medea (the murder 
of Apsyrtus), ix. 23-24. As they sail past the Eridanus, 
Zeus causes them to wander; they are purified for the 
murder of Apsyrtus by Circe, ix. 24, sailing past the 
Sirens, Scylla, and Charybdis, they come to the Phaea- 
cians, ix. 25, they dedicate an altar to Radiant Apollo, 
they destroy Talus, the bronze guardian of the island 
of Crete, ix. 26. Return of the Argonauts. Death 
of Pelias, ix. 26-27. Jason and Medea fly to Corinth. 
Medea murders Glauce, the bride of Jason, and her 
own children, takes refuge with Aegeus at Athens, has 
by him a son, Medus, and finally returns to her own 
country, ix. 28. 


IJI.—Twe Famity or Inacuus (BELUvs). 
Book I1., Chaps, 1.-v111. 


Inachus’s sons Aegialeus and Phoroneus, and 
Phoroneus’s children. Argus and Pelasgus. Argus 
of the many eyes, i. 1. Io’s wanderings, i. 2-4. er 
great-grandsons Agenor (compare iii. 1-7) and Belus, i. 4. 

Belus’s offspring : Danaus and Egyptus, i. 4. Marriage 
of the sons of Egyptus with the daughters of Danaus (list, 
1. 5), i. 4-5. Nauplius the wrecker, son of Amymone, 
i. δ. 

Acrisius and Proetus, grandsons of Lynceus and 
Hypermnestra, ii. 1. The daughters of Proetus are 
cured of their madness by Melampus, ii. 2, Bellerophon 
kills the Chimaera, iii. 1-2. Danae, daughter of Acrisius, 
with her infant son Perseus, floats to Seriphos, iv. 1. 
Perseus, sent by Polydectes, comes to the Phorcides 
and the nymphs, slays Medusa (birth of Pegasus), 
iv. 2, frees Andromeda, punishes Polydectes, iv. 3, 
and returning to his country kills Acrisius accidentally, 
iv. 4, The family of Perseus. Birth of Eurystheus, 
grandson of Perseus, iv. 5. War of Electryon, son of 


xl vii 


SUMMARY 


Perseus, against the Teleboans. Amphitryon, grandson 
of Perseus, accidentally kills Electryon, iv. 6. Amphitryon 
goes with Alemena to Thebes, kills the Cadmean vixen, 
and wages war on the Taphians : Pterelaus of the goiden 
hair killed by his daughter, iv. 6-7. 

Hercules, son of Zeus and Alcmena, kills the serpenta 
sent by Hera, iv. 8. The education of Hercules (Linus), 
iv. 9. Hercules kills the lion of Cithaeron (the daughters 
of Thespius), iv. 9-10, conquers the Minyans, marries 
Megara, receives arms from the gods, iv. 11, goes 
mad, murders his children, and is sent by Apollo to 
Eurystheus, iv. 12. 

The twelve (ten, see iv. 12 and v. 11) labours of 
Hercules, v 


1. He strangles the Nemean lion and is entertained by 
Molorchus, v. 1. 

2. With Iolaus he destroys the Lernaean hydra and 
kills the crab, v. 2. 

8, He wounds and captures the Cerynitian hind, v. 3. 

4, He captures the Erymanthian boar, he kills the 
Centaurs (Pholus, Chiron), v. 4. 

5. He cleanses the stable of Augeas (the testimony of 
Phyleus), v. 5. 

6. He shoots the Stymphalian birds, v. 6. 

7. He brings the Cretan bull to Eurystheus, v. 7. 

8. He carries off the mares of Diomedes the Thracian 
(death of Abderus and foundation of Abdera), v. 8. 

9. He wins the belt of Hippolyta (the sons of Andro- 
geus in Paros ; Mygdon ; rescue of Hesione ; Sarpedon ; ; 
Thasos ; the sons of Proteus), v. 9. 

10. He drives away the kine of Geryon from Erythia 
(the pillars of Hercules ; the golden goblet of the Sun: 
Ialebion and Dercynus, Eryx, Strymon), v. 10. 

11. He brings the apples of the Hesperides from the 
Hyperboreans to Mycenae (Cycnus, Nereus, Antaeus, 
Busiris, KEmathion, Prometheus, Atlas), v. 11. 

12, He carries off Cerberus from the nether world 
(the Eleusinian mysteries, the Gorgon’s —" Theseus 
and Pirithous, Ascalaphus, Menoetes), v. 


xl viii 





SUMMARY 


Hercules woos in vain Iole, daughter of Eurytus, and 
in a fit of madness kills Iphitus, vi. 1-2, fights with 
Apollo for the Delphic tripod, and serves Omphale for 
three years (Cecropes, Syleus; the burial of Icarus), 
vi. 2-3. Along with Telamon he captures Troy (Hesione, 
Priam), vi. 4. He ravages the island of Cos, vii. 1. He 
conquers Augeas (Eurytus and Cteatus ; foundations at 
Olympia), vii. 2, captures Pylus, makes war on the 
Lacedaemonians (Cepheus, Sterope, and the Gorgon’s 
tress), vii. 3, and forces Auge (exposure of Telephus), 
vii. 4. He marries Deianira (the wrestling with Ache- 
lous, the horn of Amalthea), vii. 5, fights for the Caly- 
donians against the Thesprotians (Astycche, Tlepolemus), 
sends his sons to Sardinia, kills Eunomus at a feast, 
sets out with Deianira for Trachis, kills Nessus at the 
ford, vii. 6, slaughters an ox of Thiodamas, fights for 
Aegimius against the Lapiths (Coronus, Laogoras), slays 
Cycnus and Amyntor. He captures Oechalia and carries 
off Iole ; infected by the poisoned robe which he received 
from Deianira, he burns himself on a pyre on Mount 
Oeta (Poeas), and ascending to heaven he marries Hebe, 
vil. 7. 

List of the children of Hercules, vii. 8. 

The Heraclids fly to Ceyx, and then to the Athenians, 
with whose help they vanquish Eurystheus, viii.1. They 
occupy and then abandon Peloponnese. Tlepolemus 
goes to Rhodes. Through misunderstanding an oracle 
the Heraclids make a second fruitless attempt to conquer 
Peloponnese, viii. 2. In the third generation afterwards 
Temenus, Cresphontes, and Aristodemus build ships 
and again prepare to attack Peloponnese, but having 
slain a soothsayer they fail in the enterprise, vill. 2-3. 
Ten years afterwards the Heraclids under the leadership 
of Oxylus conquer Peloponnese and divide it among 
themselves by lot, viii. 3-5. The.deaths of Temenus 
and Cresphontes, viii. 5. 


xlix 
VOL, I. d : 


SUMMARY 


1V.—Tue Famiry or AGENoR (Europa). 
Book III., Chaps. τ. 1-11. 2. 


Agenor’s children. Europa is carried off by Zeus; 
and Phoenix, Cilix, Cadmus, and Thasus, being sent to 
fetch her back, settle in Phoenicia, Cilicia, Thrace, and 
Thasos, i. 1. Europa’s children: Minos, Sarpedon, 
Rhadamanthys (Miletus), i. 2. On the death of Asterius, 
husband of Europa, Minos succeeds to the kingdom of 
Crete. Inflamed with love for a bull, which Poseidon 
had sent from the sea, Pasiphae gives birth to the 
Minotaur, i. 3. Althaemenes, grandson of Minos, settles 
with his sister Apemosyne in Rhodes, and involuntarily 
kills his father Catreus, ii. Glaucus, son of Minos, his 
death and resurrection (the seer Polyidus), iii. 1-2. 


V.—Tue Famity oF AGENOR (CaDMUs). 
Book III., Chaps. τιν. 1-vi1. 7. 


Cadmus, following a cow, founds Thebes, slays the 
dragon of Ares, and overcomes the earthborn brothers, 
iv. 1-2. Children of Cadmus and Harmonia: Autonoe, 
Ino, Semele, Agave, Polydorus. Semele and Zeus. Birth 
and upbringing of Dionysus (Athamas, Ino, and Meli- 
certes), iv. 2-3. Actaeon, son of Autonoe, and his dogs, 
iv. 4. The travels of Dionysus (deaths of Lycurgus and 
Pentheus, adventure with the pirates), v. 1-3. The end 
of Cadmus and Harmonia in Illyria, v. 4. The offspring 
of Polydorus: Labdacus, Laius. Lycus and Dirce are 
slain by Zethus and Amphion, the sons of Antiope by 
Zeus, v. 5. Niobe and her children, the weeping stone, 
v. 6. Ocedipus, his birth and exposure, his parricide, 
the riddle of the Sphinx, his incest, his exile and death 
in Attica, v. 7-9. 

Expedition of the Seven against Thebes, vi. 1~vii. 1. 
Polynices, expelled by Eteocles, marries the daughter of 
Adrastus (Tydeus), vi. 1. Eriphyle, bribed by Polynices 


] 





SUMMARY 


with the golden necklace, induces Amphiaraus to join in 
the war, vi. 2. List of the leaders, vi. 3. On the death 
of Opheltes they institute the Nemean games, vi. 4, they 
send Tydeus on an embassy to Thebes, vi. 5, attack the 
city (account of the seer Tiresias, vi. 7), and are defeated 
by the Thebans (Capaneus, Eteocles and Polynices, 
Tydeus, Amphiaraus), vi. 6-8. Heroism and death of 
Antigone. The bodies of the leaders are buried by 
Theseus, death of Evadne on the pyre, vii. 1. 

The Epigoni (list, vii. 2) capture Thebes; death of 
Tiresias, vii. 2-4. Alemaeon, his matricide, madness, 
wanderings and death; his wife Callirrhoe, and his 
children Amphilochus and Tisiphone, vii. 5-7. 


VI.—Tue Famity or PELAsaus. 
Book III, Chaps, v111.-1x. 


Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, and his sons (list viii. 1), 
except the youngest, Nyctimus, are killed for their 
impiety by Zeus with thunderbolts, viii. 1-2. Callisto, 
daughter of Lycaon, mother of Arcas, transformed into 
a bear, viii. 2. The offspring of Arcas, Auge, mother 
of Telephus, ix. 1. Atalanta and her suitors, Milanion 
and the golden apples, ix. 2. 


VII.—Tue Famity or ATLAS. 
Book 111., Chaps. x. 1-x11. 6. 


The Pleiades, x. 1. Hermes, son of Maia, his youth- 
ful exploits, x. 2. The offspring of Taygete : Lace- 
daemon, Hyacinth, Lynceus, and Idas. Leucippus’s 
daughters, of whom Arsinoe becomes the mother of 
Aesculapius (Coronis). Aesculapius is educated by 
Chiron and thunderstruck by Zeus for his leechcraft. 
Apollo kills the Cyclopes and serves Admetus for a year, 
x. 3-4. Children of Hippocoon, of Icarius, and of 
Tyndareus. Birth of Helen, x. 4-7. Helen is carried - 
off by Theseus, but rescued by Castor and Pollux, x. 7. 


li 
d 2 


SUMMARY 


Helen’s suitors and marriage with Menelaus, x. 8-9. 
Menelaus’s children, xi. 1. Castor and Pollux, their 
combat with Idas and Lynceus, their elevation to the 
gods, and their alternations between the upper and lower 
worlds, xi. 2. 

Electra, daughter of Atlas, her offspring, xii. 1-6. 
Tasion and Dardanus and his sons Ilus and Erichthonius. 
Tros, son of Erichthonius, and father of Ilus, Assaracus, 
and Ganymede,*xii. 1-2. Tus, following a cow, founds 
Troy and receives the Palladium. Origin of the Pal- 
ladium. Laomedon, son of I[lus, father of Tithonus 
and of Priam, xii. 3. Tithonus and the Dawn. Priam’s 
children: Aesacus, Hector, Paris, Cassandra, and the 
rest, xi. 4-5. Hector and Andromache. Paris and 
Oenone, xii. 6. 3 


VIL —Tae Famity oF Asopus. 
Book III., Chaps. x11. 6—x111. 8. 


Asopus’s children, Ismenus, Pelagon, and twenty 
daughters, of whom Aegina is carried off by Zeus, xii. 6. 
Aeacus, son of Aegina, his righteousness, his prayer for 
rain ; father of Peleus and Telamon, who are banished 
for the murder of their brother Phocus. Telamon 
becomes king of Salamis; father of Ajax and Teucer, 
xli. 6=7. Peleus comes to Phthia; joining in the hunt 
of the Calydonian boar he accidentally kills Eurytion ; is 
purified by Acastus and maligned by Astydamia, wife of 
Acastus ; hunts on Mount Pelion and is saved from the 
centaurs by Chiron, xiii. 1-3. Marriage of Peleus and 
Thetis, xiii. 4-5. The nurture of Achilles (Thetis, Chiron, 
Lycomedes), xiii. 6-8. Phoenix, Patroclus, xiii. 8. 


IX.—Tue Kines or ATHENS. 
Book III., Chaps. x1v. 1—-xv. 9. 
1. Cecrops, earth-born. Contest between Athena and 
Poseidon for the guardianship of Athens, xiv. 1. Cecrops’s 
lii 





SUMMARY 


children Erysichthon, Agraulus, Herse, Pandrosus (Halir- 
rhothius ; trial and acquittal of Ares at the Areopagus), 
xiv. 2, Cephalus, son of Herse, and ancestor of Cinyras, 
xiv. 3. Adonis, son of Cinyras, loved by Aphrodite, 
killed by a boar, xiv. 3-4. 

2. Cranaus, earth-born, father of Cranae, Cranaechme, 
and Atthis, xiv. 5. 

3. Amphictyon, earth-born or son of Deucalion, xiv. 6. 

4, Erichthontus, son of Hephaestus by Atthis or Athena, 
dedicates an image of Athena on the Acropolis and 
institutes the Panathenaic festival, xiv. 6. 

5. Pandion, son of Erichthonius : in his reign Demeter 
comes to Celeus at Eleusis, and Dionysus comes to Icarius 
(death of Erigone), xiv: 7. Pandion’s daughters Procne 
and Philomela (Tereus), xiv. 8. 

6. Erechtheus, son of Pandion: his priestly brother 
Butes, his children, xv. 1. Chthonia. Procris and 
Cephalus (Minos), xv. 1. Orithyia and Boreas, xv. 2. 
Cleopatra and Phineus, xv. 3. Eumolpus, son of Chione, 
xv. 4. Erechtheus, in the war with Eleusis, sacrifices one 
of his daughters, and slays Eumolpus, xv. 4-5. 

7. Cecrops, son of Erechtheus, xv. 5. 

8. Pandion, son of Cecrops, is expelled by the sons of © 
Metion and flies tq Megara, xv. 5. 

9. Aegews, son of Pandion, returns to Athens with his 
brothers, xv. 5-6, and begets Theseus by Aethra at 
Troezen, xv. 6-7. He sends Androgeus, son of Minos, 
against the Marathonian bull, xv. 7. Minos makes war 
on Megara (Nisus and Scylla) and on Athens, xv. 7-8. 
Hyacinth’s daughters are sacrificed at Athens, xv. 8. 
Minos imposes on the Athenians a tribute of boys and 
girls to be sent annually to the Minotaur (the labyrinth 
built by Daedalus), xv. 8-9. 

10. Theseus. 


X.—THESEUS. 
Book 111., Chap. xv1., Epitome, τ. 1-24. 


On growing up Theseus quits Troezen for Athens, kills 
Periphetes, Sinis, m1. xvi, the Crommyonian sow, 


liii 


SUMMARY 


Sciron, Cercyon, and Damastes, Epitome, i. 1-4. Aegeus, 
instigated by Medea, sends Theseus against the Mara- 
thonian bull and offers hima cup of poison, 5-6. Theseus, 
with the help of Ariadne, conquers the Minotaur, and 
flying with Ariadne resigns her to Dionysus in Naxos, 
7-9, and on the death of Aegeus succeeds to the kingdom 
of Athens, 10-11. Daedalus and his son Icarus escape 
from the labyrinth : Icarus falls into the sea, but Daedalus 
reaches the court of Cocalus, whose daughters kill Minos, 
12-15. Theseus marries an Amazon, and afterwards 
Phaedra. Death of Hippolytus, 16-19. Ixion and his 
wheel, 20. Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths, 21 (Zeno- 
bius). Caeneus, 22. Theseus goes down to hell with 
Pirithous, but is freed by Hercules, and being expelled 
from Athens is murdered by Lycomedes, 23-24. 


XI.—Tue Famity or PELops, 
Epitome, 11. 1-16. 


Tantalus in hell, 1. Broteas, 2. Pelops, with the 
help of Myrtilus, vanquishes Oenomaus, marries Hippo- 
damia, kills Myrtilus, and takes possession of Peloponnese, 
3-9. Sons of Pelops: Atreus and Thyestes (the golden 
lamb, Aerope, backward journey of the sun, the cannibal 
feast, Aegisthus), 10-14. Agamemnon and Menelaus are 
brought up by Polyphides and Oeceneus, 15 (Tzetzes). 
Agamemnon marries Clytaemnestra, and Menelaus marries 
Helen, 16. 


XII.—ANTEHOMERICA. 
Epitome, 111. 1-35. 


Zeus resolves to stir up war, 1. The Apple of Discord 
awarded by Paris to Aphrodite. Paris carries off Helen, 
and, after tarrying in Phoenicia and Cyprus, returns to 
Troy, 2-4. Helen left with Proteus in Egypt, 5. Mene- 
laus and Agamemnon summon the kings of Greece to war. 
Ulysses feigns madness (death of Palamedes), Cinyras 
sends toy ships. The Wine-growers, 6-10. 


liv 





SUMMARY 


Catalogue of the ships, 11-14. The portent at Aulis, 
15. Agamemnon and Achilles chosen leaders, 16. The 
Mysian war. Telephus wounded by Achilles. Return of 
the Greeks, 17-18. 

In the tenth year after the rape of Helen the Greeks 
again assemble. Telephus, being healed by Achilles, 
shows them the way, 19-20. Iphigenia sacrificed to 
Artemis at Aulis and transported by the goddess to 
Tauris, 21-22. The Greeks arrive at Tenedos 23. Tenes 
and his stepmother, 24-25. Tenes killed by Achilles, 26. 
Philoctetes, stung by a serpent, is marooned in Lemnos, 
27. Ulysses and Menelaus demand the restoration of 
Helen, 28. The Greeks land at Troy and put the Trojans 
to flight. Death of Protesilaus (Laodamia), Cycnus. 
The Trojans besieged, 29-31. Achilles slays Troilus, 
captures Lycaon, and having slain Mestor drives off the 
herds of Aeneas, 32. List of the towns taken by Achilles, 
33. In the tenth year the Trojans receive the help of 
allies (list), 34-35. 


XITI.—Tauer ‘‘ Titan.” 
Epitome, tv. 1-8. 


The wrath of Achilles. The combat of Menelaus and 
Paris, 1. Diomedes wounds Aphrodite and meets Glaucus 
in battle. The combat of Ajax and Hector, 2. The 
Greeks, put to flight, send ambassadors to Achilles, 3. 
Ulysses and Diomedes slay Dolon, 4, Hector attacks the 
ships, 5. The death of Patroclus, 6. Achilles receives 
arms from Thetis, puts the Trojans to flight, and slays 
Hector. The burial of Patroclus. Priam ransoms the 
_ body of Hector, 7-8. 


XIV.—PosTHOMERICA. 
Epitome, v. 1-25. 
Penthesilea slain by Achilles. Thersites (death of 
Hippolyte), 1-2. Achilles slays Memnon, but is shot by 
lv 





SUMMARY 


Apollo and Paris, 3. His body and his arms are rescued 
by Ajax and Ulysses, 4. The burial of Achilles, 5. 
Competition of Ajax and Ulysses for the arms of Achilles. 
Death and burial of Ajax, 6-7. 

In accordance with a prophecy of Calchas, Ulysses and 
Diomedes fetch Philoctetes, who shvots Paris, 8. Quarrel 
between Deiphobus and Helenus for the hand of Helen. 
By the advice of Calchas, Ulysses captures Helenus on 
Mount Ida, and Helenus prophesies to the Greeks con- 
cerning the fall of Troy, 9-10. By the advice of Helenus, 
the Greeks fetch the bones of Pelops, and Ulysses and 
Phoenix bring Neoptolemus from Scyros. Neoptolemus 
kills Eurypylus, son of Telephus. Ulysses and Diomedes 
steal the Trojan Palladium, 11-13. 

By the advice of Ulysses, Epeus fashions the Wooden 
Horse, in which the leaders ensconce themselves. The 
Greeks leave Sinon behind and depart to Tenedos, 14-15. 
The Trojans drag the Horse into the city, and despite the 
counsels of Laocoon and Cassandra resolve to dedicate it 
to Athena, 16-17. The sons of Laocoon killed by ser- 
pents, 18. On a signal given by Sinon the Greeks return. 
Helen comes to the Horse and calls to the Greek leaders 
(Anticlus), 19. The leaders descend from the Horse and 
open the gates to the Greeks, 20. The sack of Troy: 
Priam, Glaucus, Aeneas, Helena, Aethra, Cassandra, 
21-22. Division of the spoil: the slaughter of Astyanax 
and Polyxena, the fortunes of Cassandra, Andromache, 
and Hecuba (changed into a dog), Laodice swallowed in 
an earthquake. Trial of Ajax for impiety, 23—25. 


XV.—THE RETURNS. 
Epitome, νι. 1-30. 


Quarrel between Agamemnon and Menelaus concerning 
the return. Diomedes, Nestor, and Menelaus set out, 1. 
Amphilochus, Calchas, Leonteus, Polypoetes, and Poda- 
lirius go by land to Colophon, where Calchas is vanquished 
by Mopsus in a contest of skill and is buried by his 
companions, 2-4. 


lvi 


SUMMARY 


The fleet of Agamemnon is dispersed by a storm oft 
Tenos. Shipwreck, death, and burial of Ajax, 5-6. 
Many are shipwrecked and perish through the false lights 
displayed by Nauplius at Cape Caphereus, 7. Nauplius, 
the revenge he takes for the death of his son, 8-11. 
Neoptolemus goes by land to Molossia, and by the way 
he buries Phoenix. Helenus remains with Deiadamia in 
Molossia. Neoptolemus, on the death of Peleus, succeeds. 
to the kingdom of Phthia, wrests Hermione from Orestes, 
and is killed at Delphi, 12-14. Wanderings of the 
leaders who escaped shipwreck at Cape Caphereus, 15, 
15abc (Tzetzes). 

The loves of Demophon and Phyllis, 16-17. Podalirius 
and the oracle, 18. Amphilochus, 19. Virgins sent by 
the Locrians for a thousand years to Athena at Troy, 
20-22. : 

Agamemnon on his return home is murdered by 
Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, 23. Orestes is brought up 
by Strophius, and with the help of Pylades murders 
Clytaemnestra and Aegisthus. He is tormented by the 
Furies, but acquitted at the Areopagus, 24-25. Orestes 
with the help of Pylades brings back Iphigenia and the 
image of Artemis from Tauris to Greece, 26-27. The 
children of Orestes and his death, 28. 

After many wanderings Meénelaus arrives in Egypt, 
where he recovers Helen from Proteus, and after eight 
years returns to Sparta. Dying he is received with 
Helen into the Elysian fields, 29-30. 


XVI.—THE WANDERINGS oF ULyssEs. 
Epitome, vir. 1-40. 


Ulysses variously said to have roamed over Libya, or 
Sicily, or the Ocean, or the Tyrrhenian Sea, P. 

Ulysses, after setting sail from Troy, fights with the 
Cicones, 2. The Lotus-eaters, 3. Adventures with the 
Cyclops Polyphemus, 4-9. The isle of Aeolus, King of 
the Winds, 10-11. The cannibal Laestrygones, 12-13. 


lvii 


SUMMARY 


The enchantress Circe, 14-16. The descent to the nether 
world, 17. The Sirens, 18-19. Scylla and Charybdis, 
20-21. The oxenof theSun. The shipwreck. Charybdis, 
22-23. The island of Calypso. The raft. Alcinous and 
the Phaeacians. The return home, 24-25. The suitors 
of Penelope (list 27-30), 26-31. Eumaeus. Melanthius. 
Irus, 32. The slaughter of the suitors, 33. 

Ulysses in Thesprotia performs the rites enjoined by 
Tiresias and marries the queen Callidice (Poljporthes), 
34-35. Ulysses is killed unwittingly by his son Tele- 
gonus. Telegonus takes his fathers body and Penelope 
with him to Circe, who transports them to the Islands of 
the Blest, 36-37. 

Other stories told of Penelope and Ulysses: Penelope 
said to have been debauched by Antinous and therefore 
sent back to her father Icarius ; at Mantinea she gives 
birth to Pan, whom she had by Hermes, 38. Amphi- 
nomus slain by Ulysses, because he was said to have 
seduced Penelope, 39. Ulysses, sentenced by Neoptole- 
mus to banishment for the murder of the suitors, 
emigrates to Aetolia, and having there begotten a son 
Leontophonus by’the daughter of Thoas he dies in old 
age, 40. 


lviii 


SYMBOLS EMPLOYED IN THE CRITICAL NOTES 
(Adopted from R. Wagner’s edition, Leipsic, 1894) 


A = Readings of all or most of the MSS. of The Library. 
E = Epitoma Vaticana: Vaticanus 950. 
S = Sabbaitic fragments: Sabbaiticus-Hierosolymitanus 366. 
R = Parisinus 2722 (the archetype). | 
ἘΔ = Parisinus 2967. 
O = Oxford MS.: Laudianus 55. 
B = Readings of the MSS. PR>R¢. 
= Palatinus-Vaticanus 52. 
R> = Parisinus 1653. 
Re = Parisinus 1658. 
C = Readings of the MSS. VLTN. 
V = Vaticanus 1017. 
L = Laurentianus plut. LX. 29. 
N = Neapolitanus 204 (III. A 1). 
T = Taurinensis CIT. 11. 
{ ] Passages enclosed in these brackets are probably 
spurious. 
< > Passages enclosed in these brackets are not in the- 


existing manuscripts of Apollodorus, but were 
probably written by him. 


lix 


APOLLODORUS 


THE LIBRARY 


VOL. I. 


AITTOAAOAQPOY 
BIBAIO@HKH 


A 


I. Οὐρανὸς πρῶτος τοῦ παντὸς ἐδυνάστευσε 
κόσμου. γήμας δὲ Γῆν ἐτέκνωσε πρώτους τοὺς 
ἑκατόγχειρας προσαγορευθέντας, Βριάρεων ΤΓύηνϊ 
Κόττον, of μεγέθει τε ἀνυπέρβλητοι καὶ δυνάμει 
καθειστήκεσαν, χεῖρας μὲν ἀνὰ ἑκατὸν κεφαλὰς 
δὲ ἀνὰ πεντήκοντα ἔχοντες. μετὰ τούτους δὲ 

1 γύγην C, schol. Plato, Laws, vii. p. 795 c. 





1 According to Hesiod (Theog. 126 sqq.), Sky (Uranus) 
was a son of Earth (Gaia), but afterwards lay with his own 
mother and had by her Cronus, the giants, the Cyclopes, and 
80 forth. As to the marriage of Sky and Earth, see the 
fragment of the Chrysippus of Euripides, quoted by Sextus 
Empiricus, p. 751, ed. Bekker (T'ragicorum Graecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck,? Leipsic, 1889, p. 633) ; Lucretius i. 
250 sq., ii. 991 sqqg. ; Virgil, Georg. ii. 325 δ8ηᾳφ. The myth 
of such a marriage is widespread among the lower races. 
See E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture? (London, 1873), i. 321 
8qq., ii. 270 sqq. For example, the Ewe people of Togo-land, 
in West Africa, think that the Earth is the wife of the Sky, 
and that their marriage takes place in the rainy season, 
when the rain causes the seeds to sprout and bear fruit. 
These fruits they regard as the children of Mother Earth, 
who in their opinion is the mother also of men and of gods, 
see J. Spieth, Die Ewe-Stdmme (Berlin, 1906), pp. 464, 548. 
In the regions of the Senegal and the Niger it is believed 


2 





APOLLODORUS 
THE LIBRARY 


BOOK I 


I. Sxy was the first who ruled over the whole 
world.!. And having wedded Earth, he begat first 
the Hundred-handed, as they are named: Briareus, 
Gyes, Cottus, who were unsurpassed in size and 
might, each of them having a hundred hands and fifty 
heads. After these, Earth bore him the Cyclopes, 


that the Sky-god and the Earth-goddess are the parents of 
the principal spirits who dispense life and death, weal and 
woe, among mankind. See Maurice Delafosse, Haut-Sénégal- 
Niger (Paris, 1912), iii. 173 sqgg. Similarly the Manggerai, a 

ople of West Flores, in the Indian Archipelago, personify 
Sky and Earth as husband and wife ; the consummation of 
their marriage is manifested in the rain, which fertilizes 
Mother Earth, so that she gives birth to her children, the 
produce of the fields and the fruits of the trees. The sky is 
called langit ; it is the male power: the earth is called alang ; 
it is the female power. Together they form a divine couple, 
called Moerit Kraéng. See H. B. Stapel, ‘‘Het Manggér- 
aische Volk (West Flores),” Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- 
Land- en Volkenkunde, lvi. (Batavia and the Hague, 1914), 
p. 163. 

2 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 147 sqq. Instead of (tyes, some 
MSS. of Hesiod read Gyges, and this form of the name is 
supported by the Scholiast on Plato, Laws, vii. p. 7950. 
Compare Ovid, Fasti, iv. 593; Horace, Odes, ii. 17. 14, iii. 
4. 69, with the commentators. 


3 
B 2 


~ 


APOLLODORUS 


αὐτῷ τεκνοῖ Γἢ Κύκλωπας, “Apyny! Στερόπην 
Βρόντην, ὧν ὅκαστος εἶχεν ἕνα ὀφθαλμὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ 
μετώπου. ἀλλὰ τούτους μὲν Οὐρανὸς δήσας εἰς 
Τάρταρον ἔρριψε (τόπος δὲ οὗτος ἐρεβώδης ἐστὶν 
ἐν “ Acbou, τοσοῦτον ἀπὸ γῆς ἔχων 9 aa ὅσον 
ἀπ᾽ οὐρανοῦ γῆ), τεκνοῖ δὲ αὖθις ἐκ Τῆς παῖδας 
μὲν τοὺς Τιτᾶνας προσαγορευθέντας, ᾿Ωκεανὸν 
Κοῖον Ὑπερίονα Kpetov ᾿Ιαπετὸν καὶ νεώτατον 5 
ἁπάντων Κρόνον, ἀν αίρας δὲ τὰς κληθείσας 
Τιτανίδας, Τηθὺν Ῥέαν Θέμιν Μνημοσύνην Φοί- 
βην Διώνην Θείαν. 

3 le) \ A 3 Ὁ 3 ’ Ὁ 3 

Αγανακτοῦσα δὲ Γῆ ἐπὶ τῇ ἀπωλείᾳ τῶν εἰς 
Τάρταρον ῥιφέντων ὃ παίδων πείθει τοὺς Τιτᾶνας 
ἐπιθέσθαι τῷ πατρί, καὶ δίδωσιν ἀδαμαντίνην 
ἅρπην Κρόνῳ. οἱ δὲ ᾽Ωκεανοῦ χωρὶς ἐπιτίθενται, 
καὶ Κρόνος ἀποτεμὼν τὰ αἰδοῖα τοῦ πατρὸς εἰς 
τὴν θάλασσαν ἀφίησεν. ἐκ δὲ τῶν σταλαγμῶν 
τοῦ ῥέοντος αἵματος ἐρινύες ἐγένοντο, ᾿Αληκτὼ 
Τισιφόνη Μέγαιρα. τῆς δὲ ἀρχῆς ἐκβαλόντες 

1 “Apynv Heyne: ἅρπην EA. 


2 νεώτατον KOR*: γεννεώτατον BT : γενναιότατον VLN. 
δ διφέντων E: ῥιφθέντων A. 


1 Compare Hesiod, T’heog. 139 sqq. 

2 Compare Hesiod, 7'heog. 617 sqq. and for the description 
of Tartarus, 717 sgqg. According to Hesiod, a brazen anvil 
would take nine days and nights to fall from heaven to earth, 
and nine days and nights to fall from earth to Tartarus. 

8 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 132 sqgg. who agrees in describ- 
ing Cronus as the youngest of the brood. As Zeus, who 
succeeded ‘his father Cronus on the heavenly throne, was 
likewise the youngest of his family (Hesiod, 7’heog. 453 sqq.), 
we may conjecture that among the ancient Greeks or their 
ancestors inheritance was at one time regulated by the 
custom of ultimogeniture or the succession of the youngest, 
as to which see Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, i. 429 sqq. 


4 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1. 2-4 


to wit, Arges, Steropes, Brontes,' of whom each had 
one eye on his forehead. But them Sky bound and 
cast into Tartarus, a gloomy place in Hades as far 
distant from earth as earth is distant from the sky.? 
And again he begat children by Earth, to wit, the 
Titans as they are named: Ocean, Coeus, Hyperion, 
Crius, Iapetus, and, youngest of all, Cronus; also 
daughters, the Titanides as they are called: Tethys, 
Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Dione, Thia.® 
But Earth, grieved at the destruction of her chil- 
dren, who had been cast into Tartarus, persuaded 
the Titans to attack their father and gave Cronus 
an adamantine sickle. And they, all but Ocean, 
attacked him, and Cronus cut off his father’s 
genitals and threw them into the sea; and from 
the drops of the flowing blood were born Furies, 
to wit, Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megaera.* And, 
having dethroned their father, they brought up their 


In the secluded highlands of Arcadia, where ancient customs 
and traditions lingered long, King Lycaon is said to have 
been succeeded by his youngest son. See Apollodorus, iii. 8. 1. 

“Compare Hesiod, Theog. 156-190. Here Apollodorus 
follows Hesiod, according to whom the Furies sprang, 
not from the genitals of Sky which were thrown into the 
sea, but from the drops of his blood which fell on Earth 
and impregnated her. The sickle with which Cronus did 
the deed is said to have been flung by him into the 
sea at Cape Drepanum in Achaia (Pausanias, vii. 23. 4). 
The barbarous story of the mutilation of the divine father by 
his divine son shocked the moral sense of later ages. See 
Plato, Republic, ii. pp..377 &-378 a, Huthyphro, pp. 55-64 ; 
Cicero, De natura deorum, ii. 24. 63 sqqg. Andrew Lang 
interpreted the story with some probability as one of a 
world-wide class of myths intended to explain the separation 
of Earth and Sky. See his Custom and Myth (London, 1884), 
pp. 45 8qq. ; ed as to myths of the forcible separation of 
aot and Earth, see E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture’, i. 

864. 


5 


APOLLODORUS 


Tous τε καταταρταρωθέντας ἀνήγαγον ἀδελφοὺς 
καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν Κρόνῳ παρέδοσαν. 

‘O δὲ τούτους μὲν «ἐν» τῷ Ταρτάρῳ πάλιν 
δήσας καθεῖρξε, τὴν δὲ ἀδελφὴν Ῥέαν γήμας, 
ἐπειδὴ Γῆ τε καὶ Οὐρανὸς ἐθεσπιῴδουν αὐτῷ 
λέγοντες ὑπὸ παιδὸς ἰδίον τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀφαιρεθή- 
σεσθαι, κατέπινε τὰ γεννώμενα. καὶ πρώτην μὲν 
γεννηθεῖσαν Ἑστίαν κατέπιεν, εἶτα Δήμητραν 
καὶ “Ἥραν, μεθ᾽ ἃς Πλούτωνα καὶ Ποσειδῶνα. 
ὀργισθεῖσα δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοις Ῥέα παραγίνεται μὲν 
εἰς Κρήτην, ὁπηνίκα τὸν Δία ἐγκυμονοῦσα ἐτύγ- 
χανε, γεννᾷ δὲ ἐν ἄντρῳ τῆς Δίκτης Δία. . καὶ 
τοῦτον μὲν δίδωσι τρέφεσθαι Kovpnat τε καὶ ταῖς 
Medtocéws) παισὶ νύμφαις, ᾿Αδραστείᾳ τε καὶ 
Ἴδῃ. αὗται μὲν οὖν τὸν παῖδα ἔτρεφον τῷ τῆς 
᾿Αμαλθείας γάλακτι, οἱ δὲ Κούρητες ἔνοπλοι ἐν 


1 Μελισσέως Zenobius, Cent. ii. 48: μελισσέων EA. 


1 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 453-467. 

2 According to Hesiod, Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, 
and the infant god was hidden in a cave of Mount Aegeum 
(Theog. 468-480). Diodorus Siculus (v. 70) mentions the 
legend that Zeus was born at Dicte in Crete, and that the 

od afterwards founded a city on the site. But according to 
Disdorus, or his authorities, the child was brought up in a 
cave on Mount Ida. The ancients were not agreed as to 
whether the infant god had been reared on Mount Ida or Mount 
Dicte. Apollodorus declares for Dicte, and he is supported 
by Virgil (Georg. iv. 153), Servius (on Virgil, Aen. iti. 104), 
and the Vatican Mythographers (Scriptores rerum mythi- 
carum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, Cellis, 1834, vol. i. pp. 34, 79, 
First Vatican Mythographer, 104, Second Vatican Mytho- 
rapher, 16). On the other hand the claim of Mount Ida is 
avoured by Callimachus (Hymzn, i. 51), Ovid (Fast, iv. 207), 
and Lactantius Placidus (on Statius, Τοῦ. iv. 784). The 
wavering of tradition on this point is indicated by Apollo- 


6 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1. 4-7 


brethren who had been hurled down to Tartarus, 
and committed the sovereignty to Cronus. 

But he again bound and shut them up in Tartarus, 
and wedded his sister Rhea; and since both Earth and 
Sky foretold him that he would be dethroned by his 
own son, he used to swallow his offspring at birth. 
His first-born Hestia he swallowed, then Demeter and 
Hera, and after them Pluto and Poseidon.! Enraged 
at this, Rhea repaired to Crete, when she was big 
with Zeus, and brought him forth in a cave of Dicte.? 
She gave him to the Curetes and to the nymphs 
Adrastia and Ida, daughters of Melisseus, to nurse. 
So these nymphs fed the child on the milk of 
Amalthea ;* and the Curetes in arms guarded the 


dorus, who while he calls the mountain Dicte, names one of 
the god’s nurses Ida. 

* As to the nurture of Zeus by the aye see Calli- 
machus, Hymn i. 46 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, v. 70. 2 8g. ; 
Ovid, Fastt, v. 111 8qa- ; Hyginus, Fab. 139; id. Astronom. 
li. 13; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 104; Lactantius Placidus, 
on Statius, Zheb. iv. 784; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 104; Second Vatican Mythographer, 16). 
According to Callimachus, Amalthea was a goat. Aratus 
also reported, if he did not believe, the story that the 
supreme god had been suckled by a goat (Strabo, viii. 7. 5, 
p. 887), and this would seem to have been the common 
opinion (Diodorus Siculus, v. 70. 3; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 
13; Second Vatican ren A aoa 16). According to one 
account, his nurse Amalthea hung him in his cradle on a tree 
‘in order that he might be found neither in heaven nor on 
earth nor in the sea” (Hyginus, Fab. 139). Melisseus, the 
father of his nurses Adrastia and Ida, is said to have been a 
Cretan king (Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 13); but his name is 
probably due to an attempt to rationalize the story that the 
infant Zeus was fed by bees. See Virgil, Georg. i. 149 sqq. 
with the note of Servius on v. 153; First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 104 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 16. 


7 


APOLLODORUS 


τῷ ἄντρῳ τὸ βρέφος φυλάσσοντες τοῖς δόρασι 
τὰς ἀσπίδας συνέκρουον, ἵνα μὴ τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς 
φωνῆς ὁ Κρόνος ἀκούσῃ. Ῥέα δὲ λίθον σπαρ- 
γανώσασα δέδωκε Κρόνῳ καταπιεῖν ὡς τὸν 
γεγεννημένον παῖδα. 

II. ᾿Επειδὴ δὲ Ζεὺς ἐγενήθη τέλειος, λαμβάνει 
Μῆτιν τὴν ᾽Ωκεανοῦ συνεργόν, ἣ δίδωσι Κρόνῳ 
καταπιεῖν φάρμακον, ὑφ᾽ οὗ ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκασθεὶς 
πρῶτον μὲν ἐξεμεῖ τὸν λίθον, ἔπειτα τοὺς παῖδας 
ods κατέπιε' μεθ᾽ ὧν Ζεὺς τὸν πρὸς Κρόνον καὶ 
Τιτᾶνας ἐξήνεγκε πόλεμον. μαχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν 


1 ἐγενήθη EB: ἐγεννήθη Rec. 


1 As tothe Curetes in their capacity of guardians of the 
infant Zeus, see Callimachus, Hymn, i. 52 sqq.; Strabo, x. 
3. 11, p. 468; Diodorus Siculus, v. 70, 2-4; Lucretius, ii. 
633-639 ; Virgil, Georg. iii. 150 sg.; Ovid, Fasti, iv. 207 sqq.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 139; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 104; Lac- 
tantius Placidus, on Statius, Zheb. iv. 784; Scrsptores rerum 
mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 (First 
Vatican Mythographer, 104 ; Second Vatican Mochovranher, 
16). The story of the way in which they protected the divine 
infant from his inhuman parent by clashing their weapons 
may reflect a real custom, by the observance of which human 
parents endeavoured to guard their infants against the 
assaults of demons. See folk-lore in the Old Testament, iii. 
472 sqq. 

3 ἣν to the trick by which Rhea saved Zeus from the maw 
of his father Cronus, see Hesiod, 7'heog. 485 sqq.; Pausanias, 
viii. 36. 3, ix. 9. 7, ix. 41. 6, x. 24.6; Ovid, Fasétz, iv. 199- 
206 ; Hyginus, Fab. 139; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 104 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, 7heb. iv. 784; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latins, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 104; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 16). The very stone which Cronus swallowed and 
afterwards spewed out was shown at Delphi down to the 
second century of our era; oil was daily poured on it, and on 


8 





THE LIBRARY, L.1. 7-0. 1 


babe in the cave, clashing their spears on their 
shields in order that Cronus might not hear the 
child’s voice.! But Rhea wrapped a stone in swaddling 
clothes and gave it to Cronus to swallow, as if it 
were the new-born child.” 

II. But when Zeus was full-grown, he took Metis, 
daughter of Ocean, to help him, and she gave Cronus 
a drug to swallow, which forced him to disgorge first 
the stone and then the children whom he had swal- 
lowed,? and with their aid Zeus waged the war 
against Cronus and the Titans. They fought for 


festival days unspun wool was laid on it (Pausanias, x. 24. 6). 
We read that, on the birth of Zeus’s elder brother Poseidon, 
his mother Rhea saved the baby in like manner by giving his 
father Cronus a foal to swallow, which the deity seems to 
have found more digestible than the stone, for he is not said 
to have spat it out again (Pausanias, viii. 8.2). Phalaris, the 
notorious tyrant of Agrigentum, dedicated in the sanctuar 
of Lindian Athena in Rhodes a bow] which was enriched wit 
a relief representing Cronus in the act of receiving his children 
at the hand of Rhea and swallowing them. An inscription 
on the bowl set forth that it was a present from the famous 
artist Daedalus to the Sicilian king Cocalus. These things 
we learn from a long inscription which was found in recent 
years at Lindus: it contains an inventory of the treasures 
preserved in the temple of Athena, together with historical 
notes upon them. See Chr. Blinkenberg, La Chronique 
du temple Lindien (Copenhagen, 1912), p. 332 (Académie 
Royale des Sctences et des Lettres de Danemark, Hxtrait du 
Bulletin de Vannée 1912, No. 5-6). 

3 As to the disgorging of his offspring by Cronus, see 
Hesiod, Theog. 493 sqq., who, however, says nothing about 
the agency of Metis in administering an emetic, but attributes 
the stratagem to Earth (Gaia). 

4 As to the war of Zeus on the Titans, see Hesiod, Theog. 
617 sqqg.; Horace, Odes, iii. 4. 42 sgqg.; Hyginus, Fab. 118. 


9 


APOLLODORUS 


3 ‘ δέ e TH “a An 4 A ’ 
ἐνιαυτοὺς δέκα ἡ Γῆ τῷ Διὶ ἔχρησε τὴν νίκην, 
τοὺς καταταρταρωθέντας ἂν ἔχῃ συμμάχους" ὁ 
‘ “ “A 
δὲ τὴν φρουροῦσαν αὐτῶν τὰ δεσμὰ Κάμπην 
ἀποκτείνας ἔλυσε. καὶ Κύκλωπες τότε Διὶ μὲν 
/ 
διδόασι βροντὴν καὶ ἀστραπὴν καὶ κεραυνόν, 
4 A 
Πλούτωνι δὲ κυνέην, Ποσειδῶνι δὲ τρίαιναν" 
οἱ δὲ τούτοις ὁπλισθέντες κρατοῦσι Τιτάνων, καὶ 
καθείρξαντες αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ Ταρτάρῳ τοὺς ἑκατόγ- 
χείρας κατέστησαν 3 φύλακας. αὐτοὶ δὲ διακλη- 
ροῦνται περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς, καὶ Naryxavet Ζεὺς μὲν 
τὴν ἐν οὐρανῷ δυναστείαν, Ποσειδῶν δὲ τὴν ἐν 
4 4 \ ? “ 
θαλάσσῃ, Ἰ]λούτων δὲ τὴν ἐν “Αἰδου. 
3 4 de T lA ΝΜ) 3 le) \ 
Ἐγένοντο δὲ Τιτάνων ἔκγονοι ᾽Ωκεανοῦ μὲν καὶ 
Τηθύος 'Oxeavides,® ᾿Ασία Στὺξ ᾿Ηλέκτρα Δωρὶς 


1 κυνέην Εἰ : κνανέην A. 

3 κατέστησαν E: καθίστασαν A, καθιστᾶσι Bekker. See 
R. Wagner, ὥριέοηια Vaticana, p. 84. 

3'The MSS. add τρισχίλιαι (A) or τρισχίλιοι (KE). The 
ie seems to have been interpolated from Hesiod, T'heog. 

4. 


1 The most ancient oracle at Delphi was said to be that of 
Earth ; in her office of prophetess the goddess was there 
succeeded by Themis, who was afterwards displaced by 
Apollo. See Aeschylus, Eumenides, 1 sqq.; Pausanias, x. 5. 
5 sq. It is said that of old there was an oracle of Earth at 
Olympia, but it no longer existed in the second century of our 
era. See Pausanias, v. 14. 10. At Aegira in Achaia the 
oracles of Earth were delivered in a subterranean cave by 
a priestess, who had previously drunk bull’s blood as a means 
of inspiration. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 147 ; compare 
Pausanias, vii. 25. 13. In the later days of antiquity the 
oracle of Earth at Delphi was explained by some philosophers 
on rationalistic principles: they suposed that the priestess 
was thrown into the prophetic trance by natural exhalations 
from the ground, and they explained the decadence of the 


Io 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1. 1-2 


ten years, and Earth prophesied victory! to Zeus if 
he should have as allies those who had been hurled 
down to Tartarus. So he slew their gaoleress Campe, 
and loosed their bonds. And the Cyclopes then gave 
Zeus thunder and lightning and a thunderbolt,? and 
on Pluto they bestowed a helmet and on Poseidon 
a trident. Armed with these weapons the gods 
overcame the Titans, shut them up in Tartarus, and 
appointed the Hundred-handers their guards ;* but 
they themselves cast lots for the sovereignty, and 
to Zeus was allotted the dominion of the sky, to 
Poseidon the dominion of the sea, and to Pluto the 
dominion in Hades.‘ 

Now to the Titans were born offspring: to Ocean 
and Tethys were born Oceanids, to wit, Asia, Styx, 


oracle in their own time by the gradual cessation of the 
exhalations. The theory is scouted by Cicero. See Plutarch, 
De defectu oraculorum, 40 sqq. ; Cicero, De divinatione, i. 19. 
38, i. 36. 79, ii. 57. 117. A similar theory is still held by 
wizards in Loango, on the west coast of Africa; hence in 
order to receive the inspiration they descend into an artificial 
pit or natural hollow and remain there for some time, absorb- 
ing the blessed influence, just as the Greek priestesses for a 
similar purpose descended into the oracular caverns at Aegira 
and Delphi. See Die Loango Expedition, iii. 2, von Dr. E. 
Pechuél-Loesche (Stuttgart, 1907), p. 441. As to the oracular 
cavern at Delphi and the inspiring exhalations which were 
supposed to emanate from it, see Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 26; 
Strabo, ix. 3. 5, p. 419; Pausanias, x. 5. 7; Justin, xxiv. 6. 
6-9. That the Pythian priestess descended into the cavern 
to give the oracles appears from an expression of Plutarch 
(De defectu oraculorum, 51, κατέβη μὲν εἰς τὸ μαντεῖον). As to 
the oracles of Earth in antiquity, see A. Bouché-Leclercgq, 
Histotre de la Divination dans I’ Antiquité, ii. 251 sqq.; L. R. 
Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, iii. 8 sqq. 

2 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 501-506. 

8 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 717 sqq. 

ὁ Compare Homer, Jl. xv. 187 sqq.; Plato, Gorgias, p. 523a. 


I! 


APOLLODORUS 


Εὐρονόμη [Apderpirn] Μῆτις, Κοίου δὲ καὶ 
Φοίβης ᾿Αστερία καὶ Λητώ, Ὑπερίονος δὲ καὶ 
Θείας ᾿Ηὼς “Ἥλιος Σελήνη, Κρείου δὲ καὶ Εὐρυ- 
βίας τῆς Πόντου ᾿Αστραῖος Πάλλας “Πέρσης, 
8 Ἰαπετοῦ δὲ καὶ ᾿Ασίας 1 ἤΑτλας, ὃς ἔχει τοῖς 
ὦμοις τὸν οὐρανόν, καὶ Προμηθεὺς καὶ Ἔπι- 
μηθεὺς καὶ Μενοίτιος, ὃν κεραυνώσας ἐν τῇ 
4 τιτανομαχίᾳ Ζεὺς κατεταρτάρωσεν. ἐγένετο δὲ καὶ 
Κρόνου καὶ Φιλύρας Χείρων διφυὴς Κένταυρος, 
᾽ἮΟοῦς δὲ καὶ ᾿Αστραίου ἄ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἄστρα, Πέρσου 
δὲ καὶ ᾿Αστερίας Ἑκάτη, Πάλλαντος. δὲ καὶ 
δ Στυγὸς ἷ Νίκη Κράτος Ζῆλος Βία. τὸ δὲ τῆς 
Στυγὸς ὕδωρ ἐκ πέτρας ἐν “Αἰδου ῥέον Ζεὺς 
ἐποίησεν ὅρκον, ταύτην αὐτῇ τιμὴν διδοὺς ἀνθ᾽ 
ὧν αὐτῷ κατὰ Τιτάνων μετὰ τῶν τέκνων συνε- 
μάχησε. 
ὃ Ifdvrov δὲ καὶ Τῆς Φόρκος * Θαύμας Νηρεὺς 


1 The MSS. add τῶν ᾽Ωκεανοῦ, which Heyne, Westermann 
Miller, and Bekker alter into τῆς ᾽Ωκεανοῦ. 

2 Φόρκος Heyne, Miller, Bekker, Hercher, (compare ii. 
4. 2): Φόρκυς A. 


1 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 346-366, who mentions all the 
Oceanids named by Apollodorus except Amphitrite, who was 
a Nereid. See Apollodorus, i. 2.7; Hesi , Theog. 243. 

2 As to the offspring of Coeus and Phoebe, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 404 sqq. 

8. As to the offspring of Hyperion and Thia, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 371 sqq. 

4 As to the offspring of Crius and Eurybia, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 375 sqq. 

5 As to the offspring of Iapetus and Asia, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 507-520. 

6 It is said that Cronus assumed the shape of a horse when 
he consorted with Philyra, and that, we are told, was why 


12 





THE LIBRARY, I. π΄. 2-6 


Electra, Doris, Eurynome, Amphitrite, and Metis ; 3 
to Coeus and Phoebe were born Asteria and La- 
tona ; 3 to Hyperion and Thia were born Dawn, Sun, 
and Moon; to Crius and Eurybia, daughter of Sea 
(Pontus), were born Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses ; 4 
to Iapetus and Asia was born Atlas, who has the sky 
on his shoulders, and Prometheus, and Epimetheus, 
and Menoetius, he whom Zeus in the battle with the 
Titans smote with a thunderbolt and hurled down to 
Tartarus.©5 And to Cronus and Philyra was born 
Chiron, a centaur of double form;® and-.to Dawn 
and Astraeus were born winds and stars;? to Perses 
and Asteria was born Hecate ;® and to Pallas and 
Styx were born Victory, Dominion, Emulation, and 
Violence. But Zeus caused oaths to be sworn by 
the water of Styx, which flows from a rock in Hades, 
bestowing this honour on her because she and 
her children had fought on his side against the 
Titans.!° | 

And to Sea (Pontus) and Earth were born Phorcus, 
Chiron was born a centaur, half-man, half-horse. See 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 554. 


7 As to the offspring of Dawn and Astraeus, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 378 sqq. 

8 As to this parentage of Hecate, see Hesiod, Theog. 
409 sqq. But the ancients were not agreed on the subject. 
See the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iii.467. He 
tells us that according to the Orphic hymns, Hecate was a 
daughter of Deo; according to Bacchylides, a daughter of 
Night ; according to Musaeus, a daughter of Zeus and Asteria ; 
and according to Pherecydes, a daughter of Aristaeus. 

® For this brood of abstractions, the offspring of Styx and 
Lie see Hesiod, Theog. 383 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. p. 30, ed. 

unte. 

10 Compare Hesiod, T'heog. 389-403. As to the oath by the 
water of Styx, see further Hesiod, Theog. 775 sqq.; compare 
Homer, Jl. xv. 37 8q., Od. v. 186 8qg.; Homeric Hymn to 
Apollo, 86 sq. 

13 


APOLLODORUS 


Εὐρυβία Κητώ. Θαύμαντος μὲν οὖν καὶ Ἠλέκτρας" 
Ἶρις καὶ ἅρπυιαι,᾽ Δελλὼ «καὶ; ᾽Ωκυπέτη, Φόρκου 
δὲ καὶ Κητοῦς Φορκίδες «καὶ; Γοργόνες, περὶ ὧν 
7 ἐροῦμεν ὅταν τὰ κατὰ Περσέα λέγωμεν, Νηρέως δὲ 
καὶ Δωρίδος ῖ Νηρηΐδες, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα Κυμοθόη 
Σπειὼ Γλαυκονόμη Ναυσιθόη ‘Adin, Ἐ!ρατὼ Σαὼ 
᾿Αμφιτρίτη Εὐνίκη Θέτις, Εὐλιμένη ᾿Αγαύη Εὐ- 
δώρη Δωτὼ Φέρουσα, Γαλάτεια ᾿Ακταίη Ποοντομέ- 
δουσα ἽἹπποθόη Λυσιάνασσα, Κυμὼ ᾿Ηιόνη ᾿Αλι- 
μήδη Πληξαύρη Εὐκράντη, Πρωτὼ Καλυψὼ 
Πανόπη Κραντὼ Νεύμηρις, Ἱππονόη Ἰάνειρα 
Πολυνόμη Αὐτονόη Μελίτη,Σ Διώνη Νησαίη Δηρὼ 
Εὐαγόρη Ψαμάθη, Εὐμόλπη Ἰόνη Δυναμένη Κητὼ 
Λιμνώρεια. 
111. Ζεὺς δὲ γαμεῖ μὲν Ἥραν, καὶ τεκνοῖ 
Ηβην Ἐϊλείθνιαν “Apny,? μίγνυται δὲ πολλαῖς 
θνηταῖς τε καὶ ἀθανάτοις γυναιξίν. ἐκ μὲν οὖν 
Θέμιδος τῆς Οὐρανοῦ γεννᾷ θυγατέρας ὥρας, 
Εἰρήνην Εὐνομίαν Δίκην, μοίρας, Κλωθὼ Λάχεσιν 
Ατροπον, ἐκ Διώνης δὲ ᾿Αφροδίτην, ἐξ Εὐρυνόμης 


1 The MSS. add τῶν ᾽Ωκεανοῦ, which Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller, and Bekker alter into τῆς ᾽Ωκεανοῦ. 

3 Μελίτη Heyne, comparing Hesiod, Theog. 246, Homer, 
Il. xviii. 42, etc.: Μελίη A. 

3 "Ἄρην Gale: ἄργην R: ἀργὴν Εἰ : dpyny B. 


ὁ γῆς E: τοῦ A. 





— 
Ω 


1.ΑΒ to the offspring of Sea (Pontus, conceived as mascu- 
line) and Earth (conceived as feminine), see Hesiod, T'heog. 
233 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. p. 28, ed. Bunte. 

2 As to the offspring of Thaumas and Electra, see Hesiod, 


Theog. 265 sqq. 
* As to the parentage of the Phorcids and Gorgons, see 


14 


THE LIBRARY, I. τι. 6—m. 1 


Thaumas, Nereus, Eurybia, and Ceto.1 Now to 
Thaumas and Electra were born Iris and the Harpies, 
Aello and Ocypete ;? and to Phorcus and Ceto were 
born the Phorcids and Gorgons,? of whom we shall 
speak when we treat of Perseus. To Nereus and 
Doris were born the Nereids,* whose names are 
Cymothoe, Spio, Glauconome, Nausithoe, Halie, 
Erato, Sao, Amphitrite, Eunice, Thetis, Eulimene, 
Agave, Eudore, Doto, Pherusa, Galatea, Actaea, 
Pontomedusa, Hippothoe, Lysianassa, Cymo, Eione, 
Halimede, Plexaure, Eucrante, Proto, Calypso, 
Panope, Cranto, Neomeris, Hipponoe, Ianira, Poly- 
nome, Autonoe, Melite, Dione, Nesaea, Dero, 
Evagore, Psamathe, Eumolpe, Ione, Dynamene, Ceto, 
and Limnoria. 

III. Now Zeus wedded Hera and begat Hebe, 
llithyia, and Ares,® but he had intercourse with many 
women, both mortals and immortals. By Themis, 
daughter of Sky, he had daughters, the Seasons, to 
wit, Peace, Order, and Justice; alsothe Fates, to wit, 
Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropus;® by Dione he had 


Hesiod, Theog. 270 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. p. 29, ed. Bunte. 
As to the monsters themselves, see Apollodorus, ii. 4. 2 aq. 

4 For lists of Nereids, see Homer, 1}. xviii. 38-49 ; Hesiod, 
Theog. 240-264 ; Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 417-423 ; Virgil, 
Georg. iv. 334-344; Hyginus, Fab. pp. 28 sq., ed. Bunte. 

5 As to the offspring of Zeus and Hera, see Homer JI. v. 
889 sqq. (Ares), xi. 270 sq. (Ilithyia), Od. xi. 603 sg. (Hebe) ; 
Hesiod, Theog. 921 sqq. According to Hesiod, Hera was the 
last consort whom Zeus took to himself; his first wife was 
Metis, and his second Themis (Theog. 886, 901, 921). 

6 For the daughters of Zeus and Themis, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 901 sqq. 


15 


APOLLODORUS 


δὲ τῆς ᾽Ωκεανοῦ χάριτας, ᾿Αγλαΐην Εὐφροσύνην 
Θάλειαν, ἐκ δὲ Στυγὸς Περσεφόνην, ἐκ δὲ Μνη- 
μοσύνης μούσας, πρώτην μὲν Καλλιόπην, εἶτα 
Κλειὼ Μελπομένην Εὐτέρπην ᾿Ερατὼ Τερψι- 
χόρην Οὐρανίαν Θάλειαν Πολυμνίαν. 

Καλλιόπης μὲν οὖν καὶ Οἰάγρου, κατ᾽ ἐπί- 
κλησιν δὲ ᾿Απόλλωνος, Λίνος, ὃν Ἡρακλῆς 
ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ ᾿Ορφεὺς ὁ ἀσκήσας κιθαρῳδίαν, ὃς 
ἄδων ἐκίνει λίθους τε καὶ δένδρα. ἀποθανούσης δὲ 

ὑρυδίκης τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ, δηχθείσης ὑπὸ 
ὄφεως, κατῆλθεν εἰς “Αὐδου θέλων ἀνάγειν; αὐτήν, 


1 ἀνάγειν Heyne: ἀγαγεῖν A. 


1 As to Dione, mother of Aphrodite, see Homer, 11. v. 370 
8qq-; Euripides, Helena, 1098; Hyginus, Fab. p. 30, ed. 
Bunte. Hesiod represents Aphrodite as born of the sea-foam 
which gathered round the severed genitals of Sky (Uranus). 
See Hesiod, Theog. 188 sqq. , 

2 As to the parentage of the Graces, see Hesiod, Theog. 
907 sqq.; Pausanias, ix. 35.5; Hyginus, Fab. p. 30, ed. Bunte. 

3 According to the usual account, the mother of Persephone 
was not Styx but Demeter. See Hesiod, Theog. 912 sq.; 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 1 sqq.; Pausanias, viii. 37. 9 ; 
Hyginus, Fab. p. 30, ed. Bunte. 

4 As to the names and parentage of the Muses, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 75 sqq., 915 sqq. 

5 Accounts differ as to the parentage of Linus. According 
to one, he was a son of Apollo by the Muse Urania (Hyginus, 
Fab. 161); according to another, he was a son of Apollo 
by Psamathe, daughter of Crotopus (Pausanias, ii. 19. 8) ; 
according to another, he was a son of Apollo by Aethusa, 
daughter of Poseidon (Contest of Homer and Hesiod, p. 570, 
ed. Evelyn-White, Loeb Classical Library); according to 
another, he was a son of Magnes by the Muse Clio (Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 831). 

65 That Orpheus was a son of Oeagrus by the Muse Calliope 
is affirmed also by Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 23 sqq. ; 
Conon, Narrat. 45; ἡ ἔχει, Schol. on Lycophron, 831 


16 





THE LIBRARY, I. m1. 1-2 


Aphrodite ;! by Eurynome, daughter of Ocean, he 
had the Graces, to wit, Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and 
Thalia ;2 by Styx he had Persephone;? and by 
Memory (Mnemosyne) he had the Muses, first Calliope, 
then Clio, Melpomene, Euterpe, Erato, Terpsichore, 
Urania, Thalia, and Polymnia.*‘ 

Now Calliope bore to Oeagrus or, nominally, to 
Apollo, a son Linus,5 whom Hercules slew; and 
another son, Orpheus,® who practised minstrelsy and 
by his songs moved stones and trees. And when 
his wife Eurydice died, bitten by a snake, he went 
down to Hades, being fain to bring her up,’ and he 


the author of The Contest o Homer and Hestod, p. 570, ed. 
Evelyn-White ; Hyginus, Fab. 14; and the First and Second 
Vatican Mythographers (Scriptores rerum mythicarum La- 
tani, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 26, 90). The same view was 
held by Asclepiades, but some said that his mother was the 
Muse Polymnia (Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 
23). Pausanias roundly denied that the musician’s mother 
was the Muse Calliope (ix. 30. 4). That his father was 
Oeagrus is mentioned also by Plato (Sympos. p. 179 Ὁ), Dio- 
dorus Siculus (iv. 25. 2), and Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. 
7, p- 63, ed. Potter). As to the power of Orpheus to move 
stones and trees by his singing, see Euripides, Bacchae, 561 
sqq.; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 26 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 25. 2; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 24; Conon, Narrat. 45; 
Horace, Odes, i. 12. 7 sqqg.; Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus, 1036 
8qq.; id., Hercules Furens, 572 sq. 

7 As to the descent of Orpheus to hell to fetch up Eurydice, 
compare Pausanias, ix. 30. 6; Conon, Narrat. 45; Virgil, 
Georg. iv. 454 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. x. 8 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 164; Seneca, Hercules Furens, 569 sqq.; 1d. Hercules 
Oetaeus, 1061 sqg.; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. 
viii. 59 and 60; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 26 ag., 90 (First Vatican rite: ἦν μουν 
76; Second Vatican Mythographer, 44). That Eurydice was 
killed by the bite of a snake on which she had accidentally 
trodden is mentioned by Virgil Ovid, Hyginus, and the 
Vatican Mythographers. 


17 
VOL. I. ς 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ Πλούτωνα ἔπεισεν ἀναπέμψαι. ὁ δὲ ὑπέ- 
σχετο τοῦτο ποιήσειν, ἂν μὴ πορευόμενος Ὄρ- 
φεὺς ἐπιστραφῇ πρὶν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν αὑτοῦ παρα- 
γενέσθαι: ὁ δὲ ἀπιστῶν ἐπιστραφεὶς ἐθεάσατο 
τὴν γυναῖκα, ἡ δὲ πάλιν ὑπέστρεψεν. εὗρε δὲ 
᾿Ορφεὺς καὶ τὰ Διονύσου μυστήρια, καὶ τέθαπται 
περὶ τὴν Πιερίαν διασπασθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν μαινάδων. 
3 Κλειὼ δὲ Πιέρου τοῦ Μάγνητος ἠράσθη κατὰ 
μῆνιν ᾿Αφροδίτης (ὠνείδισε γὰρ αὐτῇ τὸν τοῦ 
᾿Αδώνιδος ἔρωτα), συνελθοῦσα δὲ ἐγέννησεν ἐξ 
αὐτοῦ παῖδα Ὕαάκινθον, οὗ Θάμυρις ὁ Φιλάμ- 
μωνος καὶ ᾿Αργιόπης νύμφης ἔσχεν, ἔρωτα, 
πρῶτος ἀρξάμενος ἐρᾶν ἀρρένων. ἀλλ᾽ “Ὑάκινθον 
ὕστερον ᾿Απόλλων ἐρώμενον ὄντα δίσκῳ 

1 ἔσχεν EA: ἴσχει Hercher, Wagner. But ἔχειν ἔρωτα is 
good Greek. See Herodotus, v. 32; Apollodorus, Κρ. ii. 6. 


n the other hand Apollodorus has ἴσχειν ἔρωτα elsewhere 
(i. 9. 8, i. 9. 23, ii. 3. 1, iii, 14. 4). 


1 On Orpheus as a founder of mysteries, compare Euri- 
pides, Rhesus, 943 sq.; Aristophanes, Frogs, 1032; Plato, 
Protagoras, p. 369D; id. Republic, ii. 7, pp. 365 B-366 4 ; 
Demosthenes, Or. xxv. 1], p. 772; Diodorus Siculus, i. 23, 
i. 96. 2-6, iii. 65. 6, iv. 25. 3, v. 77. 3; Pausanias, ii. 30. 2, 
ix. 30. 4, x. 7. 2; Plutarch, Frag. 84 (Plutarch, Didot ed. 
vol. v. p. 55). According to Diodorus Siculus (i. 23), the 
mysteries of Dionysus which Orpheus instituted in Greece 
were copied by him from the Egyptian mysteries of Osiris. 
The view that the mysteries of Dionysus were based on those 
of Osiris has been maintained in recent years by the very able 
and learned French scholar, Monsieur Paul Foucart. See his 
treatise, Le culte de Dionysos en Aitique (Paris, 1904), pp. 8 
844. ; td. Les mystéres d’Eleusis (Paris, 1914), pp. 1 sqq., 


846. 

3 rey to the death of Orpheus at the hands of the Maenads 
or the Thracian women, see Pausanias, ix. 30. 5; Conon, 
Narrat. 45; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 24; Virgil, Georg. iv. 
520 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 1 sgq. Usually the women are 


18 


THE LIBRARY, I. πὶ. 2-3 


persuaded Pluto to send her up. The god promised 
to do so,if on the way Orpheus would not turn round 
until he should be come to his own house. But he 
disobeyed and turning round beheld his wife; so 
she turned back. Orpheus also invented the 
mysteries of Dionysus,! and having been torn in 
pieces by the Maenads? he is buried in Pieria. Clio 
fell in love with Pierus, son of Magnes, in consequence 
of the wrath of Aphrodite, whom she had twitted 
with her love of Adonis; and having met him she 
bore him a son Hyacinth, for whom Thamyris, the 
son of Philammon and a nymph Argiope, conceived 
a passion, he being the first to become enamoured of 
males. But afterwards Apollo loved Hyacinth and 
killed him involuntarily by the cast of a quoit.2 And 


said to have been offended by the widower’s constancy to 
the memory of his late wife, and by his indifference to their 
charms and endearments. But Eratosthenes, or rather the 
writer who took that name, puts a different complexion on 
the story. He says that Orpheus did not honour Dionysus, 
but esteemed the sun the greatest of the gods, and used to 
rise very early every day in order to see the sunrise from the 
top of Mount Pangaeum. This angered Dionysus, and he 
stirred up the Bassarids or Bacchanals to rend the bard limb 
from limb. Aeschylus wrote a tragedy on the subject called 
the Bassarids or Bassarae. See Tragicorum Graecorum 
Fraygmenta, ed. A. Nauck? (Leipsic, 1889), pp. 9 sq. 

3 As to the death of Hyacinth, killed by the cast of Apollo’s 
ac see Nicander, Ther. 901 sgq.; Pausanias, iii. 19. 4 8q.; 

cian, Dial. deorum, xiv.; Philostratus, Imag. i. 23 (24) ; 
Palaephatus, De incredib. 47 ; Ovid, Metamorph. x. 162 sqq.; 
Servius, on Virgil, Hcl. iii. 63; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Theb. iv. 223 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 37, 135 sq. (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 117; Second Vatican Mythographer, 181). The 
usual story ran that Apollo and the West Wind, or, according 
to others, the North Wind, were rivals for the affection of 
Hyacinth ; that Hyacinth preferred Apollo, and that the 


19 
c 2 


Θι 


ΑΡΟΙΠΟΠΟΒΌΘΣ 


βαλὼν ἄκων ἀπέκτεινε, Θάμυρις δὲ κάλλει 
διενεγκὼν καὶ κιθαρῳδίᾳ περὶ μουσικῆς ἤρισε 
μούσαις, συνθέμενος, ἂν μὲν κρείττων εὑρεθῇ, 
πλησιάσειν πάσαις, ἐὰν δὲ ἡττηθῇ, στερηθήσεσθαι 
οὗ ἂν ἐκεῖναι θέλωσι. καθυπέρτεραι δὲ αἱ μοῦσαι 
γενόμεναι καὶ τῶν ὀμμάτων αὐτὸν καὶ τῆς κιθα- 
ρῳδίας ἐστέρησαν. Εὐτέρπης δὲ καὶ ποταμοῦ 
Στρυμόνος Ῥῆσος, ὃν ἐν Τροίᾳ Διομήδης ἀπέ- 
κτείνεν" ws δὲ ἔνιοι λέγουσι, Καλλιόπης ὑπῆρχεν. 
Θαλείας δὲ καὶ ᾿Απόλλωνος ἐγένοντο Κορύβαντες, 
Μελπομένης δὲ καὶ ᾿Αχελῴου Σειρῆνες, περὶ ὧν 
ἐν τοῖς περὶ ᾽Οδυσσέως ἐροῦμεν. 

Ἥρα δὲ χωρὶς εὐνῆς ἐγέννησεν “Ἡφαιστον" ὡς 
δὲ “Ὅμηρος λέγει, καὶ τοῦτον ἐκ Διὸς ἐγέννησε. 


jealous West Wind took his revenge by blowing a blast which 
diverted the quoit thrown by Apollo, so that it struck 
Hyacinth on the head and killed him. From the blood of the 
slain youth sprang the hyacinth, inscribed with letters which 
commemorated his tragic death ; though the ancients were not 
at one in the reading of them. Some, like Ovid, read in them 
the exclamation AI AI, that is, ‘‘ Alas, alas!” Others, like 
the Second Vatican Mythographer, fancied that they could 
detect in the dark lines of the flower the first Greek letter (T) 
of Hyacinth’s name. 

1 This account of Thamyris and his contest with the Muses 
is repeated almost verbally by Zenobius, Cent. iv. 27, and by 
a Scholiast on Homer, Jl. ii. 595. As to the bard’s rivalry 
with the Muses, and the blindness they inflicted on him, see 
Homer, Jl. ii. 594-600 ; compare Euripides, Rhesus, 915 sqq.; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p- 60 (First Vatican Mythographer, 197). The story of the 
punishment of Thamyris in hell was told in the epic poem The 
Minyad, attributed to Prodicus the Phocaean (Pausanias, iv. 
33. 7). In the great picture of the underworld painted by 
Polygnotus at Delphi, the blind musician was portrayed 
sitting with long flowing locks and a broken lyre at his feet 
(Pausanias, x. 30. 8). 


20 








THE LIBRARY, I. πὶ. 3-5 


Thamyris, who excelled in beauty and in minstrelsy 
engaged in a musical contest with the Muses, the 
agreement being that, if he won, he should enjoy 
them all, but that if he should be vanquished he 
should be bereft of what they would. So the 
Muses got the better of him and bereft him both or 
his eyes and of his minstrelsy.1_ Euterpe had by the 
river Strymon a son Rhesus, whom Diomedes slew at 
Troy ;? but some say his mother was Calliope. 
Thalia had by Apollo the Corybantes ;° and Melpo- 
mene had by Achelous the Sirens, of whom we shall 
speak in treating of Ulysses.‘ 

Hera gave birth to Hephaestus without intercourse 
with the other sex,5 but according to Homer he was 


2 As to the death of Rhesus, see Homer, Jl. x. 474 δᾳᾳ.; 
compare Conon, Narrat. 4. It is the subject of Euripides’s 
tragedy Rhesus; see particularly verses 756 sqq. Euripides 
represents Rhesus as a son of the river Strymon by one of the 
Muses (vv. 279, 915 sqq.), but he does not name the particular 
Muse who bore him. 

3 Very discrepant accounts were given of the parentage of 
the Corybantes. Some said that they were sons of the Sun 
y Athena ; others that their parents were Zeus and the 

use Calliope ; others that their father was Cronus. See 
Strabo, x. 3. 19, p. 472. According to another account, their 
mother was the Mother of the Gods, who settled them in 
Samothrace, or the Holy Isle, as the name Samothrace was 
believed to signify. The name of the father of the Corybantes 
was kept a secret from the profane vulgar, but was revealed 
to the initiated at the Samothracian mysteries. See Diodorus 
Siculus, iii. 55. 8 sq. 

* As to the Sirens, see Apollodorus, Epitome, vii. 18 sq. 
Elsewhere (i. 7. 10) Apollodorus mentions the view that the 
mother of the Sirens was Sterope. 

5 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 927 sq.; Lucian, De sacrificits, 6. 
So Juno is said to have conceived Mars by the help of the 
eoscees Flora and without intercourse with Jupiter (Ovid, 

asti, v. 229 sq.). The belief in the possible impregnation 


21 


APOLLODORUS 


ῥίπτει δὲ αὐτὸν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ Ζεὺς “Hpa δεθείσῃ 
βοηθοῦντα' ταύτην γὰρ ἐκρέμασεϊ Ζεὺς ἐξ Ὀλύμ- 
ποῦ χειμῶνα ἐπιπέμψασαν Ἡρακλεῖ, ὅτε Τροίαν 
ἑλὼν ἔπλει. πεσόντα δ᾽ “ἥφαιστον ἐν Λήμνῳ καὶ 
πηρωθέντα τὰς βάσεις διέτωσε Θέτις. 

Μίηνυται δὲ Ζεὺς Myreb.,2 μεταβαλλούσῃ εἰς 
πολλὰς ἰδέας ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ συνελθεῖν, καὶ αὐτὴν 
γενομένην ἔγκυον καταπίνει φθάσας, ἐπείπερ 


1 κρέμασε E: ἐκκρεμάσασα RB, ἐξεκρέμασε C. 
2 μήτιδι Εἰ, Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 28 ": Θέτιδι A. 


of women without sexual intercourse appears to have been 
common, if not universal, among men at a certain stage of 
social evolution, and it is still held by many savages. See 
Adonis, Attis, Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 92 sqq.; Folk-lore in the Old 
Testament, ii. 204, notes; A. et G. Grandidier, Hthnographke 
de Madagascar, ii. (Paris, 1914), pp. 245 sg. The subject is 
fully discussed by Mr. E. S. Hartland in his Primitive 
Paternity (London, 1909-1910). 

1 Compare Homer, Jl. i. 571 8ᾳ., 577 sg. In these lines 
Hephaestus plainly recognizes Hera as his mother, but it is 
not equally clear that he recognizes Zeus as his father ; the 
epithet ‘‘father” which he applies to him may refer to the 
god’s general paternity in relation to gods and men. 

2 See Homer, 11. i. 590 aq. 

3 See Homer, Jl. xv. 18 sqq., where Zeus is said to have 
tied two anvils to the feet of Hera when he hung her out of 
heaven. Compare Apollodorus, ii. 7. 1; Nonnus, in Wester- 
mann’s Mythograpm Graeci (Brunswick, 1843), Appendix 
Narrationum, xxix. 1, pp. 371 ag. 

+ The significance of Naineness in myth and ritual is obscure. 
The Yorubas of West Africa say that Shankpanna, the god of 
small-pox, is lame and limps along with the aid of a stick, one 
of his legs being withered. See (Sir) A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba- 
speaking peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa (London, 
1894), p. 73. The Ekoi of Southern Nigeria relate how the 
first fire on earth was stolen from heaven by a boy, whom the 
Creator (Obassi Osaw) punished with lameness for the theft. 


22 





THE LIBRARY, I. m. 5-6 


one of her children by Zeus.1 Him Zeus cast out of 
heaven, because he came to the rescue of Hera in 
her bonds.? For when Hercules had taken Troy 
and was at sea, Hera sent a storm after him; so Zeus 
hung her from Olympus.? Hephaestus fell on Lem- 
nos and was lamed of his legs,* but Thetis saved 
him.5 

Zeus had intercourse with Metis, who turned into 
many shapes in order to avoid his embraces. When 
she was with child, Zeus, taking time by the forelock 


See P. Amaury Talbot, In the Shadow of the Bush (London, 
1912), pp. 370 sq. This lame boy seems to play the part of a 
ood fairy in Ekoi tales, and he is occasionally represented in 
ἃ ‘stilt play” by an actor who has a short stilt bound round 
his right leg and limps like a cripple. See P. Amaury Talbot, 
op. cit. pp. 58, 285. Among the Edo of Benin ‘‘custom 
enjoined that once a year a lame man should be dragged around 
the city, and then as far as a place on the Enyai road, called 
Adaneha. This was probably a ceremony of purification.” 
See W. N. Thomas, Anthropological Report on the Edo-speak- 
ing peoples of Nigeria, Part I. (London, 1910), p. 35. Ina race 
called ‘‘the King’s Race,” which used to be run by lads on 
Good Friday or Easter Saturday in some parts of the Mark of 
Brandenburg, the winner was called ‘‘the King,” and the last 
to come in was called ‘‘the Lame Carpenter.” One of the 
Carpenter’s legs was bandaged with splints as if it were 
broken, and he had to hobble along on a crutch. Thus he 
was led from house to house by his comrades, who collected 
eggs to bake a cake. See A. Kuhn, Madrkusche Sagen und 
Marchen (Berlin, 1843), pp. 323 sq. 
5 As to the fall of Hephaestus on Lemnos, see Homer, 17. 
i. 590 sqq.; Lucian, De sacrificiis, 6. The association of the 
fire-god with Lemnos is supposed to have been suggested by 
ἃ volcano called Moschylus, which has disappeared— perhaps 
submerged in the sea. See H. F. Tozer, The Islands of the 
Aegean, pp. 269 aqq.; R. C. Jebb on Sophocles, Philoctetes, 
800, with the Appendix, pp. 243-245. According to another 
account, Hephaestus fell, not on Lemnos, but into the sea, 
where he was saved by Thetis. See Homer, ἢ, xviii, 394 sqq. 


ὦ 4 


APOLLODORUS 


ἔλεγε «Τῇ; yevvncev! παῖδα μετὰ τὴν μέλλουσαν 
ἐξ αὐτῆς γεννᾶσθαι3 κόρην, ὃς οὐρανοῦ δυνάστης 
γενήσεται. τοῦτο φοβηθεὶς κατέπιεν αὐτήν' ὡς 
δ᾽ ὁ τῆς γεννήσεως 8 ἐνέστη χρόνος, πλήξαντος 
αὐτοῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν πελέκει ἸΙρομηθέως ἢ καθάπερ 
ἄλλοι λέγουσιν Ηφαίστου, ἐκ κορυφῆς, ἐπὶ ποτα- 
μοῦ Τρίτωνος, ᾿Αθηνᾶ σὺν ὅπλοις ἀνέθορεν. 

IV. Τῶν δὲ Κοίου θυγατέρων ᾿Αστερία μὲν 
ὁμοιωθεῖσα ὄρτυγι ἑαυτὴν εἰς θάλασσαν ἔρριψε, 
φεύγουσα τὴν πρὸς Δία συνουσίαν: καὶ πόλις 
an’ ἐκείνης ᾿Αστερία πρότερον κληθεῖσα, ὕστερον 
δὲ Δῆλος. Λητὼ δὲ συνελθοῦσα Διὲ κατὰ τὴν 
γῆν ἅπασαν ὑφ᾽ “Ἥρας ἠλαύνετο, μέχρις εἰς 
Δῆλον ἐλθοῦσα γεννᾷ πρώτην Αρτεμιν, ὑφ᾽ ἧς 
μαιωθεῖσα ὕστερον ᾿Απόλλωνα ἐγέννησεν. 


1 ἔλεγε «Γῆ γεννήσειν Heyne, comparing Hesiod, Theog. 
890 sq.: ἔλεγε γεννήσειν A, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner. 

2 γεννᾶσθαι FE, Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 23 Ὁ: 
γένεσθαι A. 

3 γεννήσεως A, Scholiast on Plato, Jimaeus, p. 23 Ὁ: 
γενέσεως Εἰ, Wagner. 


1 See Hesiod, Theog. 886-900, 929s-929P, ed. Evelyn- 
White ; Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p.23p. Hesiod says 
that Zeus acted on the advice or warning of Earth and Sky. 
The Scholiast on Hesiod, quoted by Goettling and Paley in 
their commentaries, says that Metis had the power of turning 
herself into any shape she pleased. 

2 Compare the Scholiast on Homer, Jl. i. 195, who cites 
the first book of Apollodorus as his authority. According to 
the usual account, followed by the vase-painters, it was 
Hephaestus who cleft the head of Zeus with an axe and so 
delivered Athena. See Pindar, Olymp. vii. 35 (65) sqq. ; 
Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p.23p. According to Euripides 
(Ion, 454 sqq.), the delivery was effected by Prometheus ; but 
according to others it was Palamaon or Hermes who split the 


24 


THE LIBRARY, I. in. 6-19. 1 


swallowed her, because Earth said that, after . 
giving birth to the maiden who was then in her 
womb, Metis would bear a son who should be the lord 
of heaven. From fear of that Zeus swallowed her. 
And when the time came for the birth to take place, 
Prometheus or, as others say, Hephaestus, smote the 
head of Zeus with an axe, and Athena, fully armed, 
leaped up from the top of his head at the river Triton.? 

IV. Of the daughters of Coeus, Asteria in the 
likeness of a quail flung herself into the sea in order 
to escape the amorous advances of Zeus, and a city 
was formerly called after her Asteria, but afterwards 
it was named Delos.* But Latona for her intrigue 
with Zeus was hunted by Hera over the whole earth, 
till she came to Delos and brought forth first Artemis, 
by the help of whose midwifery she afterwards gave 
birth to Apollo.‘ 


head of the supreme god and so allowed Athena to leap forth. 
See the Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. vii. 35 (65). 

7 Compare Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 36 sqq.; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 401; Hyginus, Fab. 53; Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen. iii. 73; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iv. 
795 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 13, 79 sg. (First Vatican Mythographer, 37; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 17). 

4 As to the birth of Apollo and Artemis, see the Homeric 
Hymn to Apollo, 14 sqq.; Pindar, On Delos, Ὁ. 560, ed. 
Sandys; Hyginus, Fab. 140; and the writers cited in 
the preceding note. The usual tradition was that Latona 
geve birth both to Artemis and to Apollo in Delos, which 

ormerly had been called Asteria or Ortygia. But the 
author of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo distinguishes 
Ortygia from Delos, and says that, while Apollo was born in 
Delos, Artemis was born in Ortygia. Thus distinguished 
from Delos, the island of Ortygia is probably to be identified, 
as Strabo thought, with Rhenia, an uninhabited island a 
little way from Delos, where were the graves of the Delians ; 
for no dead body might be buried or burnt in Delos (Strabo, 


APOLLODORUS 


"Apteuts μὲν οὖν τὰ περὶ θήραν ἀσκήσασα 
παρθένος ἔμεινεν, ᾿Απόχλων δὲ τὴν μαντικὴν 
μαθὼν παρὰ Πανὸς τοῦ Διὸς καὶ Ὕβρεως 3 
ἧκεν εἰς Δελφούς, χρησμῳδούσης τότε Θέμιδος" 
ς ε A \ A UA # 3 4 
ὡς δὲ ὁ φρουρῶν τὸ μαντεῖον Πύθων ὄφις ἐκώλυεν 
αὐτὸν παρελθεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ χάσμα, τοῦτον ἀνελὼν τὸ 
μαντεῖον παραλαμβάνει. κτείνει δὲ pet οὐ πολὺ 
καὶ Τιτυόν, ὃς ἦν Διὸς υἱὸς καὶ τῆς ᾿Ορχομενοῦ 
θυγατρὸς ᾿Ελάρης,2 ἣν Ζεύς, ἐπειδὴ συνῆλθε, 

1“"Bpews ἘΞΑ, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 772 (ali 
MSS.), Westermann : Θύμβρεως Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth., 
Argum. i 297, ed. Boeckh), Aegius, Heyne, Miller, 
Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

2 "EAdpns Aegius: ἐλάνης A: ἑλένης E. 





x. 5. 5, p. 486). Not only so, but it was not even lawful 
either.to be born or to die in Delos; expectant mothers and 
dying folk were ferried across to Rhenia, there to give birth 
or to die. However, Rhenia is so near the sacred isle that 
when Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, dedicated it to the 
Delian Apollo, he connected the two islands by a chain. 
See Thucydides, iii. 104; Diodorus Siculus, xii. 58. 1; 
Pausanias, ii. 27. 1. The notion that either a birth or 
a death would defile the holy island is illustrated by 
an inscription found on the acropolis of Athens, which 
declares it to be the custom that no one should be 
born or die within any sacred precinct. See Ἐφημερὶς 
ἀρχαιολογική, Athens, 1884, pp. 167 sg. The desolate and 
ruinous remains of the ancient necropolis, overgrown hy 
asphodel, may still be seen on the bare treeless slopes of 
Rhenia, which looks across the strait to Delos. See H. F. 
Tozer, The Islands of the Aegean (Oxford, 1890), pp. 14 sq. 
᾿ς The quaint legend, recorded by Apollodorus, that immediately 
after her birth Artemis helped her younger twin brother 
Apollo to be born into the world, is mentioned also by 
Servius (on Virgil, Aen. iii. 73) and the Vatican Mytho- 
graphers (see the reference in the last note). The legend, 
these writers inform us, was told to explain why the maiden 
goddese Artemis was invoked by women in childbed. 


26 


THE LIBRARY, μιν. 1 


Now Artemis devoted herself to the chase and 
remained a maid; but Apollo learned the art of 
prophecy from Pan, theson of Zeus and Hybris,! 
and came to Delphi, where Themis at that time used 
to deliver oracles;* and when the snake Python, 
which guarded the oracle, would have hindered him 
from approaching the chasm,® he killed it and took 
over the oracle. Not long afterwards he slew also 
Tityus, who was a son of Zeus and Elare, daughter of 
Orchomenus; for her, after he had debauched her, 


1 Pan, son of Zeus and Thymbreus (Thymbris? Hybris 3), 
is mentioned by a Scholiast on Pindar, who distinguishes 
him from Pan, the son of Hermes and Penelope. See the 
Argument to the Pythians, p. 297, ed. Boeckh. 

5. As to the oracle of Themis at Delphi, see Aeschylus, 
Eumenides, 1 sqq.; Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, 1259 sqq.; 
Pausanias, x. 5. 6; Scholiast on Pindar, Argument to the 
Pythians, p. 297, ed. Boeckh. According to Ovid (Meta- 
morph. i. 467 8qq.), it was Themis, and not Apollo, whom 
Deucalion consulted at Delphi about the best means of 
re ling the earth after the great flood. 

The reference is to the oracular chasm at which the 
priestess, under the supposed influence of its divine exhala- 
tions, delivered her prophecies. See Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 
26; Strabo, ix. 3.5, p. 419; Justin, xxiv. 6. 9. 

4 As to Apollo’s slaughter of the Python, the dragon that 
guarded the oracle at Delphi, see Plutarch, Quaest. Graec. 12 ; 
wd. De defectu oraculorum, 15; Aelian, Var. Hist. iii. 1; 
Pausanias, ii. 7. 7, ii. 30. 3, x. 6. 5 sg.; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 
437 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 140. From Plutarch and Aelian we 
learn that Apollo had to go to Tempe to be purified for the 
slaughter of the dragon, and that both the slaughter of the 
dragon and the purification of the god were represented 
every eighth year in a solemn festival at Delphi. See my 
note on Pausanias, ii. 7. 7 (vol. iii. pp. 53 8qq.). The Pythian 

ames at Delphi were instituted in honour of the dead 
dingon (Ovid and Hyginus, ll.cc.; compare Clement of 
Alexandria, Protrept. 2, p. 29,ed. Potter), probably to soothe 
his natural anger at being slain. 


27 


APOLLODORUS 


’ e Ν a μὲ \ \ 
δείσας Hpav ὑπὸ γῆν ἔκρυψε, καὶ τὸν κυοφορη- 
θέντα παῖδα Τιτυὸν ὑπερμεγέθη εἰς φῶς ἀνή- 
yayev. οὗτος ἐρχομένην ἢ εἰς Πυθὼ Λητὼ θεω- 
ρήσας, πόθῳ κατασχεθεὶς ἐπισπᾶται" ἡ δὲ τοὺς 
παῖδας ἐπικαλεῖται καὶ κατατοξεύουσιν αὐτόν. 
κολάξεται δὲ καὶ μετὰ θάνατον" γῦπες γὰρ αὐτοῦ 
τὴν καρδίαν ἐν Αἰδου ἐσθίουσιν. 

᾿Απέκτεινε δὲ ᾿Απόλλων καὶ τὸν ᾿Ολύμπονυν 

A ’ Φ φ Ν 3 ’ 
παῖδα Μαρσύαν. οὗτος γὰρ εὑρὼν αὐλούς, obs 
ἔρριψεν ᾿Αθηνᾶ διὰ τὸ τὴν ὄψιν αὐτῆς ποιεῖν 


1 ξρχομένην ER, compare Homer, Od. xi. 581: ἐρχόμενος A. 


1 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 324 ; Eustathius 
on Homer, Od. vii. 324, p. 1581; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i. 761 8q., with the Scholiast on v. 761. The curious story 
how Zeus hid his light o’ love under the earth to save her 
from the jealous rage of Hera was told by the early mytho- 
logist and antiquarian Pherecydes of Athens, as we learn from 
the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (/.c.). Pherecydes was a 
contemporary of Herodotus and Hellanicus, and wrote in the 
first half of the fifth century B.c. Apollodorus often refers. 
to him, and appears to have made much use of his writings, 
as I shall have occasion to observe in the course of these 
notes. With regard to Elare or Elara, the mother of Tityus, 
some people thought that she was a daughter of Minyas, not 
of Orchomenus (Scholiast on Homer, and Eustathius, ZJ.cc.). 
Because Tityus was brought up under the earth, he was said 
to be earth-born (γηγενής, Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. i. 761). Homer calls him simply a son of Earth 
(Od. xi. 576), and in this he is followed by Virgil (Aen. vi. 
595). 

2 As to the crime and punishment of Tityus, see Homer, 
Od. xi. 576-581; Pindar, Pyth. iv. 90 (160) sqg., with the 
Scholiast on v. 90 (160); Lucretius, iii. 984 sqq.; Virgil, Aen. 
vi. 595 sqq.; Horace, Odes, ii. 14. 8 8ᾳ., iii. 4. 77 sqq., iii. 11. 
21 sq., iv. 6. 2 8ᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 55; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 4, 110 


28 





THE LIBRARY, I. rw. 1-2 


Zeus hid under the earth for fear of Hera, and brought 
forth to the light the son Tityus, of monstrous size, 
whom she had borne in her womb.!_ When Latona 
came to Delphi, Tityus beheld her, and overpowered 
by lust drew her to him. But she called her children 
to her aid, and they shot him down with their arrows. 
And he is punished even after death ; for vultures eat 
his heart in Hades.? 

Apollo also slew Marsyas, the son of Olympus. 
For Marsyas, having found the pipes which Athena 
had thrown away because they disfigured her face,® 


(First Vatican Mythographber, 13; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 104). The tomb of Tityus was shown at Panopeus 
in Phocis ; it was a mound or barrow about a third of a 
furlong in circumference. See Pausanias, x. 4. 5. In Euboea 
there was shown a cave called Elarium after the mother of 
Tityus, and Tityus himself had a shrine where he was 
worshipped as a hero (Strabo, ix. 3. 14, p. 423). The death 
of Tityus at the hands of Apollo and Artemis was represented 
on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae (Pausanias, iii. 18. 15), 
and it was the subject of a group of statuary dedicated by 
the Cnidians at Delphi (Pausanias, x. 11.1). His sufferings 
in hell were painted by Polygnotus in his famous picture of 
the underworld at Delphi. Phe great artist represented the 
sinner worn to a shadow, but no longer racked by the vultures 
gnawing at his liver (Pausanias, x. 29. 3). 

3 As she played on the pipes, she is said to have seen her 

uffed and swollen cheeks reflected in water. See Plutarch, 

ὁ cohtbenda ira, 6; Athenaeus, xiv.7, p. 616 EF; Propert- 
ius, iii. 22 (29). 16 sqqg.; Ovid, Fast, vi. 697 sqq.; 1d. Ars 
Amat. iii. 505 8q.; Hyginus, Fab. 165 ; Fulgentius, Mythology. 
iii. 9; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 40, 114 (First Vatican Mythographer, 125 ; Second 
Vatican Mythographer, 115). On the acropolis at Athens 
there was a group of statuary representing Athena ae 
Marsyas because he had picked up the flutes which she ha 
thrown away (Pausanias, i. 24.1). The subject was a favourite 
theme in ancient art. See my note on Pausanias, l.c. (vol. ii. 


pp. 289 sqq.). 
29 


APOLLODORUS 


ἄμορφον, ἦλθεν εἰς ἔριν περὶ μουσικῆς ᾿Απόλλωνι. 
συνθεμένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἵνα ὁ νικήσας ὃ βούλεται 
διαθῇ τὸν ἡττημένον, τῆς κρίσεως γινομένης τὴν 
κιθάραν στρέψας ἠγωνίξετο ὁ ᾿Απόλλων, καὶ 
ταὐτὸ ποιεῖν ἐκέλευσε! τὸν Μαρσύαν" τοῦ δὲ 
ἀδυνατοῦντος εὑρεθεὶς κρείσσων ὁ ᾿Απόλλων, 
κρεμάσας τὸν Μαρσύαν ἔκ τινος ὑπερτενοῦς 
πίτυος, ἐκτεμὼν τὸ δέρμα οὕτως διέφθειρεν. 
᾿ΩὩρίωνα δὲ "Apress ἀπέκτεινεν ἐν Δήλῳ. 
. τοῦτον γηγενῆ λέγουσιν ὑπερμεγέθη τὸ σῶμα" 
Φερεκύδης δὲ αὐτὸν Ποσειδῶνος καὶ Evpuddns 
λέγει. ἐδωρήσατο δὲ αὐτῷ Ποσειδῶν διαβαίνειν 
sy θάλασσαν. οὗτος «πρώτην» 2 μὲν ἔγημε 


Σίδην, ἣν ἔρριψεν εἰς “Αἰδου περὶ μορφῆς ἐρί- 
σασαν Ἥρα" ὃ αὖθις δὲ ἐλθὼν εἰς Χίον Μερόπην 


1 ἀκέλευσε A: ἐκέλευε Εἰ, Wagner. 

ἊΣ “«-πρώτην conjecturally inserted by MHercher and 
agner. 

δ Ἥρᾳ Wagner (apparently a misprint.) 


1 As to the musical contest between Marsyas and Apollo, 
and the punishment of the vanquished Marsyas, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iii. 59; Pauaanias, ii. 22.9; Ovid, Metamorph. vi. 
382 sqq.; 1d. Fasti, vi. 703 δηᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 165; Seryp- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 
40, 114 (First Vatican Mythographer, 125; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 115). There has been some doubt as to the 
interpretation of the words τὴν κιθάραν στρέψας ; 3 but that 
they mean simply ‘‘ turned the lyre upside down,” as Heyne 
correctly explained them, is shown a@ comparison with 
the parallel pe ssages in Hyginus (“ οἷ ottharam versabat”’) and 
the Second Vatican Mythographer (‘‘tnverttt citharam, et 
canere coepit. Inversis autem tidbits, quum se Marsya 
Apollint aequiparare nequiret” etc.). That the tree on 
which Marsyas was hanged was a pine is affirmed by many 
ancient writers besides Apollodorus. See Nicander, Aleat- 
pharmaca, 301 8ᾳ., with the Scholiast’s note ; Lucian, Trago- 


39 


THE LIBRARY, I. rv. 2-3 


engaged in a musical contest with Apollo. They 
agreed that the victor should work his will on the 
vanquished, and when the trial took place Apollo 
turned his lyre upside down in the competition and 
bade Marsyas do the same. But Marsyas could not, 
So Apollo was judged the victor and despatched 
Marsyas by hanging him on a tall pine tree and 
stripping off his skin.! 

And Artemis slew Orion in Delos.2 They say that 
he was of gigantic stature and born of the earth; 
but Pherecydes says that he was a son of Poseidon 
and Euryale.* Poseidon bestowed on him the power 
of striding across the sea.* He first married 5146, 
whom Hera cast into Hades because she rivalled 
herself in beauty. Afterwards he went to Chios and 


dopodagra, 314 sq.; Archias Mitylenaeus, in Anthologia 
Palatina, vii. 696; Philostratus Junior, Imagines, i. 3; 
Longus, Pastor. iv. 8; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 81; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiltades, i. 353 sqq. Pliny alone describes the tree as a 
plane, which in his time was still shown at Aulocrene on the 
way from Apamea to Phrygia (Nat. Hist. xvi. 240). The 
skin of the flayed Marsyas was exhibited at Celaenae within 
historical times. See Herodotus, vii. 26; Xenophon, Ana- 
basts, i. 2.8; Livy, xxxviii. 13. 6; Quintus Curtius, iii. 1. 
‘1-5; Pliny, Nat. Hist. v. 106. 

2 See Homer, Od. v. 121-124 ; Horace, Odes, iii. 4. 70 qq. 

3 The same account of Orion’s parentage was given by 
Hesiod, whom Pherecydes probably followed. See Erato- 
sthenes, Catasterism. 32 ; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34. 

‘Some thought that Orion waded through the sea (so 
Virgil, Aen. x. (863 sqq.), others that he walked on the top 
of it (so Eratosthenes, Catasterism. 32; Scholiast on Nicander, 
Ther. 15; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34). 

5 As Side means ‘‘ pomegranate” in Greek, it has been 
supposed that the marriage of Orion to Side is a mythical 
expression for the ripening of the pomegranate at the season 
when the constellation Orion is visible in the nightly sky. 
See W. Pape, Worterbuch der griechischen Higennamen® 
(Brunswick, 1884), ii. 1383. 

31 


APOLLODORUS 


ΑἉ 9 ’ 9 ͵ 4, Ν 
τὴν Οἰνοπίωνος ἐμνηστεύσατος μεθύσας δὲ 
Οἰνοπίων αὐτὸν κοιμώμενον ἐτύφλωσε καὶ παρὰ 

a 9 “ ν € δὲ 3 Ἁ \ Ἥ ’ 1 
τοῖς αἰγιαλοῖς ἔρριψεν. ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ «Ἡφαίστου» 
χαλκεῖον ἐλθὼν καὶ ἁρπάσας παῖδα ἕνα, ἐπὶ τῶν 
ὦμων ἐπιθέμενος ἐκέλευσε ποδηγεῖν πρὸς τὰς 
9 4 3 fad \ , 3 / 
ἀνατολάς. ἐκεῖ δὲ παραγενόμενος ἀνέβλεψεν 
9 J θ A 9 ς ἃ An ς nA > A .Y ὃ XV 
ἐξακεσθεὶς 5 ὑπὸ τῆς ἡλιακῆς ἀκτῖνος, καὶ Ota 
ταχέων ἐπὶ τὸν Οἰνοπίωνα ἔσπευδεν. ἀλλὰ τῷ 
μὲν Ποσειδῶν ἡἠφαιστότευκτον ὑπὸ γῆν κατε- 

/ 4 3 ’ὔ 3 3 Ἃ 3 a) 
σκεύασεν οἶκον, ᾿Ωρίωνος δ᾽ “Has ἐρασθεῖσα 
ἥρπασε καὶ ἐκόμισεν εἰς Δῆλον" ἐποίει γὰρ αὐτὴν 
᾿Αφροδίτη συνεχῶς ἐρᾶν, ὅτι “Apes συνευνάσθη. 
ὁ δ᾽ ᾽Ωρίων, ὡς μὲν ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, ἀνῃρέθη 
δισκεύειν "Αρτεμιν προκαλούμενος, ὡς δέ τινες, 

“Ὁ € 
βιαξόμενος Ὦπιν μίαν τῶν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων παρα- 
γενομένων παρθένων ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἐτοξεύθη. 

1 «Ἡφαίστου: a conjecture οὗ Heyne, who proposed to 
read <eis Λῆμνον» ἐπὶ τὸ χαλκεῖον -- Ἡφαίστου :", comparing 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 32. 


2 ξξακεσθεὶς Hercher: éxxaels MSS. and editors, including 
Wagner. 





᾿ 1 This quaint story of Orion and Oenopion is told also by 
Eratosthenes, Catasterism. 32 ; the old Scholiast on Aratus, 
Phaenomena, 322, quoted in Epiworum Graecorum Fraq- 
menta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 89; the Scholiast on Nicander, 
Ther. 15; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. x. 763; and the First Vatican Mythographer, 33 
(Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 12), except that this last writer substitutes Minos, king of 
Crete, for Oenopion. The name of the guide whom Orion 
took on his back to guide him to the sunrise was Cedalion 
(Lucian, De domo, 28; Eratosthenes, Scholiast on Aratus, 
and Hyginus, U.cc.). Sophocles made the story the theme 
of a satyric drama called Cedalion, of which a few ffagments 
have come down to us. See Tragicorum Graecorum Frag- 


32 








THE LIBRARY, I. ιν. 3-5 


wooed Merope, daughter of Oenopion. But Oeno- 
pion made him drunk, put out his eyes as he 
slept, and cast him on the beach. But he went to 
the smithy of Hephaestus, and snatching up a lad 
set him on his shoulders and bade him lead him to 
the sunrise. Being come thither he was healed by 
the sun’s rays, and having recovered his sight he 
hastened with all speed against Oenopion. But for 
him Poseidon had made ready a house under the 
earth constructed by Hephaestus! And Dawn 
fell in love with Orion and carried him off and 
brought him to Delos; for Aphrodite caused 
Dawn to be perpetually in love, because she had 
bedded with Ares. But Orion was killed, as some 
say, for challenging Artemis to a match at quoits, 
but some say he was shot by Artemis for offering 
violence to Opis, one of the maidens who had come 
from the Hyperboreans.? 


menta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 202 aq.; The Fragments of Sopho- 
cles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 8 sqq. Euripides repre- 
sents the blinded Polymestor praying to the Sun to restore 
his sight (Hecuba, 1067 8qq.). 

2 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Od. v. 121, who calls the 
maiden Upis. According to another, and more generally 
received, account, Orion died of the bite of a scorpion, which 
Artemis sent against him because he had attempted her 
chastity. For this service the scorpion was raised to the 
rank of a constellation in the sky, and Orion attained to a 
like dignity. That is why the constellation Orion flies for 
ever from the constellation Scorpion round the sky. See 
Aratus, Phaenomena, 634 sqq.; Nicander, Ther. 13 sqq.; 
Eratosthenes, Catasterism. 32 ; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xviii. 
486; Scholiast on Homer, Od. v. 121; Lactantius Placidus, 
on Statius, Theb. iii. 27; Scholiast on Caesar Germanicus, 
Aratea, p. 386, ed. Eyssenhardt, in his edition of Martianus 
Capella. The Scholiast on Homer, 7}. xviii. 486, cites as his 
authority Euphorion, a grammarian and poet of the fourth 
century B.C. 


33 
VOL. I. | D 


APOLLODORUS 


Ποσειδῶν δὲ ᾿Αμφιτρίτην [τὴν Oxeavod] γαμεῖ, 
Ν 2 A / / \ ¢no, d 
καὶ αὐτῷ γίνεται Τρίτων καὶ “Podn, ἣν “Ἡλιος 


Lea 4 \ / 3 \ Ἁ 
V. Πλούτων δὲ Περσεφόνης ἐρασθεὶς Διὸς 


συνεργοῦντος ἥρπασεν αὐτὴν κρύφα. Δημήτηρ 
δὲ μετὰ λαμπάδων νυκτός τε καὶ ἡμέρας κατὰ 
πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ξητοῦσα περιήει' μαθοῦσα δὲ 
παρ᾽ Ἑ, ρμιονέων ὅτι Πλούτων αὐτὴν ἥρπασεν, 


1 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 930 sqq. 

2 Rhode, more commonly in the form Rhodos, is a personi- 
fication of the island of Rhodes, which Pindar calls the 
Bride of the Sun (Olymp. vii. 14), because it was the great 
seat of the worship of the Sun in ancient Greece. A Rhodian 
inscription of about 220 B.c. records public prayers offered 
by the priests ‘‘to the Sun and Rhodos and all the other 
gods and goddesses and founders and heroes who have the 
city and the land of the Rhodians in their mee See 
P. Cauer, Delectus Inscriptionum Graecarum?, p. 123, No. 181; 
Ch. Michel, Recueil dInscriptions Grecques, p. 24, No. 21; 
H. Collitz and F. Bechtel, Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt- 
Inschrifiten, vol. iii. p. 412, No. 3749. Every year the 
Rhodians threw into the sea a chariot and four horses for 
the use of the Sun, apparently supposing that after riding a 
whole year across the sky his old chariot and horses must be 
quite worn out. See Festus, s.v. ‘‘ October equus,” p. 181, 
ed. C. O. Miller. 

ὃ This account of the rape of Persephone and Demeter’s 
quest of her is based on the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The 
opening passage, including the explanation of the Laughless 
Stone, is quoted verbally by Zenobius (Cent. i. 7) and the 
Scholiast on Aristophanes (Knights, 785), but without mention 
of their authority. For other accounts of the rape of Persephone 
and Demeter’s quest of her, see Diodorus Siculus, v. 4. 1-3, 
v. 68. 2; Cicero, In Verrem, Act. 11. lib. 4, cap. 48 ; Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 419 sqq.; id. Metamorph. v. 346 8ᾳη.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 146; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, v. 347 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 106-108 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 93-100). All these writers 


34 : 





THE LIBRARY, I. rv. 5-v. 1 


Poseidon wedded Amphitrite, daughter of Ocean, 
and there were born to him Triton! and Rhode, who 
was married to the Sun.? 

V. Pluto fell in love with Persephone and with the 
help of Zeus carried her off secretly. But Demeter 
went about seeking her all over the earth with 
torches by night and day, and learning from the 
people of Hermion that Pluto had carried her off,‘ 


sore in mentioning Sicily as the scene of the rape of Perse- 
phone ; Cicero and Ovid identify the place with Enna (Henna), 
of which Cicero gives a vivid description. The author of the 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter says (vv. 16 sq.) that the earth 
yawned ‘‘in the Nysian plain,” but whether this was a real 
or a mythical place is doubtful. See T. W. Allen and KE. Εἰ. 
Sikes, The Homeric Hymns, p. 4 (on Hymni. 8). It was 
probably the luxuriant fertility of Sicily, and particularly the 
abundance of its corn, which led later writers to place the 
scene of the rape in that island. In Ovid’s version of the 
visit of Demeter to Eleusis (Fastt, iv. 507 sqq.), Celeus is not 
the king of the place but a poor old peasant, who receives 
the disguised goddess in his humble cottage. 

ὁ This visit paid by the oe Demeter to Hermion, 
when she was searching for the lost Persephone, is not 
mentioned by the author of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 
nor, so far as I know, by any other ancient writer except 
Zenobius (Cent. i. 7) and the Scholiast on Aristophanes 
(Knights, 785), both of whom, however, merely copied 
Apollodorus without naming him. But compare Pausanias, 
ii. 35. 4-8, who mentions the sanctuary of Subterranean 
Demeter at Hermion, and describes the curious sacrificial 
ritual observed at it. At Hermion there was a chasm which 
was supposed to communicate with the infernal regions, 
and through which Hercules was said to have dragged up 
Cerberus (Pausanias, ii. 35. 10). The statement of Apollo- 
dorus in the present passage suggests that according to local 
tradition Pluto dragged down his bride to hell through the 
same chasm. So convinced were the good people of Hermion 
that they possessed a private entrance to the nether regions 
that they very thriftily abstained from the usual Greek 
practice of placing money in the mouths of their dead 


35 
Ὁ 2 


APOLLODORUS 


3 / 6 “ 4 1 3 4 > θ n 
ὀργιξομένη θεοῖς κατέλιπεν ' οὐρανόν, εἰκασθεῖσα 
δὲ γυναικὶ ἧκεν εἰς ᾿Ελευσῖνα. καὶ πρῶτον μὲν 
3. A \ 9 3.»,.βΡ ’ἤ a 3 V4 9 7 

ἐπὶ τὴν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης κληθεῖσαν ᾿Αγέλαστον ἐκάθισε 

4 \ ’ 4 4 
πέτραν παρὰ τὸ Καλλίχορον φρέαρ καλούμενον, 
ἔπειτα πρὸς Κελεὸν ἐλθοῦσα τὸν βασιλεύοντα 
τότε ᾿Ελευσινίων, ἔνδον οὐσῶν γυναικῶν, καὶ 
λεγουσῶν τούτων παρ᾽ αὑτὰς καθέζεσθαι, γραῖά 

3 ΄κἃ 
τις Ιάμβη σκώψασα τὴν θεὸν ἐποίησε μειδιᾶσαι. 
διὰ τοῦτο ἐν τοῖς θεσμοφορίοις τὰς γυναῖκας 
σκώπτειν λέγουσιν. 

Ὄντος δὲ τῇ τοῦ Κελεοῦ γυναικὶ Μετανείρᾳ 
παιδίου, τοῦτο ἔτρεφεν ἡ Δημήτηρ παραλαβοῦσα" 
βουλομένη δὲ αὐτὸ ἀθάνατον ποιῆσαι, τὰς νύκτας 
εἰς πῦρ κατετίθει τὸ βρέφος καὶ περιήρει τὰς 
θνητὰς σάρκας αὐτοῦ. καθ᾽ ἡμέραν δὲ παραδόξως 
αὐξανομένου τοῦ Δημοφῶντος (τοῦτο γὰρ ἣν 


1 κατέλιπεν Zenobius, Cent. i. 7, Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
Knights, 785: ἀπέλιπεν A. 


(Strabo, ix. 6. 12, p. 373). Apparently they thought that 
it would be a waste of money to pay Charon for ferrying 
them across to hell when they could get there for nothing 
from their own backdoor. 

1 Compare Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 98 sqq., who says 
that Demeter, sad at heart, sat down by the wayside at the 
Maiden’s Well, under the shadow of an olive-tree. Later in 
the poem (vv. 270 sqq.) Demeter directs the people of Eleusis 
to build her a temple and altar ‘‘ above Callichorum ”—that 
is, the Well of the Fair Dances. Apollodorus identifies the 
well beside which Demeter sat down with the Well of the 
Fair Dances. But from Pausanias (i. 38. 6, i. 39. 1) we learn 
that the two wells were different and situated at some 
distance. from each other, the Well of the Fair Dances being 
close to the Sanctuary of Demeter, and the Maiden’s Well, 
or the Flowery Well, as Pausanias calls it, being outside 
Kleusis, on the road to Megara. In the course of the modern 


36 





THE LIBRARY, I. v. 1 


she was wroth with the gods and quitted heaven, 
and came in the likeness of a woman to Eleusis. 
And first she sat down on the rock which has been 
named Laughless after her, beside what is called the 
Well of the Fair Dances! ; thereupon she made her 
way to Celeus, who at that time reigned over the 
Eleusinians. Some women were in the house, and 
when they bid her sit down beside them, a certain 
old crone, Iambe, joked the goddess and made her 
smile.2 For that reason they say that the women 
break jests at the Thesmophoria.® 

But Metanira, wife of Celeus, had a child and 
Demeter received it to nurse, and wishing to make 
it immortal she set the babe of nights on the fire and 
stripped off its mortal flesh. But as Demophon—for 


excavation of the sanctuary at Eleusis, the Well of the Fair 
Dances was discovered just outside the portal of the sacred 
precinct. Iv is carefully built of polygonal stones, and the 
mouth is surrounded by concentric circles, round which the 
women of Eleusis probably tripped in the dance. See 
Πρακτικὰ rHs ᾿Αρχαιολογικῇ: ‘Eraplas, Athens, 1892, pp. 33 84. 
In antiquity solemn oaths were sworn by the water of the 
well (Alciphron, ili. 69). 

2 As to the jesting of the old woman with Demeter, see 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 194-206 ; Scholiast on Nicander, 
Alexipharmaca, 130, who calls Demeter’s host Hippothoon, 
son of Poseidon. 

8 The jests seem to have been obscene in form (Diodorus 
Siculus, v. 4. 6), but they were probably serious in intention ; 
for at the Thesmophoria rites were performed to ensure the 
fertility of the fields, and the lewd words of the women may 
have been thought to quicken the seed by sympathetic 
magic. See Scholia in Lucianum, ed. H. Rabe cTetpale, 
1906), pp. 275 sq.; Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild, i. 
62 eq., 116, ii. 17 8qq. 


37 


APOLLODORUS 


ὄνομα τῷ παιδί) ἐπετήρησεν ἡ ἸΠραξιθέα, καὶ 
καταλαβοῦσα εἰς πῦρ ἐγκεκρυμμένον ἀνεβόησε" 
διόπερ τὸ μὲν βρέφος ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς ἀνηλώθη, 
ἡ θεὰ δὲ αὑτὴν ἐξέφηνε. Τριπτολέμῳ δὲ τῷ 
πρεσβυτέρῳ τῶν Μετανείρας Σ παίδων δίφρον 
κατασκευάσασα πτηνῶν δρακόντων τὸν πυρὸν 
ἔδωκεν, ᾧ τὴν ὅλην οἰκουμένην δι’ οὐρανοῦ αἰρό- 
μενος κατέσπειρε. ἸΠανύασις δὲ Τριπτόλεμον 
᾿Ελευσῖνος λέγει" φησὶ γὰρ Δήμητρα πρὸς αὐτὸν 
ἐλθεῖν. Φερεκύδης δέ φησιν αὐτὸν ᾽Ωκεανοῦ 
καὶ Τῆς. 

Διὸς δὲ Πλούτωνι τὴν Κόρην ἀναπέμψαι κελεύ- 
σαντος, ὁ Πλούτων, ἵνα μὴ πολὺν χρόνον παρὰ 
τῇ μητρὶ καταμείνῃ, ῥοιᾶς ἔδωκεν αὐτῇ φαγεῖν 


1 ἡ Πραξιθέα A, Bekker: Μετάνειρα, τί πράξει θεά Heyne, 
Westermann: Μετάνειρα, τί πράσσει ἣ θεά Miiller: ἡ Μετά- 
νειρα Hercher, Wagner. 

2 Meravelpas Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher, Wagner : Πραξιθέας A. 


1 See Appendix, ‘‘ Putting Children on the Fire.”’ 

2 Compare Cornutus, Theologiae Graecae Compendium, 28, 
pp. 53 sq. ed. C. Lang ; Ovid, Fasti, iv. 559 sqq.; id. Tristia, 
11}. 8. (9) 1 84ᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 147; td. Astronom. ii. 
14; Servius, on Virgil, Georg. i. 19 and 163; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statius, Theb. ii. 382; Scriptores rerum 

icarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 3, 107 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 8; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 97). The dragon-car of Triptolemus was mentioned 
by Sophocles in his lost tragedy Triptolemus. See Tragi- 
corum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, p. 262, frag. 
539; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. 
p. 243, frag. 596. In Greek vase-paintings Triptolemus is 
often represented in his dragon-car. As to the representa- 
tions of the car in ancient art, see Stephani, in Compte 
Rendu (St. Petersburg) for 1859, pp. 82 sqq.; my note on 
Pausanias, vii. 18. 3 (vol. iv. pp. 142 84.) ; and especially 


38 


THE LIBRARY, I. v. 1-3 


that was the child’s name—grew marvellously by 
day, Praxithea watched, and discovering him buried 
in the fire she cried out; wherefore the babe was 
consumed by the fire and the goddess revealed her- 
5611 But for Triptolemus, the elder of Metanira’s 
children, she made a chariot of winged dragons, and 
gave him wheat, with which, wafted through the sky, 
he sowed the whole inhabited earth.2, But Panyasis 
affirms that Triptolemus was a son of Eleusis, for he 
says that Demeter came to him. Pherecydes, how- 
ever, says that he was a son of Ocean and Earth.? 
But when Zeus ordered Pluto to send up the Maid, 
Pluto gave her a seed of a pomegranate to eat, in 
order that she might not tarry long with her mother.‘ 


A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. (Cambridge, 1914), pp. 211 sqq., who 
shows that on the earlier monuments Triptolemus is repre- 
sented sitting on a simple wheel, which probably represents 
the sun. Apparently he was a mythical embodiment of the 
first sower. See Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild, i. 72 84. 
. § The accounts given of the parentage of Triptolemus were 
very various (Pausanias, i. 14. 2 sq.), which we need not 
wonder at when we remember that he was probably a purely 
mythical personage. As to Eleusis, the equally mythical hero 
who is said to have given his name to Eleusis, see Pausanias, 
vili. 88. 7. He is called Eleusinus by Hyginus (Fab. 147) 
and Servius (on Virgil, Georg. i. 19). 

4 The Maid (Kore) is Persephone. As to her eating a seed 
or seeds of a pomegranate, see Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 
371 sqq., 411 sgq.; Ovid, Metamorph. v. 333 sqq.; id. Fasti, 
iv. 601 sqq.; Servius, on Virgil, Georg. i. 39 and Aen. iv. 462; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iii. 511; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 3, 108 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 7; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 100). There is a widespread belief that if a living 
sea visits the world of the dead and there partakes of 
ood, he cannot return to the land of the living. Thus, the 
ancient Egyptians believed that, on his way to the spirit 
land, the coal of a dead person was met by a goddess (Hathor, 


39 


APOLLODORUS 


κόκκον. ἡ δὲ ov προϊδομένη τὸ συμβησόμενον 
κατηνάλωσεν αὐτόν. καταμαρτυρήσαντος δὲ 
αὐτῆς ᾿Ασκαλάφου τοῦ ᾿Αχέροντος καὶ Γοργύρας, 
τούτῳ μὲν Δημήτηρ ἐν “Αἰδου βαρεῖαν ἐπέθηκε 
πέτραν, Περσεφόνη δὲ καθ᾽ ἕκαστον ἐνιαυτὸν τὸ 
μὲν τρίτον μετὰ Πλούτωνος ἠναγκάσθη μένειν, 
τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν παρὰ τοῖς θεοῖς. 


Nouit, or Nit), who offered him fruits, bread, and water, and 
that, if he accepted them, he could return to earth no more. 
See G. Maspero, Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de Orient 
Classiques, les Origines (Paris, 1895), p. 184. Similarly, the 
natives of New Caledonia, in the South Pacific, say that when 
a man dies, messengers come from the other world to guide 
his soul through the air and over the sea to the spirit land. 
Arrived there, he is welcomed by the other souls and bidden 
to a banquet, where he is offered food, especially bananas. 
If he tastes them, his doom is fixed for ever: he cannot 
return to earth. See the missionary Gagnieére, in Annales 
de la Propagation de la Foi, xxxii. (Lyons, 1860), pp. 439 sq. 
The Eastern Melanesians believe that living people can go 
down to the land of the dead and return alive to the upper 
world. Persons who have done so relate how in the nether 
world they were warned by friendly ghosts to eat nothing 
there. See R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians (Oxford, 
1891), pp. 277, 286. Similar beliefs prevail and similar tales 
are told among the Maoris of New Zealand. For example, a 
woman who believed that she had died and passed to the 
spirit land, related on her return how there she met with her 
dead father, who said to her, ‘‘ You must go back to the earth, 
for there is no one now left to take care of my grandchild. 
But remember, if you once eat food in this place, you can 
never more return to life ; so beware not to taste anything 
offered to you.’”? See E. Shortland, T'radttions and Super- 
stitions of the New Zealanders (London, 1856), pp. 150-152. 
Again, they tell of a great chief named Hutu, who performed 
the same perilous journey. On reaching the place of departed 
spirits he encountered a certain being called Hine nui te po, 
that is, Great Mother Night, of whom he inquired the way 
down to the nether world. She pointed it out to him and 


40 


THE LIBRARY, I. v. 3 


Not foreseeing the consequence, she swallowed it ; 
and because Ascalaphus, son of Acheron and Gorgyra, 
bore witness against her, Demeter laid a heavy rock 
on him in Hades.!_ But Persephone was compelled 
to remain a third of every year with Pluto and the 
rest of the time with the gods.? 


gave him a basket of cooked food, saying, ‘‘ When you reach 
the lower regions, eat sparingly of your provisions that they 
may last, and you may not be compelled to partake of their 
food, for if you do, you cannot return upwards again.” See 
R. Taylor, Te Ika 4 Maui, or New Zealand and tts Inhabi- 
tants, 2nd ed. (London, 1870), p. 271. And the same rule 
holds good of fairyland, into which living people sometimes 
-stray or are enticed to their sorrow. ‘‘ Wise people recom- 
mend that, in the circumstances, a man should not utter a 
word till he comes out again, nor, on any account, taste fairy 
food or drink. If he abstains he is very likely before lon 

dismissed, but if he indulges he straightway loses the wi 

and the power ever to return to the society of men.” See 
J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), p. 17. See further E. S. Hart- 
land, The Science of Fairy Tales (London, 1891), pp. 40 sgq. 

1 As to the talebearer Ascalaphus, below, ii. 5. 12. Ac- 
cording to another account, Persephone or Demeter punished 
him by turning him into a screech-owl. See Ovid, Meta- 
morph. v. 538 8qq.; Servius, on Virgil, Georg. i. 39 and on 
Aen. iv. 462 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iii. 511; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 108 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 100). 

2 Apollodorus agrees with the author of the Homeric Hymn 
to Demeter (vv. 398 sqq., 445 sqq.) that Persephone was to 
spend one-third of each year with her husband Pluto in the 
nether world and two-thirds of the year with her mother and 
the other gods in the upper world. But, according to another 
account, Persephone was to divide her time equally between 
the two regions, passing six months below the earth and six 
months above it. See Ovid, Fash, iv. 613 sg.; id. Metamorph. 
v. 564 eqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 146; Servius, on Mf ee Georg. i. 
39; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. p. 108 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 100). 


41 


APOLLODORUS 


VI. Περὶ μὲν οὖν Δήμητρος ταῦτα λέγεται" 
Γῇ δὲ περὶ Τιτάνων ἀγανακτοῦσα γεννᾷ Γίγαντας 
> 3 A , 4 3 ’ 
ἐξ Οὐρανοῦ, μεγέθει μὲν σωμάτων ἀνυπερβλή- 
τους, δυνάμει δὲ ἀκαταγωνίστους, of φοβεροὶ μὲν 
ταῖς ὄψεσι Kxatepaivovto, καθειμένοι βαθεῖαν 
κόμην ἐκ κεφαλῆς καὶ γενείων, εἶχον δὲ τὰς 
βάσεις φολίδας δρακόντων. ἐγένοντο δέ, ὡς μέν 
τίνες λέγουσιν, ἐν Φλέγραις, ὡς δὲ ἄλλοι, ἐν 
Παλλήνῃ. ἠκόντιζον δὲ εἰς οὐρανὸν πέτρας καὶ 
δρῦς ἡμμένας. διέφερον δὲ πάντων Πορφυρίων 
τε καὶ ᾿Αλκνυονεύς, ὃς δὴ καὶ ἀθάνατος ἣν ἐν ἧπερ 
ἐγεννήθη γῇ , ὗτος δὲ καὶ τὰς “HAL 
ἐγεννήθη γῇ μαχόμενος. οὗτος δὲ καὶ τὰς ου 
βόας ἐξ Ἐρυθείας ἤλασε. τοῖς δὲ θεοῖς λόγιον 
ἦν ὑπὸ θεῶν μὲν μηδένα τῶν Γιγάντων ἀπολέσθαι 
δύνασθαι, συμμαχοῦντος δὲ θνητοῦ τινος τελευ- 
τήσειν. αἰσθομένη δὲ Γῆ τοῦτο ἐζήτει φάρμακον, 
“ > ς \ aA A 3 , Γ, \ 
iva μηδ᾽ ὑπὸ θνητοῦ δυνηθῶσιν ἀπολέσθαι. Ζεὺς 


1 οὐρανὸν Εἰ : οὐρανοὺς A. 


1 According to Hesiod (T'heog. 183 sqq.), Earth was im- 
pregnated by the blood which dropped from heaven when 
Cronus mutilated his father Sky (Uranus), and in due time 
she gave birth to the giants. As to the battle of the gods 
and giants, see J. Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 63; Horace, 
Odes, iii. 4. 49 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 150 sqq.; Claudian, 
Gigantomachia ; Sidonius Apollinaris, Carm. xii. 15 sqq., ed 
Baret; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. 
Bode, vol. i. pp. 4, 92 (First Vatican Mythographer, 11 ; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 53). The account which 
Apollodorus here gives of it is supplemented by the evidence 
of the monuments, especially temple-sculptures and vase- 
paintings. See Preller-Robert, Griechische Mythologie, i. 
67 sqq. Compare M. Mayer, Die Giganten und Titanen, 
(Berlin, 1887). The battle of the gods and the giants was 
sculptured on the outside of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
as we learn from the description of Euripides (Jon, 208 


42 


THE LIBRARY, I. vi. 1 


VI. Such is the legend of Demeter. But Earth, 
vexed on account of the Titans, brought forth the 
giants, whom she had by Sky.! These were match- 
less in the bulk of their bodies and invincible in 
their might; terrible of aspect did they appear, with 
long locks drooping from their head and chin, and 
with the scales of dragons for feet.2 They were 
born, as some say, in Phlegrae, but according to others 
in Pallene.2 And they darted rocks and burning 
oaks at the sky. Surpassing all the rest were 
Porphyrion and Alcyoneus, who was even immor- 
tal so long as he fought in the land of his birth. 
He also drove away the cows of the Sun from 
Erythia. Now the gods had an oracle that none of 
the giants could perish at the hand of gods, but that 
with the help of a mortal they would be made an 
end of. Learning of this, Earth sought for a simple 
to prevent the giants from being destroyed even by 


6qq.). On similar stories see Appendix, ‘‘ War of Earth on 
Heaven.” 

2 Compare Ovid, Metamorph. i. 184, Tristia, iv. 7. 17; 
Macrobius, Sat. i. 20. 9; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 578 ; 
Claudian, Gigant. 80 sq. ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latint, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 92 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 
53). Pausanias denied that the giants were serpent-footed 
(Pausanias, viii. 29. 3), but they are often 80 represented on 
the later monuments of antiquity. See Kuhnert, in W. H. 
Roscher’s Leaikon der griech. und rém. Mythologie, i. 1664 
84ηη.;: M. Mayer, Die Giganten und Titanen, pp. 274 sqq. 

3 Phlegra is said to have been the old name of Pallene 
(Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. Φλέγρα). The scene of the battle 
of the gods and giants was laid in various places. See 
Diodorus Siculus, v. 71; Strabo, v. 4. 4 and 6, pp. 243, 245, 
vi. 3, 5, p. 281, vii. p. 330, frag. 25 and 27, x. 5. 16, p. 489, 
xi. 2.10, p. 495; Pausanias, viii. 29. 1, with my note. Vol- 
canic phenomena and the discovery of the fossil bones of 
large extinct animals seem to have been the principal sources 
of these tales. 


43 


APOLLODORUS 


δ᾽ ἀπειπὼν φαίνειν Hoi τε καὶ Σελήνῃ καὶ Ηλίῳ 
ὁ μὲν φάρμακον αὐτὸς ἔτεμε φθάσας, Ἡρακλέα 
δὲ σύμμαχον δι᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς ἐπεκαλέσατο. κἀκεῖνος 
πρῶτον μὲν ἐτόξευσεν ᾿Αλκυονέα" πίπτων δὲ ἐπὶ 
τῆς γῆς μᾶλλον ἀνεθάλπετο' ᾿Αθηνᾶς δὲ ὑπο- 
θεμένης ἔξω τῆς Παλλήνης 2 εἵλκυσεν αὐτόν. 
κἀκεῖνος μὲν οὕτως ἐτελεύτα, ἸΠορφυρίων δὲ 
Ἡρακλεῖ κατὰ τὴν μάχην ἐφώρμησε καὶ Ἥρᾳ. 
Ζεὺς δὲ αὐτῷ πόθον “Ἥρας ἐνέβαλεν, ἥτις καὶ 
καταρρηγνύντος αὐτοῦ τοὺς πέπλους καὶ βιά- 
ζεσθαι θέλοντος βοηθοὺς ἐπεκαλεῖτο" καὶ Διὸς 
κεραυνώσαντος αὐτὸν Ἡρακλῆς τοξεύσας ἀπέκ- 
τεινε. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ᾿Απόλλων μὲν ᾿Εφιάλτου 
τὸν ἀριστερὸν ἐτόξευσεν ὀφθαλμόν, Ἡρακλῆς δὲ 
τὸν δεξιόν" Εὔρυτον δὲ θυρσῷ Διόνυσος ἔκτεινε, 
Κλυτίον δὲ δᾳσὶν ὃ Ἑκάτη, Μίμαντα ὁ δὲ Ηφαι- 
στος βαλὼν μύδροις. ᾿Αθηνᾶ δὲ ᾿Εγκελάδῳ φεύ- 
γοντι Σικελίαν ἐπέρριψε τὴν νῆσον, Πάλλαντος 
δὲ τὴν δορὰν ἐκτεμοῦσα ταύτῃ κατὰ τὴν μάχην 


1 ἔτεμε Ἐ! : ἔταμε A. 

2 Παλλήνης Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher, Wagner: σελήνης A. 

3 δᾳσὶν M. Mayer, Die Giganten und Titanen (Berlin, 
1887), pp. 204 ag. : φασὶν A. 

4 Μίμαντα M. Mayer, op. cit. pp. 204 ag. comparing Clau- 

dian, Gig. 85, and Sidonius Apollinaris, Carm. xv. (Migne, 
xii. Baret), O5 : μᾶλλον MBS. and editors, including Wagner. 


1 Compare Pindar, Nem. iv. 27 (43) sqq., Isthm. vi. 31 (45) 
8qq. with the Scholia ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 63. 
The Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. vi. 32 (47), mentions, like 
Apollodorus, that Alcyoneus had driven away the oxen of 
the Sun. The reason why Hercules dragged the wounded 


44 


THE LIBRARY, I. νι. 1-2 


a mortal. But Zeus forbade the Dawn and the Moon 
and the Sun to shine, and then, before anybody else 
could get it, he culled the simple himself, and by 
means of Athena summoned Hercules to his help. 
Hercules first shot Alcyoneus with an arrow, but 
when the giant fell on the ground he somewhat 
revived. However, at Athena’s advice Hercules 
dragged him outside Pallene, and so the giant died.! 
But in the battle Porphyrion attacked Hercules and 
Hera. Nevertheless Zeus inspired him with lust for 
Hera, and when he tore her robes and would have 
forced her, she called for help, and Zeus smote him 
with a thunderbolt, and Hercules shot him dead with 
an arrow.? As for the other giants, Ephialtes was 
shot by Apollo with an arrow in his left eye and by 
Hercules in his right ; Eurytus was killed by Diony- 
sus with a thyrsus, and Clytius by Hecate with torches, 
and Mimas by Hephaestus with missiles of red-hot 
metal. Enceladus fled, but Athena threw on him 
in his flight the island of Sicily*; and she flayed 
Pallas and used his skin to shield her own body in 


giant from Pallene before despatching him was that, as 
Apollodorus has explained above, the giant was immortal 
80 long as he fought on the land where he had been born. 
That, too, is why the giant revived when in falling he 
touched his native earth. 

2 Compare Pindar, Pyth. viii. 12 (15) sqq., who says that 
the king of the giants (Porphyrion) was shot by Apollo, not 
Hercules. Tzetzes agrees with Apollodorus (Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 63). 

8 According to Euripides (Ion, 215 sq.), Mimas was killed 
by Zeus with a thunderbolt ; according to Apollonius (Argon. 
re 1226 sq.) and Claudian (Gigant. 87 sq.), he was slain by 

res. 

4 Compare Virgil, Aen. iii. 578 egg. The combat of Athena 
with Enceladus was sculptured on the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi. See Euripides, Jon, 209 aq. 


45 


APOLLODORUS 


τὸ ἴδιον ἐπέσκεπε σῶμα. Πολυβώτης δὲ διὰ τῆς 
θαλάσσης διωχθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος ἧκεν εἰς 
Ko: Ποσειδῶν δὲ τῆς νήσου μέρος ἀπορρήξας 
ἐπέρριψεν αὐτῷ, τὸ λεγόμενον Νίσυρον. Ἑρμῆς 
δὲ τὴν "Αἰδος “κυνῆν ἔχων κατὰ τὴν μάχην 
Ἱππόλυτον ἀπέκτεινεν, ᾿Άρτεμις δὲ ἸΓρατίωνα,. 
μοῖραι δ᾽ ᾿Αγριον καὶ Θόωνα χαλκέοις ῥοπάλοις 

pax όμεναι 3 τοὺς δὲ ἄλλους κεραυνοῖς Ζεὺς βαλὼν 

διέφθειρε' πάντας δὲ Ἡρακλῆς ἀπολλυμένους 
ἐτόξευσεν. 

Ὥς δ᾽ ἐκράτησαν οἱ θεοὶ τῶν Γιγάντων, Pi 
μᾶλλον χολωθεῖσα μίγνυται Ταρτάρῳ, καὶ γεννᾷ 
Τυφῶνα ἐν Κιλικίᾳ, μεμιγμένην ἔχοντα φύσιν 
ἀνδρὸς καὶ θηρίου. οὗτος μὲν καὶ μεγέθει καὶ 
δυνάμει πάντων διήνεγκεν ὅ ὅσους ἐγέννησε 1 ἢ, ἦν 
δὲ αὐτῷ τὰ μὲν ἄχρι μηρῶν ἄπλετον μέγεθος 
ἀνδρόμορφον, ὥστε ὑπερέχειν μὲν πάντων τῶν 
ὀρῶν, ἡ δὲ é κεφαλὴ πολλάκις καὶ τῶν ἄστρων 
ἔψανε' χεῖρας δὲ εἶχε τὴν μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν ἑσπέραν 
ἐκτεινομένην τὴν δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς ἀνατολάς" ἐκ τούτων 


1 ἐγρατίωνα probably corrupt. Various emendations have 
been suggested, as Αἰγαίωνα (Heyne, M. Mayer, op. cit. 
pp. 201 sq.), Εὐρυτίωνα, Ῥαίωνα (Hercher). 

2 μαχόμεναι Heyne, Westermann, M. Mayer, op. crt. 

203: μαχομένας A: μαχομένους ΒΒ Heyne (in the text), 
Miitler, Bekker, Hercher. 

3 κιλικίᾳφ Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher : 
Σικελίᾳ A. 

4 For ἐκ τούτων we should perhaps read ἐξ ὥμων or ἐκ τῶν 
ὥμων. See Hesiod, Theog. 824 sg. ἐκ δέ οἱ ὥμων | ἦν 
ἑκατὸν κεφαλαὶ ὄφιος, ‘Servoro δράκοντος. Compare M. Mayer, 
op. cit. p. 227. 

1 According to one account the Pallas whom Athena flayed, 

and whose skin she used as a covering, was her own father, 


46 


THE LIBRARY, I. νι. 2-3 


the fight.!_ Polybotes was chased through the sea by 
Poseidon and came to Cos; and Poseidon, breaking 
off that piece of the island which is called Nisyrum, 
threw it on him.2, And Hermes, wearing the helmet 
of Hades,’ slew Hippolytus in the fight, and Artemis 
slew Gration. And the Fates, fighting with brazen 
clubs, killed Agrius and Thoas. The other giants 
Zeus smote and destroyed with thunderbolts and all 
of them Hercules shot with arrows as they were 
dying. | 
When the gods had overcome the giants, Earth, 
still more enraged, had intercourse with Tartarus and 
brought forth Typhon in Cilicia,‘ a hybrid between 
man and beast. In size and strength he surpassed 
all the offspring of Earth. As far as the thighs he 
was of human shape and of such prodigious bulk 
that he out-topped all the mountains, and his head 
often brushed the stars. One of his hands reached 
out to the west and the other to the east, and from 


who had attempted her chastity. See Clement of Alexandria, 
Protrept, ii. 28, p. 24, ed. Potter; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 355; Cicero, De natura deorum, iii. 23. 59. 

2 Compare Strabo, x. 5. 16, p. 489. 

8 The helmet of Hades was thought to render the wearer 
invisible. Compare Homer, Iliad, v. 844 sq.; Hesiod, Shield 
of Hercules, 226 sq. 

* As to Typhon, or Typhoeus, as he is also called, who was 
especially associated with the famous Corycian cave in 
Cilicia, see Hesiod, Theog. 820 sqq.; Pindar, Pyth. i. 15 sqq.; 
Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus, 351 sqq.; Antoninus Liberalis, 
Transform. 28; Ovid, Metamorph. v. 321 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 152; Mela, i. 76, ed. G. Parthey ; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 4, 29, 92 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 11 and 86; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 53). As to the Corycian cave, see Adonia, 
Attis, Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 152 ϑηᾳ. According to Hesiod (T'heog. 
821), Typhoeus was the youngest child of Earth. 


47 


APOLLODORUS 


δὲ ἐξεῖχον ἑκατὸν κεφαλαὶ δρακόντων. τὰ δὲ 
ἀπὸ μηρῶν σπείρας εἶχεν ὑπερμεγέθεις ἐχιδνῶν, 
ὧν ὁλκοὶ πρὸς αὐτὴν ἐκτεινόμενοι κορυφὴν 
συρυγμὸν πολὺν ἐξίεσαν. πᾶν δὲ αὐτοῦ τὸ σῶμα 
κατεπτέρωτο, αὐχμηραὶ δὲ ἐκ κεφαλῆς καὶ γενύων 
τρίχες eared πῦρ δὲ ἐδέρκετο τοῖς ὄμμασι. 
τοιοῦτος ὧν ὁ Τυφὼν καὶ τηλικοῦτος ἡμμένας 
βάλλων πέτρας ἐπ’ αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανὸν μετὰ 
συριγμῶν ὁμοῦ καὶ βοῆς ἐφέρετο: πολλὴν δὲ ἐκ 
τοῦ στόματος πυρὸς ἐξέβρασσε ζάλην. θεοὶ δ᾽ 
ὡς εἶδον αὐτὸν ἐπ᾽ οὐρανὸν ὁρμώμενον, εἰς Αἔγυπ- 
τον φυγάδες ἐφέροντο, καὶ διωκόμενοι τὰς ἰδέας 
μετέβαλον: εἰς ἕῷα. Ζεὺς δὲ πόρρω μὲν ὄντα 
Τυφῶνα ἔβαλλε κεραυνοῖς, πλησίον δὲ γενόμενον 
ἀδαμαντίνῃ κατέπληττεν 2 ἅρπῃ, καὶ φεύγοντα 
ἄχρι τοῦ Κασίου ὄρους συνεδίωξε' τοῦτο δὲ ὑ ὑπέρ- 
κεῖται Συρίας. κεῖθι δὲ αὐτὸν κατατετρωμένον 
ἰδὼν εἰς χεῖρας συνέβαλε. Τυφὼν δὲ ταῖς -σπεί- 
pass περιπλεχθεὶς κατέσχεν αὐτόν, καὶ τὴν ἅρπην 
περιελόμενος τά τε τῶν χειρῶν καὶ ποδῶν διέτεμε 
νεῦρα, ἀράμενος δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ᾿ὦμων διεκόμισεν 
αὐτὸν διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης εἰς Κιλικίαν ὃ καὶ 
παρελθὼν εἰς τὸ Κωρύκιον ἄντρον κατέθετο. 
ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὰ νεῦρα κρύψας ἐν ἄρκτου δορᾷ 
κεῖθι ἀπέθετο, καὶ κατέστησε φύλακα * Δελφύνην 
tea ἡμίθηρ δὲ ἦν αὕτη ἡ κόρη. Ἕ ρμῆς δὲ 
1 μετέβαλον E: μετέβαλλον Α. 
3 κατέπληττεν E: κατέπτησεν A: κατέπτησσεν Heyne, 


Westermann, Miiller: κατέπτηξεν Bekker: κατέπλησσεν 
Hercher. 

3 Κιλικίαν Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner: Σικελίαν AE. 


4 κατέστησε φύλακα HE: κατέστησε A: «φύλακα: κατέστησε 


Bekker, Hercher. 
48 





THE LIBRARY, I. w. 3 


them projected a hundred dragons’ heads. From the 
thighs downward he had huge coils of vipers, which 
when drawn out, reached to his very head and 
emitted a loud hissing. His body was all winged!: 
unkempt hair streamed on the wind from his head 
and cheeks; and fire flashed from his eyes. Such 
and so great was Typhon when, hurling kindled 
rocks, he made for the very heaven with hissings 
and shouts, spouting a great jet of fire from his 
mouth. But when the gods saw him rushing at 
heaven, they made for Egypt in flight, and being 
pursued they changed their forms into those of ani- 
mals.2_ However Zeus pelted Typhon at a distance 
with thunderbolts, and at close quarters struck him 
down with an adamantine:sickle, and as he fled pur- 
sued him closely as far as Mount Casius, which over- 
hangs Syria. There, seeing the monster sore wounded, 
he grappled with him. But Typhon twined about him 
and gripped him in his coils, and wresting the sickle 
from him severed the sinews of his hands and feet, 
and lifting him on his shoulders carried him through 
the sea to Cilicia and deposited him on arrival in the 
Corycian cave. Likewise he put away the sinews there 
also, hidden in a bearskin, and he set to guard them 
the she-dragon Delphyne, who was a half-bestial 
maiden. But Hermes and Aegipan stole the sinews 


1 Or ‘‘ feathered.” But Antoninus Liberalis (Transform. 
28) speaks of Typhon’s numerous wings. 

- ‘Compare Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 28; Ovid, 
Metamorph. v. 319 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 152; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 29 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 86). The story of the transformation of the 

ods into beasts in Egypt was probably invented by the 
Greeks to explain the Egyptian worship of animals, as Lucian 
shrewdly perceived (De sacrificits, 14). 


49 
VOL. I. E 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ Αἰγίπαν ἐκκλέψαντες τὰ νεῦρα ἥρμοσαν τῷ 
Διὶ λαθόντες. Ζεὺς δὲ τὴν ἰδίαν ἀνακομισάμενος 
ἰσχύν, ἐξαίφνης ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐπὶ πτηνῶν ὀχούμενος 
ἵππων ἅρματι, βάλλων κεραυνοῖς ἐπ᾽ ὄρος ἐδίωξε 
Τυφῶνα τὸ λεγόμενον Νῦσαν, ὅπου μοῖραι αὐτὸν 
διωχθέντα ἠπάτησαν' πεισθεὶς γὰρ ὅτε ῥωσθή- 
σεται μᾶλλον, ἐγεύσατο τῶν ἐφημέρων καρπῶν. 
διόπερ ἐπιδιωκόμενος αὖθις ἧκεν εἰς Θράκην, καὶ 
Ἁ Ὁ wv 3 

μαχόμενος περὶ τὸν Αἷμον ὅλα ἔβαλλεν ὄρη. 
τούτων δὲ ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ κεραυνοῦ πάλιν 
3 f \ 3 a Ν 99-7 

ὠθουμένων πολὺ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους ἐξέκλυσεν αἷμα" 
καί φασιν ἐκ τούτου τὸ ὄρος κληθῆναι Αἷμον. 
φεύγειν δὲ ὁρμηθέντι αὐτῷ 1 διὰ τῆς Σικελικῆς 
θαλάσσης Ζεὺς ἐπέρριψεν Αἴτνην ὄρος ἐν Σικε- 

’ Pr. A e / l4 3 3 φ ’ 
λίᾳ' τοῦτο δὲ ὑπερμέγεθές ἐστιν, ἐξ οὗ μέχρι 
δεῦρό φασιν ἀπὸ τῶν βληθέντων κεραυνῶν γίνε- 
σθαι πυρὸς ἀναφυσήματα. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τού- 
τῶν μέχρι τοῦ δεῦρο ἡμῖν λελέχθω. 

VII. Προμηθεὺς δὲ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ γῆς ἀνθρώ- 
Tous πλάσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ πῦρ, λάθρᾳ Διὸς 
3 ’ 4 e ΝΜ ’ ? 4 
ἐν νάρθηκι κρύψας. ὡς δὲ ἥσθετο Ζεύς, ἐπέταξεν 

1 ὁρμηθέντι αὐτῷ E: ὁρμηθέντος αὐτοῦ A. 


1 According to Nonnus (Dionys. i. 481 sqq.), it was Cadmus 
who, disguised as a shepherd, wheedled the severed sinews 
of Zeus out of Typhon by pretending that he wanted them 
for the strings of a lyre, on which he would play ravishing 
music to the monster. The barbarous and evidently ver 
ancient story seems to be alluded to by no other Gree 
writers. 

2 This story of the deception practised by the Fates on 
Typhon seems to be otherwise unknown. 

* Haemus, from haima (blood); hence ‘‘ the Bloody Moun- 
tain.” It is said that a city of Egypt received the same name 
for the same reason (Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. Ἡρώ). 


50 





THE LIBRARY, I. νι. 3-vi1. 1 


and fitted them unobserved to Zeus.!. And having 
recovered his strength Zeus suddenly from heaven, 
riding in a chariot of. winged horses, pelted Typhon 
with thunderbolts and pursued him to the mountain 
called Nysa, where the Fates beguiled the fugitive ; 
for he tasted of the ephemeral fruits in the persuasion 
that he would be strengthened thereby.? So being 
again pursued he came to Thrace, and in fighting at 
Mount Haemus he heaved whole mountains. But 
when these recoiled on him through the force of the 
thunderbolt, a stream of blood gushed out on the 
mountain, and they say that from that circumstance 
the mountain was called Haemus.? And when he 
started to flee through the Sicilian sea, Zeus cast 
Mount Etna in Sicily upon him. That is a huge 
mountain, from which down to this day they say that 
blasts of fire issue from the thunderbolts that were 
thrown.*. So much for that subject. 

VII. Prometheus moulded men out of water and 
earth® and gave them also fire, which, unknown to 
Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel.6 But when 


* As to Typhon under Mount Etna see Aeschylus, Pro- 
metheus Vinctus, 363 sqq.; Pindar, Pyth. i. 17 (32) sqq.; Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 491 sq., Metamorph. v. 352 sq. 

5 As to the creation of the human race by Prometheus, 
compare Philemon in Stobaeus, Florilegium, ii. 27; Pausa- 
nias, x. 4. 4; Lucian, Dialogi deorum, i. 1; Libanius, Orat. 
xxv. 31, vol. ii. p. 552, ed. R. Foerster ; Ovid, Metamorph. 
i. 82 sqq.; Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 35. It is to be observed that in 
the earliest versions of the legend (Hesiod, Theog. 510 8qq., 
Works and Days, 48 sqq.; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus) 
Prometheus appears only as the benefactor, not the creator, 
of mankind. 

6 Compare Hesiod, Works and Days, 50 sqq., Theog. 565 
eqq.; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus, 107 s8qq.; Plato, 
Protagoras, 11, p.321; Hyginus, Fab. 144; id. Astronom. ii. 15. 
According to Servigs (on Virgil, Hcl. vi. 42), Prometheus 


51 
E 2 


APOLLODORUS 


Ἡφαίστῳ τῷ Καυκάσῳ ὄρει τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ 
προσηλῶσαι" τοῦτο δὲ Σκυθικὸν ὄρος ἐστίν. ἐν 
δὴ τούτῳ προσηλωθεὶς Προμηθεὺς πολλῶν ἐτῶν 
ἀριθμὸν ἐδέδετο’ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην δὲ ἡμέραν ἀετὸς 
ἐφιπτάμενος αὐτῷ τοὺς λοβοὺς ἐνέμετο τοῦ ἥπατος 
αὐξανομένουϊ διὰ νυκτός. καὶ Προμηθεὺς μὲν 
πυρὸς κλαπέντος δίκην ἔτινε ταύτην, μέχρις 
Ἡρακλῆς αὐτὸν ὕστερον ἔλυσεν, ὡς ἐν τοῖς καθ᾽ 
Ἡρακλέα δηλώσομεν. 

2 Προμηθέως δὲ παῖς Δευκαλίων ἐγένετο. οὗτος 
βασιλεύων τῶν περὶ τὴν Φθίαν τόπων γαμεῖ 
Πύρραν τὴν ᾿Ε'πιμηθέως καὶ Πανδώρας, ἣν ἔπλα- 
σαν θεοὶ πρώτην γυναῖκα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφανίσαι Ζεὺς 


1 rot ἥπατος αὐξανομένου Heyne, Hercher, Wagner: τῶν 
ἡπάτων αὐξανομένων AK, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 


stole the fire by applying a torch to the sun’s wheel. Stories 
of the original theft of fire are widespread among ‘mankind. 
See Appendix, ‘‘ Myths of the Origin of Fire.” The 
plant (vdp6nt) in which Prometheus is said to have carried 
the stolen fire is commonly identified with the giant fennel 
(Ferula communis). See L. Whibley, Companion to Greek 
Studies* (Cambridge, 1916), p. 67. Tournefort found the 
plant growing abundantly in Skinces: the ancient Schinussa, 
a small deserted island south of Naxos (Plin. Nat. Hist. iv. 
68). He describes the stalk as about five feet high and three 
inches thick, with knots and branches at intervals of about 
ten inches, the whole being covered with a tolerably hard 
rind. ‘‘ This stalk is filled with a white pith, which, being 
very dry, catches fire just like a wick; the fire keeps alight 
perfectly in the stalk and consumes the pith only gradually, 
without damaging the rind ; hence people use this plant to 
carry fire from one place to another ; our sailors laid in a 
supply of it. This custom is of great antiquity, and may 
serve to explain a passage in Hesiod, who, speaking of the 
fire which Prometheus stole from heaven, says that he carried 
it away in a stalk of fennel.” He tells us, further, that the 
Greeks still call the plant nartheca. See P. de Tournefort, 


52 





THE LIBRARY, I. vi. 1-2 


Zeus learned of it, he ordered Hephaestus to nail his 
body to Mount Caucasus, which is a Scythian moun- 
tain. On it Prometheus was nailed and kept bound 
for many years. Every day an eagle swooped on 
him and devoured the lobes of his liver, which grew 
by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus 
paid for the theft of fire until Hercules afterwards 
released him, as we shall show in dealing with 
Hercules.! 

And Prometheus had a son Deucalion.? He reign- 
ing in the regions about Phthia, married Pyrrha, the 
daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the first wo- 
man fashioned by the gods. And when Zeus would 


Relation d’un Voyage du Levant (Amsterdam, 1718), i. 93. 
The plant is common all over Greece, and may be seen in 
particular abundance at Phalerum, near Athens. See W. G. 
Clark, Peloponnesus (London, 1858), p. 111; J. Murr, Déte 
Pfhlanzenwelt in der griechischen Mythologie (Innsbruck, 1890), 
p. 231. In Naxos Mr. J.T. Bent saw orange gardens divided 
y hedges of tall reeds, and he adds: ‘‘ In Lesbos this reed 
is still called νάρθηκα (νάρθηξ), ἃ survival of the old word for 
the reed by which Prometheus brought down fire from 
heaven. One can understand the idea well: ἃ peasant to-da 
who wishes to carry a light from one house to another will 
ut it into one of these reeds to prevent its being blown out.” 
J. Theodore Bent, The Cy (London, 1885), p. 365. 
Perhaps Bent mistook fennel for a reed. The rationalistic 
Diodorus Siculus explained the myth of the theft of fire by 
saying that Prometheus was the inventor of the fire-sticks, by 
the friction of which against each other fire is kindled. See 
Diodorus Siculus, v. 67. 2. But Greek tradition attributed 
the invention of fire-sticks to Hermes. See the Homeric 
Hymn to Hermes, 108 sqq. 
As to the release of Prometheus, see ii. 5. 11. 

3 The whole of the following account of Deucalion and 
Pyrrha is quoted, with a few trifling verbal changes, by the 
Scholiast on Homer, Jiiad, i. 126, who cites Apollodorus as 
his authority. 

3 As to the making of Pandora, see Hesiod, Works and 


Days, 60 sqq., Theog. 571 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab, 142. 53 


APOLLODORUS 


τὸ χαλκοῦν ἠθέλησε! γένος, ὑποθεμένου IIpo- 
μηθέως Δευκαλίων τεκτηνάμενος λάρνακα, καὶ τὰ 
ἐπιτήδεια ἐνθέμενος, εἰς ταύτην μετὰ Πύρρας 
εἰσέβη.Σ2 Ζεὺς δὲ πολὺν ὑετὸν ἀπ᾽ οὐρανοῦ χέας 
τὰ πλεῖστα μέρη τῆς “Ελλάδος κατέκλυσεν, ὥστε 
διαφθαρῆναι πάντας ἀνθρώπους, ὀλίγων χωρὶς οἵ 
συνέφυγον εἰς τὰ πλησίον ὑψηλὰ ὄρη. πότε δὲ 
καὶ τὰ κατὰ Θεσσαλίαν ὄρη διέστη, καὶ τὰ ἐκτὸς 
Ἰσθμοῦ καὶ Πελοποννήσου συνεχέθη “ πάντα. 
Δευκαλίων δὲ ἐν τῇ λάρνακι διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης 
φερόμενος «ἐφ᾽ ἡμέρας ἐννέα καὶ νύκτας «τὰς;» 
ἴσας τῷ Παρνασῷ προσίσχει, κἀκεῖ τῶν ὄμβρων 
παῦλαν λαβόντων ἐκβὰς θύει Διὶ φυξίῳ. Ζεὺς 
δὲ πέμψας Ἑρμῆν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπέτρεψεν αἱρεῖ- 
σθαιῦ ὅ τι βούλεται: ὁ δὲ αἱρεῖται ἀνθρώπους 
αὐτῷ γενέσθαι. καὶ Διὸς εἰπόντος ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς 
ἔθαλλεν αἴρων λίθους, καὶ ods μὲν ἔβαλε Δευ- 
καλίων, ἄνδρες ἐγένοντο, ods δὲ Πύρρα, γυναῖκες. 
ὅθεν καὶ λαοὶ μεταφορικῶς ὠνομάσθησαν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
λᾶας ὁ λίθος. 

Γίνονται δὲ ἐκ Πύρρας Δευκαλίωνε παῖδες 


ἠθέλησε E, Scholiast on Homer, JU. i. 126 (citing Apollo- 
dorus): ἤθελε A. 

2 εἰσέβη A: εἰσέδυ E: ἐνέβη Scholiast on Homer, JJ. i. 126. 

8 συνέφυγον E, Schuliast on Homer, Il. i. 126; συνεφύτων 
ἘΔ: συνεφοίτων A. 

4 συνεχέθη A, Westermann, Bekker: συνεχύθη Heyne, 
Miiller, Hercher, Wagner. But the passive aorist συνεχέθη 
of xéw is recognized by the Htymologicum Magnum, 3.v. 
xéw, p. 809, 46, and rightly defended by Lobeck, Phry- 
nichus, pp. 731 sq. 

5 αἱρεῖσθαι E: αἰτεῖσθαι A, Scholiast on Homer, JU. i. 126: 
ἑλέσθαι Hercher. 


54 


THE LIBRARY, I. vu. 2 


destroy the men of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by 
the advice of Prometheus constructed a chest,! and 
having stored it with provisions he embarked in it 
with Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from 
heaven flooded the greater part of Greece, so that 
all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to 
the high mountains in the neighbourhood. It was 
then that the mountains in Thessaly parted, and that 
all the world outside the Isthmus and Peloponnesus 
was overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the 
chest over the sea for nine days and as many nights, 
drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain ceased, 
he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. 
And Zeus sent Hermes to him and allowed him 
to choose what he would, and he chose to get men. 
And at the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and 
threw them over his head, and the stones which 
Deucalion threw became men, and the stones which 
Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were 
called metaphorically people (laos) from laas, “a 
stone.’’ 2 

And Deucalion had children by Pyrrha, first 

1 As to Deucalion’s flood, see Lucian, De dea Syria, 12 8q.; 
Ovid, Metamorph. i. 125-415; Hyginus, Fab. 153; Servius, 
on Virgil, Eclog. vi. 41; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 57 sq., 99 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 189; Second Vatican Mythographer, 73) ; 
Folk-lore un the Old Testament, i. 146 sgqg. Another person 
who is said to have escaped alive from the flood was a certain 
Cerambus: the story ran that the nymphs wafted him aloft 
on wings over the Thessalian mountains. See Ovid, Meta- 


morph. vii. 353 sqq. 
2 Compare Pindar, Olymp. ix. 41 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 153. 


55 


oo 


cs 


APOLLODORUS 


“Ἕλλην μὲν πρῶτος, ὃν ἐκ Διὸς γεγεννῆσθαι 1 
«ἔνιοι» λέγουσι, «δεύτερος δὲ» 3 ᾿Αμφικτύων ὁ 
μετὰ Κραναὸν βασιλεύσας τῆς ᾿Αττικῆς, θυγάτηρ 
δὲ Πρωτογένεια, ἐξ ἧς καὶ Διὸς ᾿Αέθλιος. “Ἐλ- 
ληνος δὲ καὶ νύμφης Ὁρσηΐίδος ὃ Δῶρος Ἐξοῦθος 
Αἴολος. αὐτὸς μὲν οὖν ἀφ᾽ αὑτοῦ τοὺς καλου- 
μένους Γραικοὺς προσηγόρευσεν Ἑλληνας, τοῖς δὲ 
παισὶν ἐμέρισε τὴν χώραν" καὶ Ἐξοῦθος μὲν λαβὼν 
τὴν Πελοπόννησον ἐκ Kpeovons τῆς ᾿Ερεχθέως 
᾿Αχαιὸν ἐγέννησε καὶ Ἴωνα, ἀφ᾽ ὧν ᾿Αχοιὰ καὶ 
Ἴωνες καλοῦνται, Δῶρος δὲ τὴν πέραν χώραν 
Πελοποννήσου λαβὼν τοὺς κατοίκους ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ 
Δωριεῖς ἐκάλεσεν, Αἴολος δὲ βασιλεύων τῶν περὶ 
τὴν Θεσσαλίαν τόπων τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας Αἰολεῖς 
προσηγόρευσε, καὶ γήμας ᾿Εναρέτην τὴν Δηιμάχου 
παῖδας μὲν ἐγέννησεν ἑπτά, Κρηθέα Σίσυφον 
᾿Αθάμαντα Σαλμωνέα Δηιόνα Μάγνητα Περιήρην, 
θυγατέρας δὲ πέντε, Κανάκην ᾿Αλκυόνην Πεισι- 
δίκην Καλύκην Περιμήδην. 

Περιμήδης μὲν οὖν καὶ ᾿Αχελῴου Ἵπποδάμας 
καὶ ᾿Ορέστης, Πεισιδίκης δὲ καὶ Μυρμιδόνος 
ἼΑντιφος καὶ Ακτωρ. ᾿Αλκυόνην δὲ Κῆνξ ἔγημεν 

1 γεγεννῆσθαι A, Scholiast on Homer, 17. xiii. 307 (citing 
Apollodorus) : γεγενῆσθαι Re 

ἕνιοι. . . δεύτερος δὲ in Scholiast on Homer, lc. 


ὃ dponldos PR°: ᾿Ορειάδος Heyne: ᾿Οθρηίδος Scholiast on 
Plato, Sympos. p. 208 p, Hercher. 





1 This passage as to the children of Deucalion is quoted by 
the Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, xiii. 307, who names Apollo- 
dorus as his authority. 

2 As to Hellen et | his sons, see Strabo, viii. 7. 1, p. 383; 
Pausanias, vii. 1.2; Conon, Narrat. 27. According to the 
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, i. 2, Xuthus was a son of Aeolua. 


56 








THE LIBRARY, I. vir. 2-4 


Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second 
Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus ; 
and third a daughter Protogonia, who became the 
mother of Aethlius by Zeus.! Hellen had Dorus, 
Xuthus, and Aeolus? by anymph Orseis. Those who 
were called Greeks he named Hellenes after himself,® 
and divided the country among his sons. Xuthus 
received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by 
Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus 
and Ion the Achaeans and Ionians derive their names. 
Dorus received the country over against Peloponnese 
and called the settlers Dorians after himself.‘ 
Aeolus reigned over the regions about Thessaly and 
named the inhabitants Aeolians.5 He married 
Enarete, daughter of Deimachus, and begat seven 
sons, Cretheus, Sisyphus, Athamas, Salmoneus, Deion, 
Magnes, Perieres, and five daughters, Canace, Alcyone, 
Pisidice, Calyce, Perimede.® 

Perimede had Hippodamas and Orestes by Ache- 
lous; and Pisidice had Antiphus and Actor by Myr- 
midon. Alcyone was married by Ceyx, son of Lucifer.” 


> According to the Parian Chronicle, the change of the 
national name from Greeks (Gratkot) to Hellenes took place 
in 1521 p.c. See Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. 
C. Miiller, i. 542 sg. Compare Aristotle, Meteorologica, i. 14, 
Β, 352; Etymologicum Magnum, p. 239, δ.υ. Τραικός ; 

tephanus Byzantius, s.v. Γραικός ; Pausanias, iii. 20. 6, with 
my note; Zhe Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, 
vol. ii. p. 160. 

‘ As to the early seats of the Dorians, see Herodotus, i. 56. 

§ As to the Aeolians of Thessaly, compare Pausanias, x. 
8.4; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 2. 

6 As to Aeolus, his descendants, and their settlements, see 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 2-7; Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 
107 (190). 

7 According to Ovid (Metamorph. xi. 271 eq.), Ceyx re- 
flected his father’s brightness in his face. 

57 


APOLLODORUS 


Ἑωσφόρονυ παῖς. οὗτοι δὲ δι’ ὑπερηφάνειαν 
ἀπώλοντο" ὁ μὲν γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ἔλεγεν “Ἥραν, 
ἡ δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα Δία, Ζεὺς δὲ αὐτοὺς ἀπωρνέωσε, 
καὶ τὴν μὲν ἀλκυόνα ἐποίησε τὸν δὲ κήυκα. 
Κανάκη δὲ ἐγέννησεν ῖ ἐκ ἸΠοσειδῶνος πλέα 
καὶ Νιρέα καὶ ᾿Επωπέα καὶ ᾿Αλωέα καὶ Τρίοπα. 
᾿Αλωεὺς μὲν οὖν ἔγημεν ᾿Ιφιμέδειαν τὴν Τρίοπος, 
ἥτις Ἰ]οσειδῶνος ἠράσθη, καὶ συνεχῶς φοιτῶσα 
ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν, χερσὶν ἀρυομένη τὰ κύματα 
τοῖς κόλποις ἐνεφόρει. συνελθὼν δὲ αὐτῇ Ποσει- 
δῶν δύο ἐγέννησε παῖδας, Ὦτον καὶ ᾿Εφιάλτην, 
τοὺς ᾿Αλωάδας λεγομένους. οὗτοι κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν 
ηὔξανον πλάτος μὲν πηχυαῖον μῆκος δὲ ὀργυιαῖον" 
ἐννέα δὲ ἐτῶν γενόμενοι, καὶ τὸ μὲν πλάτος πηχῶν 
ἔχοντες ἐννέα τὸ δὲ μέγεθος ὀργυιῶν ἐννέα, pds 
θεοὺς 5 μάχεσθαι διενοοῦντο, καὶ τὴν μὲν Ὄσσαν 
ἐπὶ tov "Ολυμπον ἔθεσαν, ἐπὶ δὲ τὴν Ὄσσαν 
θέντες τὸ Πήλιον διὰ τῶν ὀρῶν τούτων ἠπείλουν 
εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀναβήσεσθαι, καὶ τὴν μὲν θάλασσαν 
χώσαντες τοῖς ὄρεσι ποιήσειν ὃ ἔλεγον ἤπειρον, 
τὴν δὲ γῆν θάλασσαν. ἐμνῶντο δὲ ᾿ΕΠφιάλτης μὲν 
Ἥραν ἾΩτος δὲ ΓΑρτεμιν. ἔδησαν δὲ καὶ “Apny. 
1 φγέννησεν Scaliger, Heyne (in text), Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ἐποίησεν A. Heyne 


conjectured ἐκύησεν. 2 θεοὺς Εἰ : θεὸν A. 
8 ποιήσειν A: ἐκποιήσειν KE, Wagner. 


1 Compare Scholiast on Aristophanes, Birds, 250; Schol. 
on Homer, 11. ix. 562; Eustathius on Homer, fc. p. 776. 
The story may be a reminiscence of an ancient Greek custom, 
in accordance with which kings are said to have been regu- 
larly called Zeus. See J. Tzetzes, Antehomerica, 102 sq.; 
id., Chiliades, i. 474; A.B. Cook, ‘‘ The European Sky-god,” 
Folk-lore, xv. (1904), pp. 299 sqq. 

2 Compare Lucian, Halcyon, 1; Schol. on Aristophanes, 
Birds, 250; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 410 8qg., especially 710 sqq.; 


58 





THE LIBRARY, I. vin. 4 


These perished by reason of their pride; for he said 
that his wife was Hera, and she said that her hus- 
band was Zeus.!_ But Zeus turned them into birds; 
her he made a kingfisher (alcyon) and him a gannet 
(ceys).? 

Canace had by Poseidon Hopleus and Nireus and 
Epopeus and Aloeus and Triops. Aloeus wedded 
Iphimedia, daughter of Triops; but she fell in love 
with Poseidon, and often going to the sea she would 
draw up the waves with her hands and pour them 
into her lap. Poseidon met her and begat two sons, 
Otus and Ephialtes, who are called the Aloads.’ 
These grew every year a cubit in breadth and a 
fathom in height; and when they were nine years 
old,‘ being nine cubits broad and nine fathoms high, 
they resolved to fight against the gods, and they set 
Ossa on Olympus, and having set Pelion on Ossa 
they threatened by means of these mountains to 
ascend up to heaven, and they said that by filling up 
the sea with the mountains they would make it dry 
land, and the land they would make sea. And 
Ephialtes wooed Hera, and Otus wooed Artemis ; 
moreover they put Aresin bonds.5 However, Hermes 
Hyginus, Fab. 65. The identification of the sea-bird ceyzx 
is doubtful. See D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary of 
Greek Birds (Oxford, 1895), p. 81. 

3 As to the Aloads, see Homer, Od. xi. 305 sqq.; Virgil, 
Aen. vi. 582 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 28. 

4 This answers to the évyéwpo: of Homer (Od. xi. 31), the 
meaning of which has been disputed. See Merry, on Homer, 
Od. x. 19. Hyginus (Fab. 28) understood ἐννέωροι in the 
same way as Apollodorus (‘‘ cum essent annorum novem”’). 

5 They are said to have imprisoned him for thirteen months 
in a brazen pot, from which he was rescued, in a state of 
Sa exhaustion, by the interposition of Hermes. See 

omer, Jl. v. 385 δᾳᾳ. Compate my note, ‘Ares in the 
brazen pot,” The Classical Review, ii. (1888) p. 222. 


59 


APOLLODORUS 


τοῦτον μὲν οὖν Epps ἐξέκλεψεν, ἀνεῖλε δὲ τοὺς 
Αλωάδας ἐν Νάξῳ ἴΑρτεμις δι’ ἀπάτης: ἀλλά- 
ξασα γὰρ τὴν ἰδέαν εἰς ἔλαφον διὰ μέσων αὐτῶν 
ἐπήδησεν, οἱ δὲ βουλόμενοι εὐστοχῆσαι τοῦ 
θηρίου 3 ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς ἠκόντισαν. 

Καλύκης δὲ καὶ ᾿Αεθλίου παῖς ᾿Ενδυμίων γίνε- 
ται, ὅστις ἐκ Θεσσαλίας Αἰολέας ἀγαγὼν Ἦλεν 
ᾧκισε. λέγουσι δὲ αὐτόν τινες ἐκ Διὸς γενέσθαι. 
τούτου κάλλει διενεγκόντος ἠράσθη Σελήνη, Ζεὺς 
δὲ αὐτῷ δίδωσιν ὃ βούλεται ἑλέσθαι" ὁ δὲ αἱρεῖται 
κοιμᾶσθαι διὰ παντὸς ἀθάνατος καὶ ἀγήρως μένων. 

Ἐνδυμίωνος δὲ καὶ νηΐδος viudns,® ἢ ὥς τινες 
᾿ἸΙφιανάσσης, Αἰτωλός, ὃς ἀποκτείνας Απιν τὸν 
Φορωνέως καὶ φυγὼν εἰς τὴν Κουρήτιδα χώραν, 
κτείνας τοὺς ὑποδεξαμένους Φθίας καὶ ᾿Απόλ- 
λωνος vious, Δῶρον καὶ Λαόδοκον καὶ Πολυποίτην, 
ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ τὴν χώραν Αἰτωλίαν ἐκάλεσεν. 

Αἰτωλοῦ δὲ καὶ Προνόης τῆς Φόρβου Πλευρὼν 
καὶ Καλυδὼν ἐγένοντο, ἀφ᾽ ὧν αἱ ἐν Αἰτωλίᾳ 
πόλεις ὠνομάσθησαν. Ἰ]λευρὼν μὲν οὖν γήμας 
Ἐανθίππην τὴν Δώρου παῖδα ἐγέννησεν ᾿Αγήνορα, 
θυγατέρας δὲ Στερόπην καὶ Στρατονίκην καὶ Λαο- 
dovrnv't Καλυδῶνος δὲ καὶ Αἰολίας τῆς ᾽Αμυ- 
θάονος ᾿Ε'πικάστη «καὶ; Πρωτογένεια, ἐξ ἧς καὶ 
"Apeos Οξυλος. ᾿Αγήνωρ δὲ ὁ Πλευρῶνος γήμας 
Ἐπικάστην τὴν Καλυδῶνος ἐγέννησε Ἰ]Πορθάονα 


1 μέσων ER, Hercher, Wagner: μέσον A: μέσον Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 τοῦ θηρίον Heyne, Hercher, Wagner: τὸ θηρίον AE, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

3 νηίδος νύμφης Hercher, Wagner: σηίδος R®: σηίδος νύμ- 
ons ἣ νηίδος A. 

4 Λαοφόντην Heyne: Λεοφόντην A: Λεωφόντην Hercher. 


60 


THE LIBRARY, I. vit. 4-7 


rescued Ares by stealth, and Artemis killed the — 
Aloads in Naxos bya ruse. For she changed herself 
into a deer and leaped between them, and in their 
eagerness to hit the quarry they threw their darts 
at each other. 

Calyce and Aethlius had a son Endymion who led 
-Aeolians from Thessaly and founded Elis. But some 
say that he was a son of Zeus. As he was of surpas- 
sing beauty, the Moon fell in love with him, and Zeus 
allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose 
to sleep for ever, remaining deathless and ageless.” 

Endymion had by a Naiad nymph or, as some say, by 
Iphianassa, a son Aetolus, who slew Apis, son of 
Phoroneus, and fled to the Curetian country. There 
he killed his hosts, Dorus and Laodocus and Polypoe- 
tes, the sons of Phthia and Apollo, and called the 
country Aetolia after himself.’ 

Aetolus and Pronoe, daughter of Phorbus, had sons, 
Pleuron and Calydon, after whom the cities in Aeto- 
liawere named. Pleuron wedded Xanthippe, daughter 
of Dorus, and begat a son Agenor, and daughters, 
Sterope and Stratonice and Laophonte. Calydon 
and Aeolia, daughter of Amythaon, had daughters, 
Epicaste and Protogonia, who had Oxylus by Ares. 
- And Agenor, son of Pleuron, married Epicaste, 
daughter of Calydon, and begat Porthaon and 

1 Compare Hyginus, Fab. 28. 

2 As to Endymion and the Moon, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. iv. 57 8ᾳ., with the Scholiast ; Pausanias, v. 1. 4; 
Mythographi Graect, ed Westermann, pp. 319 84ᾳ., 324; 
Hyginus, Fab. 271. The present passage of Apollodorus is 
quoted almost verbally by Zenobius, Cent. iil. 76, but as 
usual without mention of his authority. The eternal sleep 
of Endymion was proverbial. See Plato, Phaedo, 17, p. 720; 
Macarius, Cent. iii. 89; Diogenianus, Cent. iv. 40; Cicero, 
De finibus, v. 20. 55 ; compare td. Tuscul. Disput. i. 38. 92. 

8 Compare Pausanias, v. 1. 8; Conon, Narrat. 14. 61 


10 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ Anpovixny, ἧς καὶ “Apeos Εὔηνος Μῶλος 
Πύλος Θέστιος. 

Εὔηνος μὲν οὖν ἐγέννησε Μάρπησσαν, ἣν 
᾿Απόλλωνος μνηστευομένου Ἴδας ὁ ᾿Αφαρέως 
ἥρπασε, λαβὼν παρὰ Ποσειδῶνος ἅρμα ὑπό- 
πτερον. διώκων δὲ Εὔηνος ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος ἐπὶ τὸν 
Λυκόρμαν ἦλθε ποταμόν, καταλαβεῖν δ᾽ οὐ δυνά- 
μενος τοὺς μὲν ἵππους ἀπέσφαξεν, ἑαυτὸν δ᾽ εἰς 
τὸν ποταμὸν ἔβαλε: καὶ καλεῖται Εὔηνος ὁ 
ποταμὸς ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνους: Ἴδας δὲ εἰς Μεσσήνην 
παραγίνεται, καὶ αὐτῷ ὁ ᾿Απόλλων περιτυχὼν 
ἀφαιρεῖται τὴν κόρην. μαχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν περὶ 
τῶν τῆς παιδὸς γάμων, Ζεὺς διαλύσας ἐπέτρεψεν 
αὐτῇ τῇ παρθένῳ ἑλέσθαί ὁποτέρῳ βούλεται 
συνοικεῖν" ἡ δὲ δείσασα, ὡς ἂν μὴ γηρῶσαν αὐτὴν 
᾿Απόλλων καταλίπῃ, τὸν Ἴδαν εἵλετο ἄνδρα. 

Θεστίῳ δὲ ἐξ Εὐρυθέμιδος τῆς Κλεοβοίας ἐγέ- 
νοντο θυγατέρες μὲν ᾿Αλθαία Λήδα Ὑπερμνήστρα, 
ἄρρενες δὲ Ἴφικλος Εὔνππος Ἰ]λήξιππος Εὐρύ- 
πυλος. 

Πορθάονος δὲ καὶ Εὐρύτης «τῆς» ᾿Ἱπποδάμαν- 
τος ἐγένοντο παῖδες Οἰνεὺς “Ayptos ᾿Αλκάθοος 
Μέλας Λευκωπεύς, θυγάτηρ δὲ Στερόπη, ἐξ ἧς 
καὶ ᾿Αχελῴου Σειρῆνας γενέσθαι λέγουσιν. 

VIII. Οἰνεὺς δὲ βασιλεύων Καλυδῶνος παρὰ 





1 As to Evenus and Marpessa, see Scholiast on Homer, 
Thad, ix. 557; Eustathius, on Homer, l.c. p. 776 ; Plutarch, 
Parallela, 40; Hyginus, Fab. 242 (who calls Evenus a son of 
Hercules). According to the first two of these writers, 
Evenus, like Oenomaus, used to set his daughter’s suitors to 
run a chariot race with him, promising to bestow her on the 
winner ; but he cut off the heads of his vanquished competi- 
tors and nailed them to the walls of his house. This seems 


62 


THE LIBRARY, I. vu. 7—vim. 1 


Demonice, who had Evenus, Molus, Pylus, and 
Thestius by Ares. 

Evenus begat Marpessa, who was wooed by Apollo, 
but Idas, son of Aphareus, carried her off in a winged 
chariot which he received from Poseidon.! Pursuing 
him in a chariot, Evenus came to the river Lycormas, 
but when he could not catch him he slaughtered his 
horses and threw himself into the river, and the 
river is called Evenus after him. But Idas came to 
Messene, and Apollo, falling in with him, would have 
robbed him of the damsel. As they fought for the 
girl’s hand, Zeus parted them and allowed the maiden 
herself to choose which of the two she would marry ; 
and she, because she feared that Apollo might desert 
her in her old age, chose Idas for her husband.? 

Thestius had daughters and sons by Eurythemis, 
daughter of Cleoboea: the daughters were Althaea, 
Leda,? Hypermnestra, and the males were Iphiclus, 
Evippus, Plexippus, and Eurypylus. 

Porthaon and Euryte, daughter of Hippodamas, 
had sons, Oeneus, Agrius, Alcathous, Melas, Leuco- 
peus, and a daughter Sterope, who is said to have 
been the mother of the Sirens by Achelous. 

VIII. Reigning over Calydon, Oeneus was the 


to be the version of the story which Apollodorus had before 
him, though he has abridged it. 

2 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, ix. 557 (who cites 
Simonides) ; Eustathius, on Homer, l.c. p. 776; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 561; Pausanias, v. 18. 2. . 

3 Pausanias (iii. 13. 8) agrees with Apollodorus in saying 
that Leda was the daughter of Thestius, who was a son of 
Agenor, who was a son of Pleuron ; and he cites the epic 
poem of Areus as his authority for the genealogy. 


63 


APOLLODORUS 


Διονύσου φυτὸν ἀμπέλου πρῶτος ῖ ἔλαβε. γήμας 
δὲ ᾿Αλθαίαν τὴν Θεστίου γεννᾷ Τοξέα, ὃν αὐτὸς 
ἔκτεινεν ὑπερπηδήσαντα τὴν τάφρον, καὶ παρὰ 
τοῦτον Θυρέα καὶ Κλύμενον, καὶ θυγατέρα 
Γόργην, ἣν ᾿Ανδραίμων ἔγημε, καὶ Δηιάνειραν, ἣν 
᾿Αλθαίαν λέγουσιν ἐκ Διονύσου γεννῆσαι. αὕτη 
δ᾽ ἡνιόχει καὶ τὰ κατὰ πόλεμον ἤσκει, καὶ περὶ 
τῶν γάμων αὐτῆς Ἡρακλῆς πρὸς ᾿Αχελῷον ἐπά- 
λαισεν. ἐγέννησε δὲ ᾿Αλθαία παῖδα ἐξ Οἰνέως 
Μελέαγρον, ὃν ἐξ “Apeos γεγεννῆσθαί φασι. τού- 
του δ᾽ ὄντος ἡμερῶν ἑπτὰ παραγενομένας τὰς 
μοίρας φασὶν εἰπεῖν, «ὅτι» 8 τότε τελευτήσει 
Μελέαγρος, ὅταν ὁ καιόμενος ἐπὶ τῆς ἐσχάρας 
δαλὸς κατακαῇ. τοῦτο ἀκούσασα τὸν δαλὸν 
ἀνείλετο ᾿Αλθαία καὶ κατέθετο εἰς λάρνακα. 
Μελέαγρος δὲ ἀνὴρ ἄτρωτος καὶ γενναῖος γενό- 
μενος τόνδε τὸν τρόπον ἐτελεύτησεν. ἐτησίων 
καρπῶν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ γενομένων τὰς ἀπαρχὰς 

1 πρῶτος ER®: πρῶτα A. 

2 Κλύμεμον Bekker, Wagner (misprint). 

8 ὅτι omitted in AE, but inserted by Diodorus Siculus in 
the parallel passage, iv. 34. 6. 


ὁ τελευτήσει Μελέαγρος AE, Zenobius, Cent. v. 33: τελευ- 
τήσειν Μελέαγρον LN. 


1 Compare Hyginus, Fab. 129. 

2 So Romulus is said to have killed Remus for leaping over 
the rising wall of Rome (Livy, i. 7. 2). 

3 See Apollodorus, ii. 7. 5, with the note. 

4 The whole of the following account of the life and 
death of Meleager is quoted, with a few verbal changes 
and omissions, by Zenobius (Cent. v. 33). The story is 
told by Bacchylides (Hpinic. v. 93 s8qq.) and, though 
without any express mention of the burning brand or of 
Meleager’s death, by Homer (Iliad, ix. 529-599). Compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 34; Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 270 sqq.; 


64 


THE LIBRARY, I. vm. 1-2 


first who received a vine-plant from Dionysus.! He 
married Althaea, daughter of Thestius, and begat 
Toxeus, whom he slew with his own hand because he 
leaped over the ditch.2, And besides Toxeus he had 
Thyreus and Clymenus, and a daughter Gorge, whom 
Andraemon married, and another daughter Deianira, 
who is said to have been begotten on Althaea by 
Dionysus. This Deianira drove a chariot and prac- 
tised the art of war, and Hercules wrestled for her 
hand with Achelous.? Althaea had also a son Melea- 
ger,* by Oeneus, though they say that he was begotten 
by Ares. It is said that, when he was seven days old, 
the Fates came and declared that Meleager should die 
when the brand burning on the hearth was burnt out. 
On hearing that, Althaea snatched up the brand and 
deposited it in a chest.5 Meleager grew up to be an 
invulnerable and gallant man, but came by his end 
in the following way. In sacrificing the firstfruits of 


Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. ii. 481; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 46 sq. 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 146). It was made the theme 
of tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides. See Aug. Nauck, 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta* (Leipsic, 1889), pp. 219 
sq-, 525 sqq.; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. by A. Ὁ. 
Pearson, ii. 64 8qq. 

5 For the story of the burning brand on which the life of 
Meleager depended, see also Aeschylus, Choeph. 604 sqq.; 
Bacchylides, Hpinic. v. 136 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 34. 
6 sq.; Pausanias, x. 31.4; Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 2 ; 
Dio Chrysostom, Or. Ixvii. vol. ii. p. 231, ed. L. Dindorf ; 
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, ix. 534; Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 
445-525 ; Hyginus, Fab. 171, 174; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Thebd. ii. 481 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 47 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
146). The story belongs to a widespread class of tales con- 
cerned with the ‘‘external soul,” or the belief that a person’s 
life is bound up with an animal or object outside of his own 


body. See Balder the Beautiful, ii. 94 qq. : 
5 


VOL. I. F 


APOLLODORUS 


Οἰνεὺς θεοῖς πᾶσι θύων μόνης ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἐξελά- 
θετο. ἡ δὲ μηνίσασα κάπρον ἐφῆκεν ἔξοχον 
μεγέθει τε καὶ ῥώμῃ, ὃς τήν τε γῆν ἄσπορον 
ἐτίθει καὶ τὰ βοσκήματα καὶ τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας 
διέφθειρεν. ἐπὶ τοῦτον τὸν κάπρον τοὺς ἀρίστους 
ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος πάντας συνεκάλεσε, καὶ τῷ 
κτείναντι τὸν θῆρα τὴν δορὰν δώσειν ἀριστεῖον 
ἐπηγγείλατο. οἱ δὲ συνελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ 
κάπρου θήραν ἦσαν olde) Μελέαγρος Οἰνέως, 
Aptas} “Apeos, ἐκ Καλυδῶνος οὗτοι, Ἴδας καὶ 
Λυγκεὺς ᾿Αφαρέως ἐκ Μεσσήνης, Κάστωρ καὶ 
Πολυδεύκης Διὸς καὶ Λήδας ἐκ Λακεδαίμονος, 
Θησεὺς Αἰγέως ἐξ ᾿Αθηνῶν, ᾿Αὗμητος Φέρητος 
ἐκ Φερῶν, ᾿Αγκαῖος «καὶ» Κηφεὺς Λυκούργου ἐξ 
᾿Αρκαδίας, Ἰάσων Αἴσονος ἐξ ᾿Ιωλκοῦ, ᾿Ιφικλῆς 
᾿Αμφιτρύωνος ἐκ Θηβῶν, Πειρίθους ᾿Ιξίονος ἐκ 
Λαρίσης, Πηλεὺς Αἰακοῦ ἐκ Φθίας, Τελαμὼν 
Αἰακοῦ ἐκ Σαλαμῖνος, Evputiwv “Axropos ἐκ 
Φθίας, ᾿Αταλάντη Σχοινέως ἐξ ᾿Αρκαδίας, ’Ap- 
φιάραος ᾿Οικλέους 5 ἐξ “Apyous: μετὰ τούτων 
καὶ οἱ Θεστίου παῖδες. συνελθόντας δὲ αὐτοὺς 
Οἰνεὺς ἐπὶ ἐννέα ἡμέρας ἐξένισε' τῇ δεκάτῃ δὲ 
Κηφέως καὶ ᾿Αγκαίου καί τινων ἄλλων ἀπαξιούν- 
των μετὰ γυναικὸς ἐπὶ τὴν θήραν ὃ ἐξιέναι, 
Μελέαγρος ἔχων γυναῖκα Κλεοπάτραν τὴν “Ida 
καὶ Μαρπήσσης θυγατέρα, βουλόμενος δὲ καὶ ἐξ 
᾿Αταλάντης τεκνοποιήσασθαι, συνηνάγκασεν av- 
τοὺς ἐπὶ τὴν θήραν μετὰ ταύτης ἐξιέναι. περι- 

1 Δρύας Aegius: πύμας A. 

2 Οἰκλέους Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner: ἰοκλέους A. Compare A. C. Pearson, The Frag- 


ments of Sophocles, vol. ii. p. 119. 
3 τὴν θήραν A: τὸν κάπρον KE. 


66 


THE LIBRARY, I. vu. 2 


the annual crops of the country to all the gods Oeneus 
forgot Artemis alone. But she in her wrath sent a 
boar of extraordinary size and strength, which pre- 
vented the land from being sown and destroyed the 
cattle and the people that fell in with it. To attack 
this boar Oeneus called together all the noblest men 
of Greece, and promised that to him who should 
kill the beast he would give the skin asa prize. Now 
the men who assembled to hunt the boar were 
these !:—Meleager, son of Oeneus; Dryas, son of 
Ares ; these came from Calydon; Idas and Lynceus, 
sons of Aphareus, from Messene; Castor and Pollux, 
sons of Zeus and Leda, from Lacedaemon; Theseus, 
son of Aegeus, from Athens ; Admetus, son of Pheres, 
from Pherae; Ancaeus and Cepheus, sons of Lycur- 
gus, from Arcadia; Jason, son of Aeson, from 
Iolcus ; Iphicles, son of Amphitryon, from Thebes ; 
Pirithous, son of Ixion, from Larissa; Peleus, son 
of Aeacus, from Phthia; Telamon, son of Aeacus, 
from Salamis ; Eurytion, son of Actor, from Phthia ; 
Atalanta, daughter of Schoeneus, from Arcadia ; 
Amphiaraus, son of Oicles, from Argos. With 
them came also the sons of Thestius. And when 
they were assembled, Oeneus entertained them for 
nine days; but on the tenth, when Cepheus and An- 
caeus and some others disdained to go a-hunting with 
a woman, Meleager compelled them to follow the 
chase with her, for he desired to have a child also by 
Atalanta, though he had to wife Cleopatra, daughter 
of Idas and Marpessa. When they surrounded the 


1 For lists of the heroes who hunted the Calydonian 
boar, see Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 299 δᾳᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 
173. 


67 
Ε 2 


APOLLODORUS 


στάντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν κάπρον, Ὑλεὺς ' μὲν καὶ 
᾿Αγκαῖος t ὑπὸ τοῦ θηρὸς διεφθάρησαν, Εὐρυτίωνα 
δὲ Πηλεὺς ἄκων κατηκόντισε. τὸν δὲ κάπρον 

πρώτη μὲν ᾿Αταλάντη εἰς τὰ νῶτα ἐτόξευσε, 
δεύτερος δὲ ᾿Αμφιάραος εἰς τὸν  ὀφθαλμόν' Με- 
λέαγρος δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν κενεῶνα πλήξας ἀπέ- 
κτεινε, καὶ λαβὼν τὸ δέρας ἔδωκεν ᾿Αταλάντῃ. 
οἱ δὲ Θεστίου παῖδες, ἀδοξοῦντες εἰ παρόντων 
ἀνδρῶν γυνὴ τὰ ἀριστεῖα λήψεται, τὸ δέρας 
αὐτῆς " ἀφείλοντο, κατὰ γένος αὑτοῖς προσήκειν 
λέγοντες, εἰ Μελέαγρος λαμβάνειν μὴ προαιροῖτο. 
ὀργισθεὶς δὲ Μελέαγρος τοὺς μὲν Θεστίου παῖδας 
ἀπέκτεινε, τὸ δὲ δέρας ἔδωκε τῇ ᾿Αταλάντῃ. 
᾿Αλθαία δὲ λυπηθεῖσα ἐπὶ τῇ τῶν ἀδελφῶν 
ἀπωλείᾳ τὸν δαλὸν ἧψε, καὶ ὁ Μελέαγρος ἐξαίφ - 
νης ἀπέθανεν. 

Οἱ δέ φασιν οὐχ οὕτω Μελέαγρον τελευτῆσαι, 
ἀμφισβητούντων δὲ τῆς δορᾶς ὃ τῶν Θεστίου παί- 
dmv ὡς ᾿Ιφίκλου πρώτου βαλόντος, Κούρησι καὶ 
Καλυδωνίοις πόλεμον ἐνστῆναι, ἐξελθόντος δὲ 
Μελεάγρου καί τινας τῶν Θεστίου παίδων φονεύ- 
σαντος Αλθαίαν ἀράσασθαι Kat αὐτοῦ' τὸν δὲ 
ὀργιζόμενον οἴκοι μένειν. ἤδη δὲ τῶν πολεμίων 
τοῖς τείχεσι προσπελαζόντων καὶ τῶν πολιτῶν 
ἀξιούντων μεθ᾽ i ἱκετηρίας βοηθεῖν, μόλις πεισθέντα 
ὑπὸ τῆς γυναικὸς ἐξελθεῖν, καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς 

1 “λεὺς Aegius: πύλος A. 

" αὐτῆς Wagner (comparing Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
Frogs, 1238, and Zenobius, Cent. v. 33): αὐτῇ A: αὐτοὶ E: 
αὐτὴν Hercher. 

3 δορᾶς Frazer (for δορά compare i. 6. 2 and 3, ii. 1. 2, 
ii, 4. 10, 11. δ. 1): τῆς θήρας E, Wagner: τῆς δῆραε φασὶ Α, 


Bekker: τοῦ θηρὺς φασὶ _Heyne, Miller: τοῦ θηρὸς Wester- 
mann. Hercher omits τῆς θήρας φασὶν. 


68 





THE LIBRARY, I. vin. 2-3 


boar, Hyleus and Ancaeus were killed by the brute, 
and Peleus struck down Eurytion undesignedly with 
a javelin. But Atalanta was the first to shoot the 
boar in the back with an arrow, and Amphiaraus was 
the next to shoot it in the eye; but Meleager killed 
it by a stab in the flank, and on receiving the skin 
gave it to Atalanta. Nevertheless the sons of Thes- 
tius, thinking scorn that a woman should get the 
prize in the face of men, took the skin from her, 
alleging that it belonged to them by right of birth if 
Meleager did not choose to take it. But Meleager 
in a rage slew thesons of Thestius and gave the skin 
to Atalanta. However, from grief at the slaughter 
of. her brothers Althaea kindled the brand, and 
Meleager immediately expired. 

But some say that Meleager did not die in that | 
way,! but that when the sons of Thestius claimed 
the skin on the ground that Iphiclus had been the 
first to hit the boar, war broke out between the 
Curetes and the Calydonians; and when Meleager 
had sallied out? and slain some of the sons of 
Thestius, Althaea cursed him, and he in a rage re- 
mained at home; however, when the enemy ap- 
proached the walls, and the citizens supplicated him 
to come to the rescue, he yielded reluctantly to his 
wife and sallied forth, and having killed the rest of 


1 The following account of the death of Meleager is sub- 
stantially that of Homer, Il. ix. 529 sqq. 
2 From Calydon, then besieged by the Curetes. 


69 





APOLLODORUS 


κτείναντα τῶν Θεστίου παίδων ἀποθανεῖν pay o- 
μενον. μετὰ δὲ τὸν Μελεάγρου θάνατον ᾿Αλθαία 
καὶ Κλεοπάτρα ἑαυτὰς ἀνήρτησαν, αἱ δὲ θρηνοῦσαι 
τὸν νεκρὸν γυναῖκες ἀπωρνεώθησαν. 

᾿Αλθαίας δὲ ἀποθανούσης ἔγημεν Οἰνεὺς Περί- 
βοιαν τὴν Ἱππονόον. ταύτην δὲ ὁ μὲν γράψας 
τὴν Θηβαΐδα πολεμηθείσης Ὥλένου λέγει λαβεῖν 
Οἰνέα γέρας, Ἡσίοδος δὲ ἐξ ᾽Ωλένου τῆς ᾿Αχαΐας, 
ἐφθαρμένην ὑπὸ ἹἹπποστράτου τοῦ ᾿Αμαρυγκέως, 
᾿ἽἹἹππόνουν τὸν πατέρα πέμψαι πρὸς Οἰνέα πόρρω 
τῆς Ἑλλάδος ὄντα, ἐντειλάμενον ἀποκτεῖναι.ἷ 
εἰσὶ δὲ of λέγοντες Ἱππόνουν ἐπιγνόντα τὴν ἰδίαν 
θυγατέρα ἐφθαρμένην ὑπὸ Οἰνέως, ἔγκυον αὐτὴν 
πρὸς τοῦτον ἀποπέμψαι. ἐγεννήθη-δὲ ἐκ ταύτης 
Οἰνεῖ Τυδεύς. Πείσανδρος δὲ αὐτὸν ἐκ Γόργης 
γενέσθαι λέγει" τῆς γὰρ θυγατρὸς Οἰνέα κατὰ 
τὴν βούλησιν Διὸς ἐρασθῆναι. 

Τυδεὺς δὲ ἀνὴρ γενόμενος γενναῖος ἐφυγαδεύθη, 
κτείνας, ὡς μέν τινες λέγουσιν, ἀδελφὸν Οἰνέως 
᾿Αλκάθοον, ὡς δὲ ὁ τὴν ᾿Αλκμαιωνίδα γεγραφώς, 
τοὺς Μέλανος παῖδας ἐπιβουλεύοντας Οἰνεῖ, Φηνέα 


1 ἀποκτεῖναι Faber, Heyne, Westermann, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner: ἀποστεῖλαι A. 


1 The birds called in Greek meleagrides, guinea-fowl 
(Numida sp.). See Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 2; 
Aelian, De natura animalium, iv. 42; Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 
533-546; Hyginus, Fab. 174; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 74, xxxvii. 
40. Worshippers of Artemis strictly abstained from eating 
the bird; the reason of the abstention was known to the 
natives of Leros, one of the Sporades (Aelian, 1.6... The 
birds were kept in the sanctuary of the Maiden (Artemis ?) 
in that island, and were tended by the priests (Athenaeus 
xiv. 71, p. 655c). It is said that it was Artemis who turn 


79° 


THE LIBRARY, I. vin. 3-5 


the sons of Thestius, he himself fell fighting. After 
the death of Meleager, Althaea and Cleopatra hanged 
themselves, and the women who mourned the dead 
man were turned into birds.) _ 

After Althaea’s death Oeneus married Periboea, 
daughter of Hipponous. The author of the Thebatd 
says that when Olenus was sacked, Oeneus received 
Periboea as a gift of honour; but Hesiod says that 
she was seduced by Hippostratus, son of Amarynceus, 
and that her father Hipponous sent her away from 
Olenus in Achaia to Oeneus, because he dwelt far 
from Greece, with an injunction to put her to death.? 
However, some say that Hipponous discovered that 
his daughter had been debauched by Oeneus, and 
therefore he sent her away to him when she was with 
child. By her Oeneus begat Tydeus. But Pisander 
says that the mother of Tydeus was Gorge, for Zeus 
willed it that Oeneus should fall in love with his 
own daughter.® 

When Tydeus had grown to be a gallant man 
he was banished for killing, as some say, Alcathous, 
brother of Oeneus; but according to the author 
of the Alcmaeonid his victims were the sons of Melas 
who had plotted against Oeneus, their names being 


the sisters of Meleager into birds by touching them with a 
rod, after which she transferred them to the island of Leros 
(Antoninus Liberalis, /.c.) On the birds see D’Arcy Went- 
worth Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford, 1895), 
pp. 114 ag. 

5 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 35. 1 sg., according to 
whom Periboea alleged that she was with child by Ares. 
Sophocles wrote a tragedy on the subject ; a few fragments 
of it remain (The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, 
i. 216 8qq.). 

3’ Gorge was a daughter of Oeneus. See above, i. 8. 1; 
Pausanias, x. 38. 5. 


71 


APOLLODORUS 


Εὐρύαλον Ὕπέρλαον᾽ Αντίοχον Εὐμήδην Στέρνοπα 
Ἐάνθιππον Σθενέλαον, ὡς δὲ Φερεκύδης φησίν, 
᾿Ὡλενίαν ἀδελφὸν ἴδιον. ᾿Αγρίου δὲ δίκας ἐπά- 
γοντος αὐτῷ φυγὼν eis” Apyos ἧκε πρὸς "Αδρασ- 
τον, καὶ τὴν τούτου γήμας θυγατέρα Δηιπύλην 
ἐγέννησε Διομήδην. 

Τυδεὺς μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ Θήβας μετ᾽ ᾿Αδράστου 
στρατευσάμενος ὑπὸ Μελανίππου τρωθεὶς ἀπέ- 
θανεν" οἱ δὲ ᾿Αγρίου παῖδες, Θερσίτης ᾿Ογχηστὸς 
Πρόθοος Κελεύτωρ Λυκωπεὺς Μελάνιππος, ἀφε- 
λόμενοι τὴν Οἰνέως βασιλείαν τῷ πατρὶ ἔδοσαν, 
καὶ προσέτι ζῶντα τὸν Οἰνέα καθείρξαντες ηἠκί- 
ζοντο. ὕστερον δὲ Διομήδης ἐξ ΓΑργους παρα- 
γενόμενος μετ᾽ ᾿Αλκμαίωνος 1 κρύφα τοὺς μὲν 
᾿Αγρίου παῖδας, χωρὶς ᾿Ογχηστοῦ καὶ Θερσίτου, 
πάντας ἀπέκτεινεν (οὗτοι γὰρ φθάσαντες εἰς 
Πελοπόννησον ἔφυγον), τὴν δὲ βασιλείαν, ἐπειδὴ 
γηραιὸς ἣν ὁ Οἰνεύς,᾿Ανδραίμονι τῷ τὴν θυγατέρα 
τοῦ Οἰνέως γήμαντι δέδωκε, τὸν δὲ Οἰνέα εἰς 
Πελοπόννησον ἦγεν. οἱ δὲ διαφυγόντες ᾿Αγρίου 
παῖδες ἐνεδρεύσαντες περὶ τὴν Τηλέφου ἑστίαν 
τῆς ᾿Αρκαδίας τὸν πρεσβύτην ἀπέκτειναν. Διο- 

ήδης δὲ τὸν νεκρὸν εἰς "Ἄργος κομίσας ἔθα 
μήδης δὲ νεκρὸν εἰς ἄργος κομίσας ἔθαψεν 
ἔνθα νῦν πόλις ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου Οἰνόη καλεῖται, καὶ 

1 ᾿»Αλκμαίωνος Heyne (comparing Strabo, x. 2. 25, ᾧ, 462), 


Bekker, Wagner: ᾿Αλκμέωνος Hercher: ἄλλου A, Wester- 
mann, Miiller. 


1 Compare Eustathius, on Homer, Ilzad, xiv. 122, p. 971 ; 
Scholia on Homer, Iliad, xiv. 114,120; The Fragments of 
Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. iii. p. 38, frag. 799 ; Statius, 
Theb. i. 401 sqq., with the commentary of Lactantius Placidus, 
pp. 47 sq. ed. R. Jahnke. The accounts differ as to whom 
Tydeus killed, but they agree that he fled from Calydon to 


72 


Plity page: fer S πε ἐμε: 


SUE ex. cf C2 eke ως 
THE LIBRARY, I. vim. 5-6 


Pheneus, Euryalus, Hyperlaus, Antiochus, Eumedes 
Sternops, Xanthippus, Sthenelaus; but as Pherecydes 
will have it, he murdered his own brother Olenias.} 
Being arraigned by Agrius, he fled to Argos and came 
to Adrastus, whose daughter Deipyle he married and 
begat Diomedes. 

Tydeus marched against Thebes with Adrastus,? 
and died of a wound which he received at the hand of 
Melanippus. But the sons of Agrius, to wit, Thersites, 
Onchestus, Prothous, Celeutor, Lycopeus, Melanippus, 
wrested the kingdom from Oeneus and gave it to 
their father, and more than that they mewed up 
Oeneus in his lifetime and tormented him. Never- 
theless Diomedes afterwards came secretly with 
Alemaeon from Argos and put to death all the sons 
of Agrius, except Onchestus and Thersites, who had 
fled betimes to Peloponnese; and as Oeneus was 
old, Diomedes gave the kingdom to Andraemon who 
had married the daughter of Oeneus, but Oeneus 
himself he took with him to Peloponnese. Howbeit, 
the sons of Thestius, who had made their escape, 
lay in wait for the old man at the hearth of 
Telephus in Arcadia, and killed him. But Diomedes 
conveyed the corpse to Argos and buried him in the 
place where now a city is called Oenoe after him.‘ 


Adrastus at Argos, and that Adrastus purified him from 
the murder (Eustathius and Scholia on Homer, JW.cc.) and 
gave him his daughter to wife. Compare Apollodorus, iii. 6.1. 

2 See below, iii. 6. 3 sqq. 

3 With this and what follows compare Pausanias, ii. 25, 2; 
Scholiast on Aristophanes, Acharn. 418 ; Antoninus Liberalis, 
Transform. 37; Hyginus, Fab. 175. The story furnished 
Euripides with the theme of a tragedy called Oeneus. See 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 536 


q. 
4 Compare Pausanias, ii. 25. 2. 


73 


APOLLODORUS 


γήμας Αἰγιάλειαν τὴν ᾿Αδράστου, «ἢ; ws ἔνιοί 
φασι τὴν Αἰγιαλέως, ἐπί τε Θήβας καὶ Τροίαν 
ἐστράτευσε. 

ΙΧ. Τῶν δὲ Αἰόλον παίδων ᾿Αθάμας, Βοιωτίας 
δυναστεύων, ἐκ Νεφέλης τεκνοῖ παῖδα μὲν Φρίξον 
θυγατέρα δὲ “Ελλην. αὖθις δὲ Ινὼ γαμεῖ, ἐξ ἧς 
αὐτῷ Λέαρχος καὶ Μελικέρτης ἐγένοντο. ἐπι- 
βουλεύουσα δὲ ᾿Ινὼ τοῖς Νεφέλης τέκνοις ἔπεισε 
τὰς γυναῖκας τὸν πυρὸν φρύγειν. λαμβάνουσαι 
δὲ κρύφα τῶν ἀνδρῶν τοῦτο ἔπρασσον. γῆ δὲ 
πεφρυγμένους πυροὺς δεχομένη καρποὺς ἐτησίους 
οὐκ ἀνεδίδου. διὸ πέμπων ὁ ᾿Αθάμας εἰς Δελφοὺς 
ἀπαλλαγὴν ἐπυνθάνετο τῆς ἀφορίας. “Iva δὲ τοὺς 
πεμφθέντας ἀνέπεισε λέγειν ὡς εἴη κεχρησμένον 
παύσεσθαι! τὴν ἀκαρπίαν, ἐὰν σφαγῇ Διὶ ὁ 
Φρίξος. τοῦτο ἀκούσας ᾿Αθάμας, συναναγκαζό- 
μενος ὑπὸ τῶν τὴν γῆν κατοικούντων, τῷ βωμῷ 
παρέστησε Φρίξον. Νεφέλη δὲ μετὰ τῆς θυγατρὸς 
αὑτὸν ἀνήρπασε, καὶ παρ᾽ Eppov λαβοῦσα χρυ- 
σόμαλλον κριὸν ἔδωκεν, ὕφ᾽ ὃ οὗ φερόμενοι Se 
οὐρανοῦ γῆν ὑπερέβησαν καὶ θάλασσαν. ὡς δὲ 


1 παύσεσθαι E, Hercher, Wagner: παύσασθαι A. 
2 ip’ FE: ἐφ᾽ A. 


1 For the story of Athamas, Phrixus, and Helle, see Zeno- 
bius, Cent. iv. 38; Apostolius, Cent. xi. 58 ; Scholiast on 
Aristophanes, Clouds, 257; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
22 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Iliad, vii. 86, p. 667; Scholiast 
on Homer, Iliad, vii. 86; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 47; Hyginus, 
Fab. 1-3; id. Astronomica, ii. 20; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Achill. i. 65; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latina, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 8, 120 sq. (First Vatican Mytho- 
Ἂς ier, 23 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 134). According 
to Herodotus (vii. 197), it was a rule among the descendants 


74 


THE LIBRARY, I. vin. 6—-1x. 1 


And having married Aegialia, daughter of Adrastus 
or,as some say, of Aegialeus, he went to the wars 
against Thebes and Troy. | 

IX. Of the sons of Aeolus, Athamas ruled over 
Boeotia and begat a son Phrixus and a daughter 
Helle by Nephele.!. And he married a second wife, 
Ino, by whom he had Learchus and Melicertes. 
But Ino plotted against the children of Nephele 
and persuaded the women to parch the wheat; 
and having got the wheat they did so without the 
knowledge of the men. But the earth, being sown 
with parched wheat, did not yield its annual crops; 
so Athamas sent to Delphi to inquire how he might 
be delivered from the dearth. Now Ino persuaded 
the messengers to say it was foretold that the 
infertility would cease if Phrixus were sacrificed to 
Zeus. When Athamas heard that, he was forced by 
the inhabitants of the land to bring Phrixus to the 
altar. But Nephele caught him and her daughter 
up and gave them a ram with a golden fleece, 
which she had received from Hermes, and borne 
through the sky by the ram they crossed land and 


of Phrixus that the eldest son of the family should be sacri- 
ficed (apparently to Laphystian Zeus) if ever he entered the 
town-hall ; hence, to escape the risk of such a fate, many of 
the family fled to foreign lands. Sophocles wrote a traged 

called Athamas, in which he represented the king himself 
crowned with garlands and led to the altar of Zeus to be 
sacrificed, but finally rescued by the interposition of Hercules 
(Scholiast on Aristophanes, Clouds, 237; Apostolius, Cent. 
xi.58; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, i. 
1 sqq.). These traditions point to the conclusion that in the 
royal line of Athamas the eldest son was regularly liable to 
be sacrificed either to prevent or to remedy a failure of the 
crops, and that in later times a ram was commonly accepted 
as a substitute for the human victim. Compare The Dying 


God, pp. 161 sqq. 
75 


to 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐγένοντο κατὰ τὴν μεταξὺ κειμένην θάλασσαν 
Σιγείου καὶ Χερρονήσου, ὦλισθεν εἰς τὸν βυθὸν ἡ 
“Ἑλλη, κἀκεῖ θανούσης αὐτῆς an’ ἐκείνης “Ελλήσ- 
ποντος ἐκλήθη τὸ πέλαγος. Φρίξος δὲ ἦλθεν εἰς 
Κόλχους, ὧν Αἰήτης ἐβασίλευε παῖς Ἡλίου καὶ 
ΠΕερσηίδος, ἀδελφὸς δὲ Κίρκης καὶ Πασιφάης, ἣν 
Μίνως ἔγημεν. οὗτος αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεται, καὶ μίαν 
τῶν θυγατέρων Χαλκιόπην δίδωσιν. ὁ δὲ τὸν 
χρυσόμαλλον κριὸν Διὶ θύει φυξίῳ, τὸ δὲ τούτου 
δέρας Αἰήτῃ δίδωσιν: ἐκεῖνος δὲ αὐτὸ περὶ δρῦν 
ἐν “Apeos ἄλσει καθήλωσεν. ἐγένοντο δὲ ἐκ 
Χαλκιόπης Φρίξῳ παῖδες ΓΑργος Μέλας Φρόντις 
Κυτίσωρος. 

᾿Αθάμας δὲ ὕστερον διὰ μῆνιν ρας καὶ τῶν ἐξ 
"Ivods ἐστερήθη παίδων: αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ μανεὶς 
ἐτόξευσε Λέαρχον, ἸΙνὼ δὲ Μελικέρτην μεθ᾽ ἑαυτῆς 
εἰς πέλαγος ἔρριψεν. ἐκπεσὼν δὲ τῆς Βοιωτίας 
ἐπυνθάνετο τοῦ θεοῦ ποῦ κατοικήσει" χρησθέντος 
δὲ αὐτῷ κατοικεῖν ἐν ᾧπερ ἂν τόπῳ ὑπὸ ζῴων 
ἀγρίων ξενισθῇ, πολλὴν χώραν διελθὼν ἐνέτυχε 
λύκοις προβάτων μοίρας νεμομένοις" οἱ δέ, θεωρή- 
σαντες αὐτόν, ἃ διῃροῦντο ἀπολιπόντες ἔφυγον. 
᾿Αθάμας δὲ κτίσας τὴν χώραν ᾿Αθαμαντίαν ἀφ᾽ 
ἑαυτοῦ προσηγόρευσε, καὶ γήμας Θεμιστὼ τὴν 
ὝὙὝψεέως. ἐγέννησε Λεύκωνα ᾿Ερύθριον Σχοινέα 
Πτῶον. 


1 Compare Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 229; Scholiast on Homer, Ihad, vii. 86 ; Eusta- 
thius on Homer, Jizad, vii. 86, p. 667 ; td. on Homer, Od. v. 
339, p. 1543 ; Pausanias, i. 44. 7 sq., ix. 34.7; Ovid, Meta- 
morph. iv. 481-542 ; Hyginus, Fab.4 and 5. Euripides wrote 
a tragedy, Ino, of which a number of fragments remain. See 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck®, pp. 482 


76 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 1-2 


sea. But when they were over the sea which lies 
betwixt Sigeum and the Chersonese, Helle slipped 
into the deep and was drowned, and the sea was 
called Hellespont after her. But Phrixus came to 
the Colchians, whose king was Aeetes, son of the 
Sun and of Perseis, and brother of Circe and 
Pasiphae, whom Minos married. He _ received 
Phrixus and gave him one of his daughters, Chalciope. 
And Phrixus sacrificed the ram with the golden fleece 
to Zeus the god of Escape, and the fleece he gave 
to Aeetes, who nailed it to an oak in a grove of 
Ares. And Phrixus had children by Chalciope, to 
wit, Argus, Melas, Phrontis, and Cytisorus. 

But afterwards Athamas was bereft also of the 
children of Ino through the wrath of Hera; for he 
went mad and shot Learchus with an arrow, and Ino 
cast herself and Melicertes into the sea.1 Being 
banished from Boeotia, Athamas inquired of the god 
where he should dwell, and on receiving an oracle 
that he should dwell in whatever place he should be 
entertained by wild beasts, he traversed a great 
extent of country till he fell in with wolves that 
were devouring pieces of sheep; but when they saw 
him they abandoned their prey and fled. So 
Athamas settled in that country and named it 
Athamantia after himself ;? and he married Themisto, 
daughter of Hypseus, and begat Leucon, Erythrius, 
Schoeneus, and Ptous. 
8ηᾳ. It is said that Hera drove Athamas mad because she 
was angry with him for receiving from Hermes the infant 
Dionysus and bringing him up as a girl. See Apollodorus, 
iii. 4. 3 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron., 22. 

2 Compare Scholiast on Plato, Minos, p. 315c; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 22; Etymologicum Magnum, s.v. ᾿Αθα- 
udvriov, p. 24.10. According to the last of these writers, 
Athamantia was a plain in Thessaly. 

77 


3 


APOLLODORUS 


Σίσυφος δὲ ὁ Αἰόλου κτίσας ᾿Εφύραν τὴν viv 
λεγομένην Κόρινθον γαμεῖ Μερόπην τὴν ΓΑτλαν- 
τος. ἐξ αὐτῶν παῖς γίνεται Γλαῦκος, ᾧ παῖς 
Βελλεροφόντης ἐξ Evpupedns ἐγεννήθη, ὃς ἔκτεινε 
τὴν πυρίπνουν Χίμαιραν. κολάξεται δὲ Σίσυφος 
ἐν “Αἰδον πέτρον ταῖς χερσὶ καὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ 
κυλίων, καὶ τοῦτον ὑπερβάλλειν θέλων: οὗτος 
δὲ ὠθούμενος ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ὠθεῖται πάλιν εἰς τοὐπίσω. 
τίνει δὲ ταύτην τὴν δίκην διὰ τὴν ᾿Ασωποῦ 
θυγατέρα Αἴγιναν: ἁρπάσαντα γὰρ αὐτὴν κρύφα 
Δία ᾿Ασωπῷ μηνῦσαι ζητοῦντι λέγεται. 

Δηιὼν δὲ βασιλεύων τῆς Φωκίδος Διομήδην 
τὴν ἘΞούθου γαμεῖ, καὶ αὐτῷ γίνεται θυγάτηρ μὲν 
᾿Αστεροδία,; παῖδες δὲ Αἰνετὸς “Axtwp Φύλακος 
Κέφαλος, ὃς γαμεῖ ἹΠρόκριν ? τὴν ᾿Ερεχθέως. 
αὖθις δὲ ἡ ᾿Ηὼς αὐτὸν ἁρπάζει ἐρασθεῖσα. 

Περιήρης δὲ Μεσσήνην κατασχὼν Γοργοφόνην 
τὴν Περσέως ἔγημεν, ἐξ ἧς ᾿Αφαρεὺς αὐτῷ καὶ 
Λεύκιππος καὶ Τυνδάρεως ἔτι τε Ἰκάριος παῖδες 


l ῬΑστεροδία Preller (comparing Scholiast on Homer, 1. 
ii. 520, Scholiast on Euripides, TJroades, 9), Hercher, 
Wagner: ᾿Αστεροπία A. 

2 Πρόκριν Aegius: πρόκνην A. 


1 Compare Homer, Iliad, vi. 152 sq.; Pausanias, ii. 1. 1. 

2 As to Bellerophon and the Chimera, see Apollodorus, ii. 
3. 1, with the note. 

3 As to Sisyphus and his stone, see Homer, Od. xi. 593-600. 
Homer does not say why Sisyphus was thus punished, but 
Pausanias (ii. 5. 1) and the Scholiast on Homer (Iliad, i. 180) 
agree with Apollodorus as to the crime which incurred this 
punishment. Hyginus assigns impiety as the cause of his 
sufferings (Fab. 60). The picturesque story of this cunning 
knave, who is said to have laid Death himself by the heels, 
so that nobody died till Ares released Death and delivered 


78 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 3-5 


And Sisyphus,son of Aeolus, founded Ephyra, which 
is now called Corinth,! and married Merope, daughter 
of Atlas. They had a son Glaucus, who had by 
Eurymede a son Bellerophon, who slew the fire- 
breathing Chimera.? But Sisyphus is punished in 
Hades by rolling a stone with his hands and head in 
the effort to heave it over the top; but push it as he 
will, it rebounds backward.2 This punishment he 
endures for the sake of Aegina, daughter of Asopus ; 
for when Zeus had secretly carried her off, Sisyphus 
is said to have betrayed the secret to Asopus, who 
was looking for her. 

Deion reigned over Phocis and married Diomede, 
daughter of Xuthus; and there were born to him a 
daughter, Asterodia, and sons, Aenetus, Actor, 
Phylacus, and Cephalus, who married Procris, 
daughter of Erechtheus.* But afterwards Dawn fell 
in love with him and carried him off. 

Perieres took possession of Messene and married 
Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus, by whom he had 
sons, to wit, Aphareus and Leucippus,° and Tyndareus, 


Sisyphus himself into his clutches (Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, 
vi. 153), was the theme of plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
and Euripides. See Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck’, pp. 74 sqq., 251,572; The Fragments of Sophocles, 
ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 184 84. Critias, one of the Thirty 
Tyrants at Athens, is credited with a play on the same 
theme, of which a very striking fragment,.giving a wholly 
sceptical view of the origin of the belief in gods, has come 
down to us. See Sextus Empiricus, ed. Im. Bekker, pp. 402 
sqq.; Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, 
pp. 771 844. ie 

4 Compare ii. 4. 7, ili. 15.1. As to the love of Dawn or 
Day for Cephalus, see Hesiod, Theog. 986 sqq.; Pausanias, i. 
3.1; Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 41 ; Ovid, Metamorph. 
vii. 700-713 ; Hyginus, Fab. 189, 270. 

5 Compare Pausanias, iv. 2. 2 and 4. 


79 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐγένοντο. πολλοὶ δὲ τὸν Περιήρην λέγουσιν οὐκ 
Αἰόλον παῖδα ἀλλὰ Κυνόρτα tot ᾿Αμύκλα' 
διόπερ τὰ πέρι τῶν Περιήρους ἐκγόνων ἐν τῷ 
, ᾿Ατλαντικῷ γένει δηλώσομεν. 

Μάγνης δὲ 2 γαμεῖ νύμφην νηίδα, καὶ γίνονται 
αὐτῷ παῖδες ἸΠολυδέκτης καὶ Δίκτυς: οὗτοι 
Σέριφον ᾧκισαν." 

Σαλμωνεὺς δὲ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον περὶ Θεσσαλίαν 
κατῴκει, παραγενόμενος δὲ αὖθις εἰς Ἦλιν ἐκεῖ 
πόλιν ἔκτισεν. ὑβριστὴς δὲ ὧν καὶ τῷ Au ἐξισοῦ- 
σθαι θέλων διὰ τὴν ἀσέβειαν ἐκολάσθη: ἔλεγε 
γὰρ ἑαυτὸν εἶναι Δία, καὶ τὰς ἐκείνου θυσίας 
sap ona ἑαυτῷ προσέτασσε θύειν, καὶ βύρσας 
μὲν ἐξηραμμένας ἐξ ἅρματος μετὰ λεβήτων χαλ- 
κῶν σύρων ἔλεγε βροντᾶν, βάλλων δὲ εἰς οὐρανὸν 

2 / ὔ ΝΜ. ? / \ \ 
αἰθομένας λαμπάδας ἔλεγεν ἀστράπτειν. Ζεὺς δὲ 
αὐτὸν κεραυνώσας τὴν κτισθεῖσαν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πόλιν 
καὶ τοὺς οἰκήτορας ἠφάνισε πάντας. 

Τυρὼ δὲ ἡ Σαλμωνέως θυγάτηρ καὶ ᾿Αλκιδίκης 
παρὰ Κρηθεῖ [τῷ Σαλμωνέως ἀδελφῷ] τρεφομένη 
ἔρωτα ἴσχει ᾿Ενιπέως τοῦ ποταμοῦ, καὶ συνεχῶς 
ἐπὶ τὰ τούτου ῥεῖθρα φοιτῶσα τούτοις ἐπωδύρετο. 

1 Κυνόρτα Aegius: κυνόντον A. 

2 δὲ The MSS. add Αἰόλον, which is retained by Miiller 
and Bekker, bracketed by Westermann, and deleted by 
Hercher and Wagner. 

3 Πολυδέκτης Aegius : πολυδεύκης A. 

4 ὥκισαν da ᾧκησαν A, 

5 ἐπωδύρετο Faber, Bekker, Wagner: ἀπωδύρετο A, Heyne, 


Westermann, Miiller: ἐπενήχετο Hercher (comparing Philo- 
stratus, Hpist. 47, ἡ δὲ Τυρὼ τῷ ᾿Ενιπεῖ ἐπενήξατο). 


1 See below, iii. 10. 3. 
* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 68. 1. His city was called 


80 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 5-8 


and also Icarius. But many say that Perieres was 
not the son of Aeolus but of Cynortas, son of 
Amyclas ;! so we shall narrate the history of the 
descendants of Perieres in dealing with the family 
of Atlas. 

Magnes married a Naiad nymph, and sons were 
born to him, Polydectes and Dictys; these colonized 
Seriphus. | 

Salmoneus at first dwelt in Thessaly, but after- 
wards he came to Elis and there founded a city.? 
And being arrogant and wishful to put himself on an 
equality with Zeus, he was punished for his impiety ; 
for he said that he was himself Zeus, and he took 
away the sacrifices of the god and ordered them to 
be offered to himself; and by dragging dried hides, 
with bronze kettles, at his chariot, he said that he 
thundered, and by flinging lighted torches at the 
sky he said that he lightened. But Zeus struck him 
with a thunderbolt, and wiped out the city he had 
founded with all its inhabitants.® 

Now Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, 
was brought up by Cretheus, brother of Salmoneus, 
and conceived a passion for the river Enipeus, and 
often would she hie to its running waters and utter 
Salmone. See Strabo, vii. 3. 31 and 32, p. 356; Stephanus 
Byzantius, 8.v. Σαλμώνη. 

8 Compare Virgil, Aen. vi. 585 sqq. with the commentary 
of Servius; Hyginus, Fab. 61; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 28, 93 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 82; Second Vatican Mythographer, 56). In 
the traditions concerning Salmoneus we muy perhaps trace 
the reminiscence of a line of kings who personated the Sky-god 
Zeus and attempted to make rain, thunder and lightning by 
means of imitative magic. See The Magic Art and the 
Evolution of Kings, i. 310, ii. 177, 180 sg. Sophocles composed 
a Satyric play on the subject (The Fragments of Sophocles, 
ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. 1i. pp. 177 sqq.). δι᾽ 


VOL. I. G 


APOLLODORUS 


Ποσειδῶν δὲ ‘eixacbels “Evire? συγκατεκλίθη 
αὐτῇ ἡ δὲ γεννήσασα κρύφα διδύμους παῖδας 
ἐκτίθησιν. ἐκκειμένων δὲ τῶν βρεφῶν, παριόντων 
ἱπποφορβῶν" ἵππος μία προσαψαμένη τῇ χηλῇ" 

θατέρου τῶν βρεφῶν πέλιόν τι τοῦ προσώπου 
μέρος ἐποίησεν. ὁ δὲ ἱπποφορβὸς ἀμφοτέρους 
τοὺς παῖδας ἀνελόμενος ἔθρεψε, καὶ τὸν μὲν πελιω- 
θέντα Πελίαν ἐκάλεσε, τὸν δὲ ἕτερον Νηλέα. 
τελειωθέντες δὲ ἀνεγνώρισαν τὴν μητέρα, καὶ τὴν 
μητρυιὰν ἀπέκτειναν Σιδηρώ' ,κκακουμένην. γὰρ 
γνόντες ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς τὴν μητέρα ὥρμησαν én’ αὐτήν, 
ἡ δὲ φθάσασα εἰς τὸ τῆς “Ἥρας τέμενος κατέφυγε, 


1 παριόντων ἱπποφορβῶν MSS. and editors: παριόντος ἱππο- 
φορβοῦ Hercher. But compare Scholiast on Homer, JI x. 
334, ἐπελθόντες οὖν of ἱπποφορβοὶ ἀνελομενοί τε τὰ παιδία 
ἔτρεφον. On the other hand Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 
253, p. 1681, has the singular: τοῦτον μὲν ἱπποφορβὸς ἀνελό- 
μενος κυλ. 

5 θηλῇ A. Wagner ascribes the correction χηλῇ to Aegius ; 
but in his text Aegius reads θηλῇ and translates it so 
(‘‘ mamma casu quodam tetigssset”). Commelinus and Gale 
read χηλῇ, and so Heyne, Westernann Miller, Bekker, 
Hercher, and Wagner. 


1 As to the passion of Tyro for the river Enipeus, see 
Homer, Od. xi. 235 sqq.; Lucian, Dial. Marin. 13; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 68. 3 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 234, p. 1681. 
Sophocles wrote two plays, both called Tyro, on the romantic 
love and sorrows of this heroine. See Tragicorum Graecorum 
Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 272 sqq.; The Fragments of 
Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 270 sqq. 

As to the exposure and discovery of the twins Pelias and 
Neleus, see Menander, Epitrepontes, 108-116 (Four Plays of 
Menander, ed. E. Capps, pp. 60 84.); Scholiast on Homer, Jl. 
x. 334; Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 253, p. 1681. Accord- 
ing to Eustathius and the Scholiast on Homer (Wl.cc.), Pelias 
was suckled by a mare and Neleus by a bitch. Compare 


82 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 8 


her plaint to them. But Poseidon in the likeness of 
Enipeus lay with her,! and she secretly gave birth 
to twin sons, whom she exposed. As the babes lay 
forlorn, a mare, belonging to some passing horse- 
keepers, kicked with its hoof one of the two infants 
and left a livid mark on its face. The horse-keeper 
took up both the children and reared them; and the 
one with the livid (pelson) mark he called Pelias, 
and the other Neleus.2, When they were grown up, 
they discovered their mother and killed their 
stepmother Sidero. For knowing that their mother 
was ill-used by her, they attacked her, but before 
they could catch her she had taken refuge in the 
precinct of Hera.2 However, Pelias cut her down 


Aelian, Var. Hist. xii.42. Aristotle says (Poetics, 16, p. 1454, 
b 25) that in Sophocles’s play Tyro the recognition of the 
forsaken babes was affected. by means of the ark (σκάφη) in 
which they were found. Menander seems to have followed 
a somewhat different tradition, for he says that the children 
were found by an old goatherd, and that the token by which 
they were recognized was a small scrip or wallet (πηρίδιον). 
The legend of the exposed twins, the children of a divine 
father by a human mother, who were suckled by animals, 
reared by a peasant, and grew up to quarrel about a kingdom, 
resents points of resemblance to the legend of Romulus and 
mus; and it has even been suggested that the Greek tale, 
as dramatized by Sophocles, was the ultimate source of the 
Roman story, having filtered to the early Roman historian 
Q. Fabius Pictor through the medium of the Greek historian 
Diocles of Peparethus, whom Fabius Pictor appears to have 
followed on this and many other points of early Roman 
history (Plutarch, Romulus, 3). The same word σκάφη which 
Sophocles seems to have applied to the ark in which Pelias 
aud Neleus were exposed, is applied by Plutarch (/.c.) to 
the ark in which Romulus and Remus were exposed. See 
C. Trieber, ‘‘ Die Romulussage,” Rheinisches Museum, N.F. 
xliji. (1888), pp. 568. 

3 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 175, who seems 

to have copied Apollodorus. 5 
3 


Ga 2 


APOLLODORUS 


Πελίας δὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν τῶν βωμῶν αὐτὴν κατέσφαξε, 


9 καὶ καθόλου διετέλει τὴν ραν ἀτιμάζων. ἐστα- 


10 


11 


σίασαν δὲ ὕστερον πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ Νηλεὺς 
μὲν ἐκπεσὼν ἧκεν εἰς Μεσσήνην καὶ Πύλον κτίξει, 
καὶ γαμεῖ Χλωρίδα τὴν ᾿Αμφίονος, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ 
γίνεται θυγάτηρ μὲν ἸΠηρώ, ἄρρενες δὲ Ταῦρος 
᾿Αστέριος ἸΤυλάων Δηίμαχος Εὐρύβιος ᾿Επίλαος 
Φράσιος Evpupévns Evayopas ᾿Αλάστωρ Νέστωρ 
Περικλύμενος, ᾧ δὴ καὶ Ἰ]οσειδῶν δίδωσι μετα- 
βάλλειν τὰς μορφάς, καὶ μαχόμενος ὅτε Ἡρακλῆς 
ἐξεπόρθει -Πύλον, γινόμενος ὁτὲ μὲν λέων ὁτὲ δὲ 
ὄφις ὁτὲ δὲ μέλισσα, ὑφ᾽ “Ἡρακλέους μετὰ τῶν 
ἄλλων Νηλέως παίδων ἀπέθανεν. ἐσώθη δὲ 
Νέστωρ μόνος, ἐπειδὴ παρὰ Γερηνίοις ἐτρέφετο" 
ὃς γήμας ᾿ΔΑναξιβίαν τὴν Kpatiéws θυγατέρας 
μὲν Πεισιδίκην καὶ Πολυκάστην ἐγέννησε, παῖδας 
δὲ Περσέα Στράτιχον ἔΑρητον ᾿Εχέφρονα Πεισίσ- 
τρατον ᾿Αντίλοχον Θρασυμήδην. 

Πελίας δὲ περὶ Θεσσαλίαν κατῴκει, καὶ γήμας 
᾿Αναξιβίαν τὴν Βίαντος, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι 1 Φυλομάχην 
τὴν ᾿Αμφίονος, ἐγέννησε παῖδα μὲν Ακαστον, 
θυγατέρας δὲ Πεισιδίκην Πελόπειαν ᾿Ἱπποθόην 
"Αλκηστιν. 

Κρηθεὺς δὲ κτίσας ᾿Ιωλκὸν γαμεῖ Τυρὼ τὴν 

1 ἔνιοι R, Wagner : ἔνιοι λέγουσι A. 


1 Compare Homer, Od. xi. 281 sqq.; Pausanias, iv. 2. 5. 

2 See felow. ii. 7. 3, and compare Homer, JI. xi. 690-693, 
with the Scholia; Ovid, Metamorph. xii. 549 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 10. As to Periclymenus, see the verses of Hesiod 
quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 156, 
ee to whom Periclymenus received from Poseidon the 
power of turning himself into an eagle, an ant, a bee, or a 
snake; but Hercules, so says the scholiast, killed him with 


84 








THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 8-11 


on the very altars, and ever after he continued to 
treat Hera with contumely. But afterwards the 
brothers fell out, and Neleus, being banished, came 
to Messene, and founded Pylus, and married Chloris,} 
daughter of Amphion, by whom he had a daughter, 
Pero, and sons, to wit, Taurus, Asterius, Pylaon, 
Deimachus, Eurybius, Epilaus, Phrasius, Eurymenes, 
Evagoras, Alastor, Nestor and Periclymenus, whom 
Poseidon granted the power of changing his shape. 
And when Hercules was ravaging Pylus, in the fight 
Periclymenus turned himself into a lion, a snake, and 
a bee, but was slain by Hercules with the other sons 
of Neleus. Nestor alone was saved, because he was 
brought up among the Gerenians.2, He married 
Anaxibia, daughter of Cratieus,’ and begat daughters, 
Pisidice and Polycaste, and sons, Perseus, Stratichus, 
Aretus, Echephron, Pisistratus, Antilochus, and 
Thrasymedes. 

But Pelias dwelt in Thessaly and married Anaxibia, 
daughter of Bias, but according to some his wife was 
Phylomache, daughter of Amphion; and he begat 
a son, Acastus, and daughters, Pisidice, Pelopia, 
Hippothoe, and Alcestis.* 

Cretheus founded Iolcus and married Tyro, 


a blow of his club when he had assumed the form of a fly. 
According to another account, it was in the form of a bee 
that Periclymenus was slain by Hercules (Eustathius, on 
Homer, Od. xi. 285, pp. 1685 sq.; Scholiast on Homer, 17. ii. 
336). But Ovid (i.c.) says that Hercules shot him in the 
shape of an eagle, and this version is followed by Hyginus 
(Fab. 10). Periclymenus is also reported to have been able 
to change himself into any animal or tree he pleased (Kusta- 
thius, 1.6.; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 286). 

3 According to Homer (Od. iii. 452), the wife of Nestor 
was Eurydice, daughter of Clymenus. 

4 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 175. 


85 


APOLLODORUS 


, 3 > “A 4 a v 
Σαλμωνέως, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ γίνονται παῖδες Αἴσων 
’ / 7 3 , \ 4 IA 
Αμυθάων Φέρης. ᾿Αμυθάων μὲν οὖν οἰκῶν 
Πύλον 1 [υἰδομένην γαμεῖ τὴν Φέρητος, καὶ γίνον- 
ται παῖδες αὐτῷ Βίας καὶ Μελάμπους, ὃς ἐπὶ τῶν 
χωρίων διατελῶν, οὔσης πρὸ τῆς οἰκήσεως αὐτοῦ 
δρυὸς ἐν 7) φωλεὸς ὄφεων ὑπῆρχεν, ἀποκτεινάντων 
τῶν θεραπόντων τοὺς ὄφεις τὰ μὲν ἑρπετὰ ξύλα 
συμφορήσας ἔκαυσε, τοὺς δὲ τῶν ὄφεων νεοσσοὺς 
ἔθρεψεν. οἱ δὲ γενόμενοι τέλειοι παραστάντες 2 
αὐτῷ κοιμωμένῳ τῶν ὦμων ἐξ ἑκατέρου τὰς ἀκοὰς 
ταῖς γλώσσαις ἐξεκάθαιρον. ὁ δὲ ἀναστὰς καὶ 
a ? 
γενόμενος περιδεὴς τῶν ὑπερπετομένων ὀρνέων 
τὰς φωνὰς συνίει, καὶ παρ᾽ ἐκείνων μανθάνων 
, a 2 ’ 4 / 

mpovrcye τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ μέλλοντα. προσέλαβε 
δὲ καὶ τὴν διὰ τῶν ἱερῶν μαντικήν, περὶ δὲ τὸν 
᾿Αλφειὸν συντυχὼν ᾿Απόλλωνι τὸ λοιπὸν ἄριστος 
ἣν μάντις. 

Bias δὲ 5 ἐμνηστεύετο Ἰ]Πηρὼ τὴν Νηλέως: ὁ 
δὲ πολλῶν αὐτῷ μνηστενομένων τὴν θυγατέρα 
1 κύλον BE: πύλην A. 2 παραστάντες Εἰ : περιστάντες A. 

3 Blas δὲ ὁ ᾿Αμυθάονος A: the words 6 ’AunOdovos were con- 


demned as a gloss by Heyne and are omitted by Hercher 
and Wagner. 


1 Compare Homer, Od. xi. 258 sq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 175. 

2 As to the mode in which Melampus learned the language 
of birds, and with it the art of divination, from serpents in 
return for the kindness which he had shown to their species, 
see Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 118 ; compare 
Eustathius on Homer, Od. xi. 292, p. 1685; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
x. 137. Helenus and Cassandra are said to have acquired their 
prophetic power in like manner. As children they were left 
overnight in a temple of Apollo, and in the morning serpents 
were found licking their ears. See Scholiast on Homer, Jl. 
vii. 44 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, Introd. vol. i. pp. 


86 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 11-12 


daughter of Salmoneus, by whom he had sons, 
Aeson, Amythaon, and Pheres.!. Amythaon dwelt 
in Pylus and married Idomene, daughter of Pheres, 
and there were born to him two sons, Bias and 
Melampus. The latter lived in the country, and 
before his house there was an oak, in which there 
was a lair of snakes. His servants killed the 
snakes, but Melampus gathered wood and burnt the 
reptiles, and reared the young ones. And when 
the young were full grown, they stood beside him 
at each of his shoulders as he slept, and_ they 
purged his ears with their tongues. He started up 
in a great fright, but understood the voices of the 
birds flying overhead, and from what he learned 
from them he foretold to men what should come 
to pass.2_ He acquired besides the art of taking the 
auspices, and having fallen in with Apollo at the 
Alpheus he was ever after an excellent soothsayer. 
Bias wooed Pero, daughter of Neleus.2 But as 
there were many suitors for his daughter’s hand, 


266 sqg., ed. C. G. Miiller. Porphyry said that perhaps we and 
all men might have understood the language of all animals 
if a serpent had washed our ears (De abstinentia, iii. 4). In 
the folk-tales of many lands, men are said to have obtained 
a knowledge of the language of animals from serpents, either 
by eating the flesh of serpents or in other ways. See my 
article, ‘‘ The Language of Animals,” The Archaeological 
Review, i. (1888), pp. 166 sqq. 

* The following romantic tale of the wooing of Pero is 
told also by the Scholiast on Homer (Od. xi. 287). It is 
repeated also in substantially the same form by Eustathius, 
on Homer, Od. xi. 292, p. 1685. Compare Scholiast on 
Theocritus, iii. 43 ; Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, i. 118; 
Propertius, ii. 3. 51 sgq. A summary of the story, shorn of 
its miraculous elements, is given by Homer (Od. xi. 287-297, 
xv, 225-238) and Pausanias (iv. 36. 3). See Appendix, 
‘‘ Melampus and the kine of Phylacus.” 


87 


APOLLODORUS 


δώσειν ἔφη τῷ τὰς Φυλάκου! Boas κομί- 
σαντι αὐτῷ. αὗται δὲ ἦσαν ἐν Φυλάκῃ, καὶ 

’ 3 ’ > A φ ΜΝ Ν᾿ ww 
κύων ἐφύλασσεν αὐτὰς οὗ οὔτε ἄνθρωπος οὔτε 
θηρίον πέλας ἐλθεῖν ἠδύνατο. ταύτας ἀδυνατῶν 
Βίας τὰς βόας κλέψαι παρεκάλει τὸν ἀδελφὸν 
συλλαβέσθαι. Μελάμπους δὲ ὑπέσχετο, καὶ 
προεῖπεν ὅτε φωραθήσεται κλέπτων καὶ δεθεὶς 
ἐνιαυτὸν οὕτω τὰς Boas λήψεται. μετὰ δὲ τὴν 
ὑπόσχεσιν εἰς Φυλάκην ἀπήει καί, καθάπερ 
προεῖπε, φωραθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κλοπῇ δέσμιος ἐν 
οἰκήματι ἐφυλάσσετο. λειπομένου δὲ τοῦ ἐνι- 
αὐτοῦ βραχέος χρόνου, τῶν κατὰ τὸ κρυφαῖον 3 
τῆς στέγης σκωλήκων ἀκούει, τοῦ μὲν ἐρωτῶντος 
πόσον ἤδη μέρος τοῦ δοκοῦ διαβέβρωται, τῶν δὲ 
ἀποκρινομένων. λοιπὸν ἐλάχιστον εἶναι. καὶ 
ταχέως ἐκέλευσεν αὑτὸν εἰς ἕτερον οἴκημα μετα- 
γαγεῖν, γενομένου δὲ τούτου μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ συνέ- 

Vv 4 A UA \ 
πεσε TO οἴκημα. θαυμάσας δὲ Φύλακος, καὶ 
μαθὼν ὅτι éoti μάντις ἄριστος, λύσας παρεκά- 
λεσεν εἰπεῖν ὅπως αὐτοῦ τῷ παιδὶ ᾿Ιφίκλῳ παῖδες 
γένωνται. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τὰς Boas λή- 
ψεται. καὶ καταθύσας ταύρους δύο καὶ μελίσας 
τοὺς οἰωνοὺς προσεκαλέσατο: παραγενομένου δὲ 
αἰγυπιοῦ, παρὰ τούτου μανθάνει δὴ ὅτι Φύλακός 
ποτε κριοὺς τέμνων ἐπὶ τῶν αἰδοίων δ παρὰ τῷ 
e 

᾿Ιφίκλῳ τὴν μάχαιραν ἡμαγμένην ἔτι. κατέθετο, 
δείσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ φυγόντος αὖθις κατὰ 
τῆς ἱερᾶς δρυὸς αὐτὴν ἔπηξε, καὶ ταύτην ἀμφι- 

1 Φυλάκον A, Westermann, Miiller: Ἰφίκλου Aegius, 
Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

2 δέσμιος Bekker: δεσμοῖς A. 

3 κρυφαῖον RR*B: κορυφαῖον C, PR¢ in the margin: dpo- 
φιαῖον Faber, Hercher. Ἅ4Ἅ ἀποκρινομένων R: ἀποκριναμένων A. 

5 αἰδοίων R: αἰβίων A : ἀγρῶν Heyne, Westermann, Bekker. 
88 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 12 


Neleus said that he would give her to him who 
should bring him the kine of Phylacus. These 
were in Phylace, and they were guarded by a dog 
which neither man nor beast could come near. 
Unable to steal these kine, Bias invited his brother 
to help him. Melampus promised to do so, and 
foretold that he should be detected in the act of 
stealing them, and that he should get the kine after 
being kept in bondage for a year. After making 
this promise he repaired to Phylace and, just as 
he had foretold, he was detected in the theft and 
kept a prisoner in a cell. When the year was nearly 
up, he heard the worms in the hidden part of the 
roof, one of them asking how much of the beam 
had been already gnawed through, and others an- 
swering that very little of it was left. At once 
he bade them transfer him to another cell, 
and not long after that had been done the cell 
fell in. Phylacus marvelled, and perceiving that 
he was an excellent soothsayer, he released him 
and invited him to say how his son Iphiclus might 
get children. Melampus promised to tell him, 
provided he got the kine. And having sacrificed 
two bulls and cut them in pieces he summoned the 
birds ; and when a vulture came, he learned from 
it that once, when Phylacus was gelding rams, he 
laid down the knife, still bloody, beside Iphiclus, 
and that when the child was frightened and ran 
away, he stuck the knife on the sacred oak, and the 


1 According to the Scholiast on Homer (Od. xi. 287 and 
290) and Eustathius (on Homer, Od. xi. 292, p. 1685), the tree 
was not an oak but a wild pear-tree (&xepdos). , 

9 


13 


14 


15 


APOLLODORUS 


Tpoxacas ἐκάλυψεν ὃ φλοιός. ἔλεγεν οὖν, 
εὑρεθείσης τῆς μαχαίρας εἰ ξύων τὸν ἰὸν ἐπὶ 
ἡμέρας δέκα Ἰφίκλῳ δῷ πιεῖν, παῖδα γεννήσειν. 
ταῦτα μαθὼν παρ᾽ αἰγυπιοῦ Μελάμπους τὴν μὲν 
μάχαιραν εὗρε, τῷ δὲ Ἰφίκλῳ τὸν ἰὸν ξύσας ἐπὶ 
ἡμέρας δέκα δέδωκε πιεῖν, καὶ παῖς αὐτῷ Ποδάρ- 
ns ἐγένετο. τὰς δὲ βόας εἰς Πύλον ἤλασε, καὶ 
τῷ ἀδελφῷ τὴν Νηλέως θυγατέρα λαβὼν ἔδωκε. 
καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐν Μεσσήνῃ κατῴκει, ὡς δὲ 
τὰς ἐν Αργει γυναῖκας ἐξέμηνε Διόνυσος, ἐπὶ" 
μέρει τῆς ὃ βασιλείας ἰασάμενος αὐτὰς ἐκεῖ μετὰ 
Βίαντος κατῴκησε. 

Βίαντος δὲ καὶ Πηροῦς Ταλαός, οὗ καὶ Λυσι- 
μάχης τῆς Αβαντος τοῦ Μελάμποδος "Αδραστος 
Παρθενοπαῖος Πρῶναξ Μηκιστεὺς ᾿Αριστόμαχος 
᾿Εριφύλη, ἣν ᾿Αμφιάραος γαμεῖ. Παρθενοπαίου 
δὲ Πρόμαχος ἐγένετο, ὃς μετὰ τῶν ἐπιγόνων ἐπὶ 
Θήβας ἐστρατεύθη, Μηκιστέως δὲ Εὐρύαλος, ὃς 
ἧκεν εἰς Τροίαν. Πρώνακτος δὲ ἐγένετο Λυκοῦρ- 
γος, ᾿Αδράστου δὲ καὶ ᾿Αμφιθέας τῆς Πρώνακτος 
θυγατέρες μὲν ᾿Αργεία Δηιπύλη Αἰγιάλεια, παῖ- 
δες δὲ Αὐγιαλεὺς «καὶ» Κυάνιππος. 

Φέρης δὲ ὁ Κρηθέως Φερὰς ἐν Θεσσαλίᾳ κτί- 
σας ἐγέννησεν "Αδμητον καὶ Δυκοῦργον. Λυκοῦρ- 
γος μὲν οὖν περὶ Νεμέαν sa vee γήμας δὲ 
Εὐρυδίκην, ὡς δὰ ἔνιοί φασιν ᾿Αμφιθ έαν, ἐγέν- 
νησεν ᾿Ὀφέλτην «τὸν ὕστερον;»" κληθέντα ᾿Αρχέ- 
μορον. ᾿Αδμήτου δὲ βασιλεύοντος τῶν ͵ Ῥερῶν, 
ἐθήτευσεν ᾿Απόλλων αὐτῷ μνηστευομένῳ τὴν 

} ἀμφιτροχάσας R: ἀμφιτροχώσας A. 
2 ἐπὶ R: ὑπὸ A. δ ris R: τοῦ 


4 τὸν ὕστερον added by Hercher. 
go 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 12-15 


bark encompassed the knife and hid it. He said, 
therefore, that if the knife were found, and he scraped 
off the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus to drink for ten 
days, he would beget a son. Having learned these 
things from the vulture, Melampus found the knife, 
scraped the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus for ten days 
to drink, and a son. Podarces was born to him.! 
But he drove the kine to Pylus, and having received 
the daughter of Neleus he gave her to his brother. 
For a time he continued to dwell in Messene, but 
when Dionysus drove the women of Argos mad, 
he healed them on condition of receiving part of the 
kingdom, and settled down there with Bias.? 

Bias and Pero had a son Talaus, who married 
Lysimache, daughter of Abas, son of Melampus, and 
had by her Adrastus, Parthenopaeus, Pronax, Mecis- 
teus, Aristomachus, and Eriphyle, whom Amphiaraus 
married. Parthenopaeus had a son Promachus, who 
marched with the Epigoni against Thebes;? and 
Mecisteus had a son Euryalus, who went to Troy.‘ 
Pronax had a son Lycurgus; and Adrastus had by 
Amphithea, daughter of Pronax, three daughters, 
Argia, Deipyle, and Aegialia, and two sons, Aegialeus 
and Cyanippus. 

Pheres, son of Cretheus, founded Pherae in Thessaly 
and begat Admetus and Lycurgus. Lycurgus took up 
his abode at Nemea, and having married Eurydice, or, as 
some say, Amphithea, he begat Opheltes, afterwards 
called Archemorus.2” When Admetus reigned over 
Pherae, Apollo served him as his thrall,6 while Admetus 


1 Compare Apollodorus, Epitome, iii. 20, with the note. 

2 See below, ii. 2. 2; Diodorus Siculus, ii. 68.4; Pausanias, 
i. 18. 4. 

% Compare below, iii. 7. 2. 4 See Homer, 7}. ii. 565 sq. 

5 See below, 11]. 6. 4. 6 See below, iii. 10. 4. 


gi 


16 


APOLLODORUS 


Πελίου θυγατέρα Ἄλκηστιν. ἐκείνου | δὲ δώσειν 
ἐπαγγειλαμένου " τὴν θυγατέρα τῷ καταζεύξαντι 
ἅρμα λέοντος καὶ κάπρου," ᾿Απόλλων ζεύξας 
ἔδωκεν’ ὁ δὲ κομίσας πρὸς Πελίαν Αλκηστιν 
λαμβάνει. θύων δὲ ἐν τοῖς γάμοις ἐξελάθετο 
᾿Αρτέμιδι θῦσαι" διὰ τοῦτο τὸν θάλαμον ἀνοίξας 
εὗρε δρακόντων σπειράμασι * πεπληρωμένον. 
᾿Απόλλων δὲ εἰπὼν ἐξιλάσκεσθαι τὴν θεόν, ἡ ἡτή- 
σατο παρὰ" μοιρῶν ἵνα, ὅταν “Αδμητος μέλλῃ 
τελευτᾶν, ἀπολυθῇ τοῦ θανάτου, ἂν ἑκουσίως τις 
ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ θνήσκειν ἕληται." ὡς δὲ ἦλθεν ἡ 
τοῦ θνήσκειν ἡμέρα, μ μήτε τοῦ πατρὸς μ μήτε τῆς 
μητρὸς ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ θνήσκειν θελόντων, ᾿Αλκηστις 
ὑπεραπέθανε. καὶ αὐτὴν πάλιν ἀνέπεμψεν ἡ 
Κόρη, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, Ἡρακλῆς «πρὸς 
αὐτὸν ἀνεκόμισε; ἴ μα μαχεσάμενος “Αιδῃ. 

Αἴσονος δὲ τοῦ Κρηθέως καὶ Πολυμήδης τῆς 
Αὐτολύκου ᾿Ιάσων. οὗτος ᾧκει ἐν ᾿Ιωλκῷ, τῆς 


1 éxelvovu Heyne, Hercher, Wagner: ἐκείνῳ MSS., Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 ἐπαγγειλαμένου’ The MSS. add πελλίου (Πελίου), which 
is deleted by Hercher and Wagner, following Heyne. 

5 λέοντος καὶ κάπρον Heyne: λεόντων καὶ κάπρων A. 

᾿ 5 δτειράμασι Heyne: σπείραμα A. 

ς rape RR&: περὶ A. 

6 ἕληται. The MSS. add πατὴρ } μήτηρ } yuh. These 
words are retained by Westermann and Miller, but omitted 
by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner, following He 

7 «πρὸς αὐτὸν dvexduscce >. Omitted in the MSS. : : restored 
by Fischer and Wagner from Zenobius, Cent. i. 18. 


1 Compare Hyginus, Fab. 50 and 51. 

2 That is, Persephone. 

3 This pathetic story is immortalized by Euripides in his 
noble tragedy Alcestis, happily still extant. Compare 


g2 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 15-16 


wooed Alcestis, daughter of Pelias. Now Pelias 
had promised to give his daughter to him who should 
yoke a lion and a boar to a car, and Apollo yoked and 
gave them to Admetus, who brought them to Pelias 
and so obtained Alcestis.! But in offering a sacrifice 
at his marriage, he forgot to sacrifice to Artemis ; 
therefore when he opened the marriage chamber he 
found it full of coiled snakes. Apollo bade him 
appease the goddess and obtained as a favour of the 
Fates that, when Admetus should be about to die, 
he might be released from death if someone should 
choose voluntarily to die for him. And when 
the day of his death came neither his father nor his 
mother would die for him, but Alcestis died in his 
stead. But the Maiden? sent her up again, or, as 
some say, Hercules fought with Hades and brought 
her up to him.? 

Aeson, son of Cretheus, had a son Jason by 
Polymede, daughter of Autolycus. Now Jason dwelt in 


Zenobius, Cent. i. 18, which to a certain extent agrees 
verbally with this passage of Apollodorus. The tale of 
Admetus and Alcestis has its parallel in history. Once 
when Philip II. of Spain had fallen ill and seemed like to 
die, his fourth wife, Anne of Austria, ‘‘in her distress, 
τὰν Pate the Almighty to spare a life so important to the 
welfare of the kingdom and of the church, and instead of 
it to accept the sacrifice of her own. Heaven, says the 
chronicler, as the result showed, listened to her prayer. The 
king recovered ; and the queen fell ill of a disorder which in 
a few days terminated fatally.” So they laid the dead queen 
to her last rest, with the kings of Spain, in the gloomy pile 
of the Escurial among the wild and barren mountains of 
Castile ; but there was no Hercules to complete the parallel 
with the Greek legend by restoring her in the bloom of life 
and beauty to the arms of her husband. See W. H. Prescott, 
History of the Reign of Philip the Second, bk. vi. chap. 2, at 
the end. 


93 


APOLLODORUS 


° 


“δὲ ᾿Ιωλκοῦ Πελίας ἐβασίλευσε μετὰ Κρηθέα, ᾧ 
χρωμένῳ περὶ τῆς βασιλείας ἐθέσπισεν ὁ θεὸς 
τὸν μονοσάνδαλον φυλάξασθαι. τὸ μὲν οὖν πρῶ- 
Tov ἠγνόει τὸν χρησμόν, αὖθις δὲ ὕστερον αὐτὸν 
ἔγνω: τελῶν γὰρ ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ Ποσειδῶνι 
θυσίαν; ἄλλους τε πολλοὺς ἐπὶ ταύτῃ καὶ τὸν 
Ἰάσονα μετεπέμψατο. ὁ δὲ πόθῳ γεωργίας ἐν 
τοῖς χωρίοις διατελῶν ἔσπευσεν ἐπὶ τὴν θυσίαν" 
διαβαίνων δὲ ποταμὸν ΓΑναυρον ἐξῆλθε μονοσάν- 
δαλος, τὸ ἕτερον ἀπολέσας ἐν τῷ ῥείθρῳ πέδιλον. 
θεασάμενος δὲ Πελίας αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν χρησμὸν 
συμβαλὼν ἠρώτα προσελθών, τί 3 ἂν ἐποίησεν 
ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, εἰ λόγιον ἦν αὐτῷ πρός τινος 
φονευθήσεσθαι τῶν πολιτῶν. ὁ δέ, εἴτε ἐπελθὸν 
ἄλλως, εἴτε διὰ μῆνιν “Hpas, ἵν᾽ ἔλθοι κακὸν 
Μήδεια Πελίᾳ (τὴν γὰρ Ἥραν οὐκ ἐτίμα), ““ Τὸ 
, ) 2 ¥ ἐξ , ; 
χρυσόμαλλον δέρας " ἔφη “προσέταττον ἂν φέ- 
ρειν αὐτῷ." τοῦτο Πελίας ἀκούσας εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τὸ 
δέρας ἐλθεῖν ἐκέλευσεν αὐτόν. τοῦτο δὲ ἐν 
Κόλχοις ἦν «ἐν» “Apeos ἄλσει κρεμάμενον ἐκ 
δρυός, ἐφρουρεῖτο δὲ ὑπὸ δράκοντος ἀύπνου. 
"Earl τοῦτο πεμπόμενος ᾿Ιάσων “Apyov παρεκά- 
λεσε τὸν Φρίξου, κἀκεῖνος ᾿Αθηνᾶς ὑποθεμένης 
1 θυσίαν ER, Zenobius, Cent. iv. 92: θυσίας A. 


2 τί Εἰ, Zenobius, Cent. iv. 92: τίς A. 
8 ἐλθεῖν A, Zenobius, Cent. iv. 92 : πλεῖν Εἰ. 


1 For the story of Pelias and Jason, see Pindar, Pyth. iv. 
73 (129) sqqg., with the Scholia ; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i. 5 8qq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, i. 175; Hyginus, 
Fab. 12 and 13; Servius, on Virgil, Hel. iv. 34; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iii. 516. The present passage of 
Se is copied almost literally, but as usual without 
acknowledgment, by Zenobius, Cent. iv. 92. It was the 


94 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1x, τό 


Iolcus, of which Pelias was king after Cretheus.} 
But when Pelias consulted the oracle concerning 
the kingdom, the god warned him to beware of the 
man with a single sandal. At first the king under- 
stood not the oracle, but afterwards he apprehended 
it. For when he was offering a sacrifice at the sea to 
Poseidon, he sent for Jason, among many others, to 
participate in it. Now Jason loved husbandry and 
therefore abode in the country, but he hastened to 
the sacrifice, and in crossing the river Anaurus he lost 
a sandal in the stream and landed with only one. 
~ When Pelias saw him, he bethought him of the oracle, 
and going up to Jason asked him what, supposing he 
had the power, he would do if he had received an 
oracle that he should be murdered by one of the 
citizens. Jason answered, whether at haphazard or 
instigated by the angry Hera in order that Medea 
should prove a curse to Pelias, who did not honour 
Hera, “ I would command him,” said he, “to bring 
the Golden Fleece.”” No sooner did Pelias hear 
that than he bade him go in quest of the fleece. 
Now it was at Colchis in a grove of Ares, hanging on 
an oak and guarded by a sleepless dragon.? 

Sent to fetch the fleece, Jason called in the help of 
_Argus, son of Phrixus; and Argus, by Athena’s advice, 


regular custom of Aetolian warriors to go with the left foot 
shod and the right foot unshod. See Macrobius, Sat. v. 18- 
21, quoting Euripides and Aristotle ; Scholiast on Pindar, 
Pyth. iv. 133. So the two hundred men who broke through 
the Spartan lines at the siege of Plataea were shod on the left 
foot only (Thucydides, iii. 22). Virgil represents some of the 
rustic militia of Latium marching to war with their right feet 
shod and their left feet bare (Aen. vii. 689 sqg.). As to the 
custom, see Taboo and the Perils of the Soul, pp. 311 844. 

2 See Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 1268-1270, iv. 123 


eqq. 163. 
95 


APOLLODORUS 


TEVTNKOVTOPOY ναῦν κατεσκεύασε THY προσα- 
γορευθεῖσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ κατασκευάσαντος ᾿Αργώ' 
κατὰ δὲ τὴν πρῷραν ἐνήρμοσεν ᾿Αθηνᾶ φωνῆεν 
φηγοῦ τῆς Δωδωνίδος ξύλον. ὡς δὲ ἡ ναῦς κατε- 
7 e Ἁ 3 a a 3 4 

σκευάσθη, χρωμένῳ ὁ θεὸς αὐτῷ πλεῖν ἐπέτρεψε 
συναθρσίσαντι τοὺς ἀρίστους τῆς ᾿Ελλάδος. οἱ 
δὲ συναθροισθέντες εἰσὶν οἵδε: Tidus ᾿Αγνίου," 
ὃς ἐκυβέρνα τὴν ναῦν, Ὀρφεὺς Οἰάγρου, Ζήτης 

\ , “- / / Ν ΄ 
καὶ Κάλαϊς Βορέου, Κάστωρ καὶ Ἰ]ολυδεύκης 
Διός, Τελαμὼν καὶ Πηλεὺς Αἰακοῦ, Ἡρακλῆς 
Διός, Θησεὺς Αἰγέως, Ἴδας καὶ Λυγκεὺς ᾿Αφα- 
ρέως, ᾿Αμφιάραος ᾿Οικλέους, Καινεὺς Κορώνου," 
Παλαίμων Ἡφαίστου ἢ Αἰτωλοῦ, Κηφεὺς ᾿Αλεοῦ, 
Λαέρτης ᾿Αρκεισίον, Αὐτόλυκος “Ἑρμοῦ, ’Ata- 
λάντη Σχοινέως, Μενοίτιος “Axtopos, “Axtwp 
ς 7 Ν ’ Ν 
Ἱππάσου, “Aduntos Φέρητος, “Axacros Πελίου, 
Εὔρυτος ‘Eppyod, Μελέαγρος Οἰνέως, ᾿Αγκαῖος 
Λυκούργου, Εὔφημος Ποσειδῶνος, Ποίας Θαυ- 
μάκου, Βούτης Τελέοντος, Φᾶνος καὶ Στάφυλος 
Διονύσου, "Epyivos Ποσειδῶνος, Περικλύμενος 
Νηλέως, Αὐγέας Ἡλίου, Ἴφικλος Θεστίου, “Ap- 
γος Φρίξου, Evpvadros Μηκιστέως, Ἰ]ηνέλεως 
Ἱππάλμου,, Λήιτος ᾿Αλέκτορος, “Idetos Ναυ- 

1 φωνῆεν ER: φωνῇ A. 5. ‘Ayvlov Aegius: ἀγρίον A. 

8 θησεὺς Αἰγέως Aegius: αἰγεὺς θησέως A. 

4 ᾿οικλέους Aegius: ἰοκλέους A. 

5 Καινέως Κόρωνος Aegius: Κόρωνος Καινέως Clavier, Hercher. 

8 ππάλμον A: Ἱππάλκμου Scholiast on Homer, 77. ii. 494: 
ἹἹππαλκίμον Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67, 7. 


7 ᾿Αλεκτρυόνος Homer, Jl. xvii. 602, with the Scholiast : 
*HAexrpudvos Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 7. 


1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 524 sqq., iv. 580 
sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 175. The following 


96 


THE LIBRARY, I. rx. 16 


built a ship of fifty oars named Argo after its builder; 
and at the prow Athena fitted in a speaking timber 
from the oak of Dodona.1_ When the ship was built, 
and he inquired of the oracle, the god gave him 
leave to assemble the nobles of Greece and _ sail 
away. And those who assembled were as follow :? 
Tiphys, son of Hagnias, who steered the ship; 
Orpheus, son of Oeagrus; Zetes and Calais, sons of 
Boreas ; Castor and Pollux, sons of Zeus ; Telamon 
and Peleus, sons of Aeacus; Hercules, son of Zeus; 
Theseus, son of Aegeus; Idas and Lynceus, sons of 
Aphareus; Amphiaraus, son of Oicles; Caeneus, 
son of Coronus; Palaemon, son of Hephaestus or of 
Aetolus ; Cepheus, son of Aleus ; Laertes son of Arci- 
sius; Autolycus, son of Hermes; Atalanta, daughter 
of Schoeneus; Menoetius, son of Actor; Actor, 
son of Hippasus ; Admetus, son of Pheres; Acastus, 
son of Pelias; Eurytus, son of Hermes; Meleager, 
son of Oeneus; Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus; Euphe- 
mus, son of Poseidon; Poeas, son of Thaumacus ; 
Butes, son of Teleon; Phanus and Staphylus, sons 
of Dionysus; Erginus, son of Poseidon; Pericly- 
menus, son of Neleus; Augeas, son of the Sun; 
Iphiclus, son of Thestius; Argus, son of Phrixus ; 
Euryalus, son of Mecisteus ; Peneleus, son of Hippal- 
mus; Leitus,son of Alector; Iphitus, son of Naubolus; 


narrative of the voyage of the Argo is based mainly on the 
Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. As to the voyage of the 
Argonauts, see further Pindar, Pyth. iv. 156 (276) sqq.; Dio- 
dorus Siculus, iv. 40-49; Orphica, Argonautica; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 175; Hyginus, Fab. 12, 14-23; Ovid, 
Metamorph. vii. 1 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica. 

2 For lists of the Argonauts, see Pindar, Pyth. iv. 171 8ᾳᾳ.; 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 20 sqq.; Orphica, Argonautica, 
ah sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. i. 352 δηᾳ.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 14. 


97 
VOL. I. Η 


17 


18 


APOLLODORUS 


βόλου, ᾿Ασκάλαφος καὶ "Iddpevos ! “Apeos, ’Ac- 
τέριος Ἰζομήτου, Πολύφημος Ἐλάτου. 

Οὗτοι ναναρχοῦντος Ἰάσονος ἀναχθέντες προσ- 
ίσχουσι Λήμνῳ. ἔτυχε δὲ ἡ Λῆμνος ἀνδρῶν τότε 
οὖσα ἔρημος, βασιλευομένη δὲ ὑπὸ Ψψιπύλης 
τῆς Θόαντος δι’ αἰτίαν τήνδε. αἱ Λήμνιαι τὴν 
᾿Αφροδίτην οὐκ ἐτίμων: ἡ δὲ αὐταῖς ἐμβάλλει 
δυσοσμίαν, καὶ διὰ τόῦτο οἱ γήμαντες αὐτὰς ἐκ 
τῆς πλησίον Θράκης λαβόντες αἰχμαλωτίδας 
συνευνάζοντο αὐταῖς. ἀτιμαζόμεναι δὲ "αἱ An- 
pias τούς τε πατέρας καὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας φονεύουσι" 
μόνη δὲ ἔσωσεν ὙΨψιπύλη τὸν ἑαυτῆς πατέρα 
κρύψασα Θόαντα. προσσχόντες οὖν τότε γυ- 
ναικοκρατουμένῃ τῇ Λήμνῳ μίσγονται ταῖς γυναι- 
ξίν. Ὑψιπύλη δὲ Ἰάσονι συνευνάζεται, καὶ 
γεννᾷ παῖδας Εὔνηον καὶ Νεβροφόνον. 

᾿Απὸ Λήμνου δὲ προσίσχουσι Δολίοσιν,; ὧν 
ἐβασίλευε Κύζικος. οὗτος αὐτοὺς ὑπεδέξατο 
φιλοφρόνως. νυκτὸς δὲ ἀναχθέντες ἐντεῦθεν καὶ 
περιπεσόντες ἀντιπνοίαις, ἀγνοοῦντες πάλιν τοῖς 


1 IdAuevos Homer, 71. ii. 512: ἄλμενος A. 
2 AoAloow Aegius: δολίοις EA. 


1 As to the visit of the Argonauts to Lemnos, see Apollo- 
nius Rhodius, Argon. i. 607 8ηᾳ.; Orphica, Argonautica, 473 
8qq.; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. vii. 468; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon. ii. 77 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 15. As to the massacre of 
the men of Lemnos by the women, see further Herodotus, vi. 
138; Apostolius, Cent. x. 65; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 91; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 609, 615. The visit of the 
es ree to Lemnos was the theme of plays by Aeschylus 
and Sophocles. See T'ragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck?, pp. 79, 215 sqq.; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. 
A. C. Pearson, ii. 51 sgqg. The Lemnian traditions have been 
interpreted as evidence of a former custum of gynocracy, or 


98 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 16-18 


Ascalaphus and Ialmenus, sons of Ares; Asterius, 
son of Cometes ; Polyphemus, son of Elatus. 

These with Jason as admiral put to sea and 
touched at Lemnos.! At that time it chanced that 
Lemnos was bereft of men and ruled over by a queen, 
Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, the reason of which was 
as follows. The Lemnian women did not honour 
Aphrodite, and she visited them with a noisome 
smell; therefore their spouses took captive women 
from the neighbouring country of Thrace and bedded 
with them. Thus dishonoured, the Lemnian women 
murdered their fathers and husbands, but Hypsipyle 
alone saved her father Thoas by hiding him. So having 
put in to Lemnos, at that time ruled by women, the 
Argonauts had intercourse with the women, and 
Hypsipyle bedded with Jason and bore sons, Euneus 
and Nebrophonus. 

And after Lemnos they landed among the Do- 
liones, of whom Cyzicus was king.2 He received 
them kindly. But having put to sea from there by 
night and met with contrary winds, they lost their 
bearings and landed again among the Doliones. 


the rule of men by women, in the island. See J. J. Bachofen, 
Das Mutterrecht (Stuttgart, 1861), pp. 84 egg. Every year 
the island of Lemnos was purified from the guilt of the 
massacre and sacrifices were offered to the dead. The cere- 
monies lasted nine days, during which all fires were extin- 

ished in the island, and a new fire was brought by ship 
Fron Delos. If the vessel arrived before the sacrifices to 
the dead had been offered, it might not put in to shore or 
anchor, but had to cruise in the offing till they were com- 
pleted. See Philostratus, Heroica, xx. 24. 

2 As to the visit of the Argonauts to the Doliones and the 
death of King Cyzicus, see Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 
935-1077 ; Orphica, Argonautica, 486 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon. ii. 634 δαᾳ., iii. 1 sqg.; Hyginus, Fab. 16. 


99 
Hu 2 


19 


APOLLODORUS 


Δολίοσι προσίσχουσιν. οἱ δὲ νομίζοντες Πελασ- 
γικὸν εἶναι στρατόν (ἔτυχον γὰρ ὑπὸ Πελασγῶν 
συνεχῶς πολεμούμενοι) μάχην τῆς νυκτὸς συνά- 
πτουσιν ἀγνοοῦντες πρὸς ἀγνοοῦντας. κτείναντες 
δὲ πολλοὺς οἱ ᾿Αργοναῦται, μεθ᾽ ὧν καὶ Κύξικον, 
μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν, ὡς ἔγνωσαν, ἀποδυράμενοι τάς τε 
κόμας ἐκείραντο καὶ τὸν Κύζικον πολυτελῶς 
ἔθαψαν. καὶ μετὰ τὴν ταφὴν πλεύσαντες Μυσίᾳ 
ὔ, 4 

προσίσχουσιν. 

Ἐνταῦθα δὲ Ἡρακλέα καὶ ἸΤολύφημον κατέ- 

e a 

λιπον. “Tras yap ὁ Θειοδάμαντος παῖς, ‘Hpa- 

7 3 4 3 - e 4 
κλέους δὲ ἐρώμενος, ἀποσταλεὶς ὑδρεύσασθαι διὰ 
κάλλος ὑπὸ νυμφῶν ἡρπάγη. ἸΙολύφημος δὲ 
ἀκούσας αὐτοῦ βοήσαντος, σπασάμενος τὸ ξίφος 
ἐδίωκεν, ὑπὸ λῃστῶν ἄγεσθαι νομίζων. καὶ δηλοῖ 

/ ¢€ A ’ἤ A 3 
συντυχόντι Ἡρακλεῖ. ξητούντων δὲ ἀμφοτέρων 
τὸν Ὕλαν ἡ ναῦς ἀνήχθη, καὶ Πολύφημος μὲν ἐν 
Μυσίᾳ κτίσας πόλιν Kiov? ἐβασίλευσεν, ‘Hpa- 
κλῆς δὲ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς “Apyos. Ἡρόδωρος δὲ 
αὐτὸν οὐδὲ τὴν ἀρχήν φησι πλεῦσαι τότε, ἀλ 
3.2 / 4 4 9 A > 

παρ᾽ Ὀμφάλῃ δουλεύειν. Φερεκύδης δὲ αὐτὸν ἐν 
᾿Αφεταῖς τῆς Θεσσαλίας ἀπολειφθῆνα: λέγει, τῆς 
᾿Αργοῦς φθεγξαμένης μὴ δύνασθαι φέρειν τὸ τού- 

1 ἐδίωκεν Zenobius, Cent. vi. 21, Hercher, Wagner: ἐδίωξεν 


A. 2 κίον E: κίου Δ. 
3 Ἡρόδωρος Faber: Ἡρόδοτος A. 


1 They lamented for three days and tore ous their bair ; 
they raised ἃ mound over the grave, marched round it 
thrice in armour, performed funeral rites, and celebrated 
games in honour of the dead man. The mound was to be 
seen down to later days, and the people of Cyzicus continued 
to pour libations at it every year. See Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. i. 1057-1077. Compare Orphica, Argonautica, 571 sqq.; 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iii. 332 sqq. 

10o 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 18-19 


However, the Doliones, taking them for a Pelasgian 
army (for they were constantly harassed by the Pelas- 
gians), joined battle with them by night in mutual 
ignorance of each other. The Argonauts slew many 
and among the rest Cyzicus; but by day, when they 
knew what they had done, they mourned and cut off 
their hair and gave Cyzicus a costly burial ;! and after 
the burial they sailed away and touched at Mysia.® 

There they left Hercules and Polyphemus. For 
Hylas, son of Thiodamas, a minion of Hercules, had 
been sent to draw water and was ravished away by 
nymphs on account of his beauty.2 But Polyphemus 
heard him cry out, and drawing his sword gave chase 
in the belief that he was being carried off by robbers. 
Falling in with Hercules, he told him; and while the 
two were seeking for Hylas, the ship put to sea. So 
Polyphemus founded a city Cius in Mysia and reigned 
as king;‘ but Hercules returned to Argos. How- 
ever Herodorus says that Hercules did not sail at all 
at that time, but served as a slave at the court of 
Omphale. But Pherecydes says that he was left 
behind at Aphetae in Thessaly, the Argo having de- 
clared with human voice that she could not bear 

2 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1172 s8qq.; 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iii. 481 sqq. 

3 As to Hylas and Hercules, compare Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. i. 1207 sqq.; Theocritus, Id. xiii.; Antoninus Libera- 
lis, Transform. 26; Orphica, Argonautica, 646 sqq.; Valerius 
Flaccus, Argon. iii. 521 sqq.; Propertius, i. 20. 17 eqq.; Hy- 

inus, Fab. 14; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. 
ἫΝ H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 18, 140 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
49; Second Vatican Mythographer, 199). It is said that 
down to comparatively late times the natives continued to 
sacrifice to Hylas at the spring where he had disappeared, 
that the priest used to call on him thrice by name, and that 

the echo answered thrice (Antoninus Liberalis, J.c.). 
4 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1321 sqq., 1345 δ. 
IOI 


21 


APOLLODORUS 


tov βάρος. Δημάρατος δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Κόλχους 
πεπλευκότα παρέδωκε" Διονύσιος μὲν γὰρ αὐτὸν 
καὶ ἡγεμόνα φησὶ τῶν ᾿Αργοναυτῶν γενέσθαι. 

᾽ \ \ a 3 A > \ 4 

Amro δὲ Μυσίας ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὴν Βεβρύκων 

A 3 , ” A a 
γῆν, ἧς ἐβασίλευεν Αμυκος ἸΠοσειδῶνος παῖς καὶ 
«νύμφης;» Βιθυνίδος. γενναῖος δὲ ὧν οὗτος τοὺς 
προσσχόντας ξένους ἠνάγκαζε πυκτεύειν καὶ τοῦ- 
τον τὸν τρόπον ἀνήρει. παραγενόμενος οὖν καὶ τότε 
ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Αργὼ τὸν ἄριστον αὐτῶν εἰς πυγμὴν 
προεκαλεῖτο. 3 Πολυδεύκης δὲ ὑποσχόμενος πυ- 
κτεύσειν πρὸς αὐτόν, πλήξας κατὰ τὸν ἀγκῶνα 
ἀπέκτεινε. τῶν δὲ Βεβρύκων ὁρμησάντων πρὸς 
αὐτόν, ἁρπάσαντες οἱ ἀριστεῖς τὰ ὅπλα πολλοὺς 
φεύγοντας φονεύουσιν αὐτῶν. 

Ἐντεῦθεν ἀναχθέντες καταντῶσιν εἰς τὴν τῆς 

’ 4 ΝΜ ν \ ld 

Θρᾳκης Σαλμυδησσόν, ἔνθα ᾧκει Diveds μάντις 
τὰς ὄψεις πεπηρωμένος. τοῦτον οἱ μὲν ᾿Αγή- 


1 νύμφης added by Hercher, comparing Scholiast on Plato, 
Laws, vii. p. 796 a. 3 προεκαλεῖτο Faber: προσεκαλεῖτο A. 


1 The opinions of the ancients were much divided as to 
the share Hercules took in the voyage of the Argo. See 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1290. In saying 
that Hercules was left behind in Mysia and returned to 
Argos, our author follows, as usual, the version of Apollonius 
Rhodius (Argon. i. 1273 eqq.). According to another version, 
after Hercules was left behind by the Argo in Mysia, he 
made his way on foot to Colchis (Theocritus, Id. xiii. 73 sqq.). 
Herodotus says (i. 193) that at Aphetae in Thessaly the hero 
landed from the Argo to fetch water and was left behind by 
Jason and his fellows. From the present passage of Apollo- 
dorus it would seem that in this account Herodotus was follow- 
ing Pherecydes. Compare Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. ᾿Αφεταί. 

As to the visit of the Argonauts to the Bebryces, and the 
boxing-match of Pollux with Amycus, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. ii. 1 sgg.; Theocritus, xxii. 27 sqg.; Orphica, Argo- 
nautica, 661 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iv. 99 sqq.; Hygi- 


102 


THE LIBRARY, I, 1x, 19-21 


his weight. Nevertheless Demaratus has recorded 
that Hercules sailed to Colchis; for Dionysius even 
affirms that he was the leader of the Argonauts.! 

From Mysia they departed to the land of the 
Bebryces, which was ruled by King Amycus, son of 
Poseidon and a Bithynian nymph.?_ Being a doughty 
man he compelled the strangers that landed to box 
and in that way made an end of them. So going to 
the Argo as usual, he challenged the best man of the 
crew to a boxing match. Pollux undertook to box 
against him and killed him with a blow on the elbow. 
When the Bebryces made a rush at him, the chiefs 
snatched up theirarms and put them to flight with 
great slaughter. 

Thence they put to sea and came to land at 
Salmydessus in Thrace, where dwelt Phineus, a seer 
who had lost the sight of both eyes. Some say he 


nus, Fab. 17; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iii. 353 ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 

. 31, 123 (First Vatican Mythographer, 93; Second Vatican 
Meythcgrapher: 140). The name of the Bithynian nymph, 
mother of Amycus, was Melie (Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
ii. 4; Hyginus, Fab. 17; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. v. 373). 

3 As to Phineus and the Harpies, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. ii. 176 sqgq., with the Scholia on wv. 177, 178, 181; 
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 69; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iv. 
422 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 19; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 209; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
RP: 9 sq., 124 (First Vatican Mythographer, 27; Second 

atican Mythographer, 142). Aeschylus and Sophocles 
composed tragedies on the subject of Phineus. See 7'ragico- 
rum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 83, 284 eqq.; 
The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 
311 eqq. The classical description of the Harpies is that of 
Virgil (Aen. iii. 225 eqq.). Compare Hesiod, 7’ . 265-269. 
In his account of the visit of the Argonauts to Phineus, the 
rationalistic Diodorus Siculus (iv. 43 sg.) omits all mention 
of the Harpies. 

103 


APOLLODORUS 


vopos εἶναι λέγουσιν, οἱ δὲ Ποσειδῶνος υἱόν" καὶ 
πηρωθῆναί φασιν αὐτὸν οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ θεῶν, ὅτι 
προέλεγε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ μέλλοντα, οἱ δὲ ὑπὸ 
Βορέου καὶ τῶν ᾿Αργονανυτῶν, ὅτι πεισθεὶς μη- 
τρυιᾷ τοὺς ἰδίους ἐτύφλωσε παῖδας, τινὲς δὲ ὑπὸ 
Ποσειδῶνος, ὅτι τοῖς Φρίξου παισὶ τὸν ἐκ Κόλ- 
χων εἰς τὴν Ελλάδα πλοῦν ἐμήνυσεν. ἔπεμψαν 
δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς ἁρπυίας οἱ θεοί: πττερωταὶ δὲ 
ἦσαν αὗται, καὶ ἐπειδὴϊ τῷ Φινεῖ παρετίθετο 
τράπεζα, ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καθιπτάμεναι τὰ μὲν πλεί- 
ova ἀνήρπαζον, ὀλίγα δὲ ὅσα ὀσμῆς ἀνάπλεα 
κατέλειπον, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι προσενέγκασθαι. 
βουλομένοις δὲ τοῖς ᾿Αργοναύταις τὰ περὶ τοῦ 
πλοῦ μαθεῖν ὑποθήσεσθαι τὸν πλοῦν ἔφη, τῶν 
ἁρπυιῶν αὐτὸν ἐὰν ἀπαλλάξωσιν. οἱ δὲ παρέ- 
θεσαν αὐτῴ τράπεζαν ἐδεσμάτων, ἅρπυιαι δὲ 
ἐξαίφνης σὺν βοῇ καταπτᾶσαι τὴν τροφὴν Ho- 
πασαν.2 θεασάμενοι δὲ οἱ Βορέου παῖδες Ζήτης 
καὶ Κάλαϊς, ὄντες πτερωτοί, σπασάμενοι τὰ ξίφη 
δι’ ἀέρος ἐδίωκον. Fv δὲ ταῖς ἁρπυίαις χρεὼν 
τεθνάναι ὑπὸ τῶν Βορέου παίδων, τοῖς δὲ Βορέου 
παισὶ τότε τελευτήσειν ὅταν διώκοντες μὴ κατα- 
λάβωσι. διωκομένων δὲ τῶν ἁρπυιῶν ἡ μὲν κατ 
Πελοπόννησον εἰς τὸν Τίγρην ποταμὸν ἐμπίπτει, 
ὃς νῦν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης Αρπυς καλεῖται" ταύτην δὲ οἱ 
μὲν Νικοθόην οἱ δὲ ᾿Αελλόπουν καλοῦσιν. ἡ δὲ 
ἑτέρα καλουμένη ᾿Ωκυπέτη, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι ᾿᾽Ωκυθόη 
(Ἡσίοδος δὲ λέγει αὐτὴν ᾿Ωκυπόδην), αὕτη κατὰ 
τὴν Προποντίδα φεύγουσα μέχρις ᾿Εχινάδων 
ἦλθε νήσων, al νῦν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης Στροφάδες καλοῦν- 
1 φπειδὴ Bekker: ἐπειδὰν EA: ἐπειδὰν... παρατίθοιτο (for 
MS. παρετίθετο) Hercher. 3 ἥρπασαν E: ἥρπαζον A, 
104 





THE LIBRARY, I. rx. 21 


was a son of Agenor,! but others that he was a son 
of Poseidon, and he is variously alleged to have been 
blinded by the gods for foretelling men the future ; or 
by Boreas and the Argonauts because he blinded his 
own sons at the instigation of their stepmother ;? or 
by Poseidon, because he revealed to the children of 
Phrixus how they could sail from Colchis to Greece. 
The gods also sent the Harpies to him. These were 
winged female creatures, and when a table was laid 
for Phineus, they flew down from the sky and snatched 
up most of the victuals, and what little they left stank 
so that nobody could touch it. When the Argonauts 
would have consulted him about the voyage, he 
said that he would advise them about it if they 
would rid him of the Harpies. So the Argonauts 
laid a table of viands beside him; and the Harpies 
with a shriek suddenly pounced down and snatched 
away the food. When Zetes and Calais, the sons of 
Boreas, saw that, they drew their swords and, being 
winged, pursued them through the air. Now it was 
fated that the Harpies should perish by the sons of 
Boreas, and that the sons of Boreas should die when 
they could not catch up a fugitive. So the Harpies 
were pursued and one of them fell into the river 
Tigres in Peloponnese, the river that is now called 
Harpys after her ; some call her Nicothoe, but others 
Aellopus. But the other, named Ocypete or, according 
to others, Ocythoe (but Hesiod calls her Ocypode) ὃ 
fled by the Propontis till she came to the Echinadian 
Islands, which are now called Strophades after her; 


1 So Apollonius Rhodius (Argon. ii. 237, 240) and Hyginus 
(Fab. 19). 

2 See below, iii. 15. 3 note. 

ὃ Hesiod (Theog. 267) calls her Ocypete. 


105 


22 


APOLLODORUS 


tau ἐστράφη yap ὡς ἦλθεν ἐπὶ ταύτας, καὶ 
γενομένη κατὰ τὴν ἠιόνα ὑπὸ καμάτου πίπτει σὺν 

* ’ 4 ’ 3 A 3 vA 
τῷ διώκοντι. ᾿Απολλώνιος δὲ ἐν τοῖς τ er 
ταῖς ἕως Στροφάδων νήσων φησὶν αὐτὰς διωχθῆ- 
ναι καὶ μηδὲν παθεῖν, δούσας ὅρκον τὸν Φινέα 
μηκέτι ἀδικῆσαι. 

᾽ \ de A ς A Φ A 3 ’, 

Απαλλαγεὶς 0€ τῶν ἀρπυιῶν Φινεὺς ἐμηνυσε 

τὸν πλοῦν τοῖς ᾿Αργοναύταις, καὶ περὶ τῶν συμ- 
πληγάδων ὑπέθετο πετρῶν τῶν κατὰ θάλασσαν. 
ἦσαν δὲ ὑπερμεγέθεις αὗται, συγκρουόμεναι δὲ 
ἀλλήλαις ὑπὸ τῆς τῶν πνευμάτων βίας τὸν διὰ 
θαλάσσης πόρον ἀπέκλειον. ἐφέρετο δὲ πολλὴ 
μὲν ὑπὲρ' αὐτῶν ὁμίχλη πολὺς δὲ πάταγος, ἦν 
δὲ ἀδύνατον καὶ τοῖς πετεινοῖς δι’ αὐτῶν διελθεῖν. 
εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς" ἀφεῖναι πελειάδα διὰ τῶν πετ- 
ρῶν, καὶ ταύτην ἐὰν μὲν ἴδωσι σωθεῖσαν, διαπλεῖν 
καταφρονοῦντας, ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολομένην,Σ μὴ πλεῖν 
βιάζεσθαι. ταῦτα ἀκούσαντες ἀνήγοντο, καὶ ὡς 
πλησίον ἦσαν τῶν πετρῶν, ἀφιᾶσιν ἐκ τῆς πρῴ- 
pas πελειάδα' τῆς δὲ ἱπταμένης τὰ ἄκρα τῆς 
oupas ἡ σύμπτωσις τῶν πετρῶν ἀπεθέρισεν." 
ἀναχωρούσας οὖν ἐπιτηρήσαντες τὰς πέτρας μετ᾽ 
2 ’ 3 ’ὔ δ , sf ὃ ANG 
εἰρεσίας évtovov,” συλλαβομένης “ Hpas, διῆλθον, 

1 ῥπὲρ Bekker: ὑπ᾽ EA: ἀπ᾽ Clavier, Hercher. 

2 διελθεῖν Εἰ : ἐλθεῖν A. 

3 ἀπολλυμένην EA, Wagner: ἀπολυμένην Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 


4 ἀπεθέρισεν A: ἀπέθριξεν Εἰ : ἀπέθρισεν Wagner. 
5 évrdvov A: εὐτόνου E, Wagner. 


1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 284-298, who 
says that previously the islands were called the Floating Isles 
(Plotat). 

3 The Clashing Rocks are the islands which the Greeks 


106 





THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 21-22 


for when she came to them she turned (estraphe) and 
being at the shore fell for very weariness with her 
pursuer. But Apollonius in the Argonautica says that 
the Harpies were pursued to the Strophades Islands 
and suffered no harm, having sworn an oath that they 
would wrong Phineus no more. 

Being rid of the Harpies, Phineas revealed to 
the Argonauts the course of their voyage, and ad- 
vised them about the Clashing Rocks? in the sea. 
These were huge cliffs, which, dashed together by the 
force of the winds, closed the sea passage. Thick 
was the mist that swept over them, and loud the 
crash, and it was impossible for even the birds to 
pass between them. So he told them to let fly a 
dove between the rocks, and, if they saw it pass 
safe through, to thread the narrows with an easy 
mind, but if they saw it perish, then not to force a 
passage. When they heard that, they put to sea, and 
on nearing the rocks let fly a dove from the prow, 
and as she flew the clash of the rocks nipped off the 
tip of her tail. So, waiting till the rocks had recoiled, 
with hard rowing and the help of Hera, they passed 
through, the extremity of the ship’s ornamented 
called Symplegades. Another name for them was the 
Wandering Rocks (Planctae) or the Blue Rocks (Cyaneae). 
See Herodotus, iv. 85; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 317 q.; 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iv. 561 8ᾳ.; Pliny, Nat. Hist. vi. 32; 
Merry, on Homer, Od. xii. 61; Appendix, ‘‘ The Clashing 
Rocks.” As to the passage of the Argo between them, see 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 317 δᾳᾳ., 549-610; Orphica, 
Argonautica, 683-714; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iv. 561-702; 
Hyginus, Fab. 19. According tothe author of the Orphica 
the bird which the Argonauts, or rather Athena, let fly 
between the Clashing Rocks was not a dove but a heron 


(€pwd:ds). The heron was specially associated with Athena. 
See D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds, 
p. 58. 


107 


APOLLODORUS 


τὰ ἄ ἄκρα τῶν ἀφλάστων τῆς νεὼς 1 περικοπείσης. 
αἱ μὲν οὖν συμπληγάδες ἔκτοτε ἔστησαν" χρεὼν 
γὰρ ἣν αὐταῖς νεὼς ' περαιωθείσης στῆναι 
παντελῶς. 

Οἱ δὲ ᾿Αργοναῦται πρὸς Μαριανδυνοὺς παρε- 
γένοντο, κἀκεῖ φιλοφρόνως ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑπεδέξατο 
Λύκος. ἔνθα θνήσκει μὲν Ἴδμων ὁ μάντις πλή- 
ἔξαντος αὐτὸν κάπρου, θνήσκει δὲ καὶ Tidus, καὶ 
τὴν ναῦν ᾿Αγκαῖος ὑπισχνεῖται κυβερνᾶν. 

Παραπλεύσαντες δὲ Θερμώδοντα καὶ Καύκασον 
ἐπὶ Φᾶσιν ποταμὸν ἦλθον" οὗτος τῆς Κολχικῆς 
ἐστιν. ἐγκαθορμισθείσης δὲ τῆς νεὼς ὦ ἧκε πρὸς 
Αἰήτην Ἰάσων, καὶ τὰ ἐπιταγέντα ὑπὸ Πελίου 
λέγων παρεκάλει δοῦναι τὸ δέρας αὐτῷ" ὁ δὲ 
δώσειν ὑπέσχετο, ἐὰν τοὺς χαλκόποδας ταύρους 
μόνος καταζεύξῃ. ἦσαν δ. ἃ ἄγριοι παρ᾽ αὐτῷ 
ταῦροι δύο, μεγέθει διαφέροντες, δῶρον Ἡ αἱ. 
στου, οἱ χαλκοῦς μὲν εἶχον πόδας, πῦρ ὃ 
στομάτων ἐφύσων. τούτους αὐτῷ ζεύξαντι ἐπέ- 
τασσε ® σπείρειν δράκοντος ὀδόντας" εἶχε γὰρ 
λαβὼν παρ᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς τοὺς ἡμίσεις ὧν Κάδμος 
ἔσπειρεν ἐν Θήβαις. ἀποροῦντος δὲ τοῦ ᾿Ιάσονος 


1 νεὼς Εἰ : wnds A. 
2 ἐστιν" ἐγκαθορμισθείσης E, Wagner: ἐστι yijs* καθορμι- 
σθείσης A. 3 ἐπέτασσε E: ἀκετάσσετα Α. 





1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 720 δᾳη.; Orphica, 
Argonautica, 715 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. iv. 733 sqq.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 18. 

Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 815 s9qq.; Orphica, 
Argonautica, 725 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. v. 1 δᾳᾳ. 
Hyginus, Fab. 14 and 18. According to Apollonius, the 
barrow of Idmon was surmounted by a wild olive tree, 
which the Nisaeans were commanded by Apollo to worship 
as the guardian of the city. 


108 


THE LIBRARY, I, 1x. 22-23 


poop being shorn away right round. Henceforth 
the Clashing Rocks stood still; for it was fated that, 
so soon as a ship had made the passage, they should 
come to rest completely. 

The Argonauts now arrived among the Marian- 
dynians, and there King Lycus received them 
kindly.!. There died Idmon the seer of a wound 
inflicted by a boar ;? and there too died Tiphys, and 
Ancaeus undertook to steer the ship.® 

And having sailed past the Thermodon and the 
Caucasus they came to the river Phasis, which is in 
the Colchian land. When the ship was brought into 
port, Jason repaired to Aeetes, and setting forth the 
charge laid on him by Pelias invited him to give 
him the fleece. The other promised to give it if 
single-handed he would yoke the brazen-footed bulls. 
These were two wild bulls that he had, of enormous 
size, a gift of Hephaestus; they had brazen feet 
and puffed fire from their mouths. These creatures 
Aeetes ordered him to yoke and to sow dragon’s 
teeth; for he had got from Athena half of the 
dragon’ s teeth which Cadmus sowed in Thebes.5 
While Jason puzzled how he could yoke the bulls, 

3 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 851-898; Or- 
phica, Argonautica, 729 sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
τ oo Flaccus, Argon. v. 13 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 14 
an 

* As to Jason in Colchis, and his winning of the Golden 
Fleece, see Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 1260 sqq., iii. 1 6ᾳ4., 
iv. 1-240; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 48. 1-5; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon. v. 177 -viii. 139 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 1-158. The 
adventures of Jason in Colchis were the subject of a play by 
Sophocles called The Colchtan Women. See The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 15 sqq.; Tragt- 


corum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck 5. pp. 204 899. 
δ Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iii. 401 egg., 1176 


346. 
109 


APOLLODORUS 


πῶς ἂν δύναιτο τοὺς ταύρους καταζεῦξαι, Μήδεια 
αὐτοῦ ἔρωτα ἴσχει" ἣν δὲ αὕτη θυγάτηρ Αἰήτου 
καὶ Εἰδυίας τῆς Ὠκεανοῦ, dappaxis.. δεδοικυῖα 
δὲ μὴ πρὸς τῶν ταύρων διαφθαρῇ, κρύφα τοῦ 
πατρὸς συνεργήσειν αὐτῷ πρὸς τὴν κατάζξευξιν 
τῶν ταύρων ἐπηγγείλατο καὶ τὸ δέρας ἐγχειριεῖν, 
ἐὰν ὀμόσῃ αὐτὴν ἕξειν γυναῖκα καὶ εἰς Ελλάδα 
σύμπλουν ἀγάγηται. ὀμόσαντος δὲ Ἰάσονος 
φάρμακον δίδωσιν, ᾧ καταζευγνύναε μέλλοντα 
τοὺς ταύρους ἐκέλευσε χρῖσαι τήν τε ἀσπίδα καὶ 
τὸ δόρυ καὶ τὸ σῶμα' τούτῳ γὰρ χρισθέντα ἔφη 
πρὸς μίαν ἡμέραν μήτ᾽ ἂν ὑπὸ πυρὸς ἀδικηθήσε- 
σθαι μήτε ὑπὸ σιδήρου. ἐδήλωσε δὲ αὐτῷ σπει- 
ρομένων τῶν ὀδόντων ἐκ γῆς ἄνδρας μέλλειν 
ἀναδύεσθαι ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν καθωπλισμένους, ods? 
ἔλεγεν ἐπειδὰν ἀθρόους θεάσηται, βάλλειν εἰς 
μέσον λίθους ἄποθεν, ὅταν δὲ ὑπὲρ τούτον μά- 
wVTat πρὸς ἀλλήλους, τότε κτείνειν αὐτούς. 
Nowy δὲ τοῦτο ἀκούσας καὶ χρισάμενος τῷ 
φαρμάκῳ, παραγενόμενος εἰς τὸ τοῦ νεὼ ἄλσος 
ἐμάστευε τοὺς ταύρους, καὶ σὺν πολλῷ πυρὶ 
ὁρμήσαντας αὐτοὺς κατέζευξε. σπείραντος ὃ δὲ 
αὐτοῦ τοὺς ὀδόντας ἀνέτελλον ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἄνδρες 
Μ ε \ a 4 e7 4 
ἔνοπλοι' ὁ δὲ ὅπου πλείονας ἑώρα, βάλλων 
ἀφανῶς“ λίθους, πρὸς αὐτοὺς μαχομένους πρὸς 
ἀλλήλους προσιὼν ἀνήρει. καὶ κατεζευγμένων ὅ 
1 φαρμακίς ΕΝ : φαρμάκοις A. 3 οὖς ERR®: ἃς A. 


3 σπείραντος Εἰ : σπείροντος A. 4 ἀφανῶς E: ἀφανεῖς A. 
δ᾽ κατεζευγμένων Faber: καταζευγνυμένων EA. 


1 As to the yoking of the brazen-footed bulls, compare 
Pindar, Pyth. iv. 224 (399) sqq.; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 


Ito 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 23 


Medea conceived a passion for him; now she was a 
witch, daughter of Aeetes and Idyia, daughter of 
Ocean. And fearing lest he might be destroyed 
by the bulls, she, keeping the thing from her 
father, promised to help him to yoke the bulls 
and to deliver to him the fleece, if he would swear 
to have her to wife and would take her with him on 
the voyage to Greece. When Jason swore to do so, 
she gave him a drug with which she bade him anoint 
his shield, spear, and body when he was about to 
yoke the bulls; for she said that, anointed with it, he 
could for a single day be harmed neither by fire nor 
by iron. And she signified to him that, when the 
teeth were sown, armed men would spring up from 
the ground against him; and when he saw a knot of 
them he was to throw stones into their midst from 
a distance, and when they fought each other about 
that, he was then to kill them.! On hearing that, 
Jason anointed himself with the drug,? and being 
come to the grove of the temple he sought the 
bulls, and though they charged him with a flame 
of fire, he yoked them. And when he had sowed 
the teeth, there rose armed men from the ground ; 
and where he saw several together, he pelted them 
unseen with stones, and when they fought each other 
he drew near and slew them.‘ But though the bulls 


iii. 1026 sqqg. As to the drug with which Jason was to anoint 
himself, see further Pindar, Pyth. iv. 221 (394) δᾳ.; Apol- 
lonius Rhodius, Argon. iii. 844 sqqg. It was extracted from a 
plant with a saffron-coloured flower, which was said to grow 
on the Caucasus from the blood of Prometheus. Compare 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon. vii. 355 sqqg.; Pseudo-Plutarch, De 
Fluvite, v. 4. 

2 Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iii. 1246 sqq. 

% Ibid. 1278 sqq. 4 Ibid. 1320-1398. 


Ill 


APOLLODORUS 


τῶν ταύρων οὐκ ἐδίδου τὸ δέρας Αἰήτης, ἐβούλετο 
δὲ τήν τε ᾿Αργὼ καταφλέξαι καὶ κτεῖναι τοὺς 
ἐμπλέοντας. φθάσασα δὲ Μήδεια τὸν ᾿Ιάσονα 
νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὸ δέρας ἤγαγε, καὶ τὸν φυλάσσοντα 
δράκοντα κατακοιμίσασα τοῖς φαρμάκοις μετὰ 
Ἰάσονος, ἔχουσα τὸ δέρας, ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Αργὼ παρε- 
γένετο. συνείπετο δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ὁ ἀδελφὸς “Awup- 
τος. οἱ δὲ νυκτὸς μετὰ τούτων ἀνήχθησαν. 

Αἰήτης δὲ ἐπιγνοὺς τὰ τῇ Μηδείᾳ τετολμημένα 
ὥρμησε τὴν ναῦν διώκειν. ἰδοῦσα δὲ αὐτὸν 
πλησίον ὄντα Μήδεια τὸν ἀδελφὸν φονεύει καὶ 
μελίσασα κατὰ τοῦ βυθοῦ ῥίπτει. συναθροίζων 
δὲ Αἰήτης τὰ τοῦ παιδὸς μέλη τῆς διώξεως ὑστέ- 
pnoe διόπερ ὑποστρέψας, καὶ τὰ σωθέντα τοῦ 
παιδὸς μέλη θάψας, τὸν τόπον προσηγόρευσε 
Τόμους. πολλοὺς δὲ τῶν Κόλχων ἐπὶ τὴν ζή- 
τησιν τῆς ᾿Αργοῦς ἐξέπεμψεν, ἀπειλήσας, εἰ μὴ 
Μήδειαν ἄξουσιν, αὐτοὺς πείσεσθαι τὰ ἐκείνης. 
οἱ δὲ σχισθέντεςὶ ἄλλος ἀλλαχοῦ ζήτησιν 
ἐποιοῦντο. 


Τοῖς δὲ ᾿Αργοναύταις τὸν ᾿Ηριδανὸν ποταμὸν: 


ἤδη παραπλέουσι Ζεὺς μηνίσας ὑπὲρ τοῦ φονευ- 
θέντος ᾿Αψύρτου χειμῶνα λάβρον ἐπιπέμψας 


1 σχισθέντες ER, Wagner: σχεθέντες A: διασχεθέντες Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller: διαχεθέντες Bekker: διαχυθέντες 
Hercher. 


1 Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 123-182. 

2 Here Apollodorus departs from the version of ce 
Rhodius, according to whom Apsyrtus, left behind by Jason 
and Medea, pursued them with a band of Colchians, and, 
overtaking them, was treacherously slain by Jason, with the 
connivance of Medea, in an island of the Danube. See 


112 


THE LIBRARY, I, 1x. 23-24 


were yoked, Aeetes did ποῖ give the fleece; for he 
wished to burn down the Argo and kill the crew. 
But before he could do so, Medea brought Jason by 
night to the fleece, and having lulled to sleep by her 
drugs the dragon that guarded it, she possessed her- 
self of the fleece and in Jason’s company came to the 
Argo.1 She was attended, too, by her brother 
Apsyrtus.2, And with them the Argonauts put to 
sea by night. 

When Aeetes discovered the daring deeds done 
by Medea, he started off in pursuit of the ship ; 
but when she saw him near, Medea murdered her 
brother and cutting him limb from limb threw the 
pieces into the deep. Gathering the child’s limbs, 
Aeetes fell behind in the pursuit; wherefore he 
turned back, and, having buried the rescued limbs 
of his child, he called the place Tomi. But he sent 
out many of the Colchians to search for the Argo, 
threatening that, if they did not bring Medea to him, 
they should suffer the punishment due to her ; so they 
separated and pursued the search in divers places. 

When the Argonauts were already sailing past the 
Eridanus river, Zeus sent a furious storm upon them, 
and drove them out of their course, because he was 


Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 224 8η., 303-481. Apollodorus 
seems to have followed the account given by Pherecydes in 
his seventh book (Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
iv. 223, 228). The version of Apollonius is followed by 
Hyginus (Fab. 23) and the Orphic poet (Argonauttca, 1027 
eqq.). According to Sophocles, in his play The Colchian 
Women, Apsyrtus was murdered in the palace of Aeetes 
(Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 228); and this 
account seems to have been accepted by Euripides (Medea, 
1334). Apollodorus’s version of the murder of Apsyrtus is 
repeated verbally by Zenobius (iv. 92), but as usual without 
acknowledgment. 


113 
VOL, I. I 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐμβάλλει πλάνην. καὶ αὐτῶν tas ᾿Αψυρτίδας 
νήσους παραπλεόντων ἡ ναῦς φθέγγεται μὴ 
λήξειν τὴν ὀργὴν τοῦ Διός, dav! μὴ πορευθέντες 
εἰς τὴν Αὐσονίαν τὸν ᾿Αψύρτου φόνον καθαρθῶσιν 
ὑπὸ Κίρκης. οἱ δὲ παραπλεύσαντες τὰ Λιγύων ὃ 
καὶ Κελτῶν ἔθνη, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Σαρδονίου πελάγους 
διακομισθέντες,Σ παραμειψάμενοι Τυρρηνίαν ἦλ- 
θον εἰς Aiainy,* ἔνθα Κίρκης ἱκέται γενόμενοι 
καθαίρονται. 

25 Παραπλεόντων δὲ Σειρῆνας αὐτῶν, ᾿Ορφεὺς 
τὴν ἐναντίαν μοῦσαν μελῳδῶν τοὺς ᾿Αργοναύτας 
κατέσχε. μόνος δὲ Βούτης ἐξενήξατο πρὸς αὐτάς, 
ὃν ἁρπάσασα ᾿Αφροδίτη ἐν Λιλυβαίῳ κατῴκισε. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὰς Σειρῆνας τὴν ναῦν Χάρυβδις 
ἐξεδέχετο καὶ Σκύλλα καὶ πέτραι πλαγκταΐ, 
ὑπὲρ ὧν φλὸξ πολλὴ καὶ καπνὸς ἀναφερόμενος 
ἑωρᾶτο. ἀλλὰ διὰ τούτων διεκόμισε τὴν ναῦν 
σὺν Νηρηίσι Θέτις παρακληθεῖσα ὑπὸ “Ἥρας. 

Παραμειψάμενοι δὲ Θρινακίαν νῆσον Ἡλίου 
βοῦς ὃ ἔχουσαν εἰς τὴν Φαιάκων νῆσον Κέρκυραν 
ἧκον, ἧς βασιλεὺς ἣν ᾿Αλκίνοος. τῶν δὲ Κόλχων 


1 δὰν Heyne: εἰ EA. 

2 Λιγύων Scaliger: λιβύων EA. 

8 διακομισθέντες Εἰ : κομισθέντες A. 

4 aialny ERR&C: Αἰαίαν Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, Hercher. 

5 βοῦς EA: βόας Wagner. 


1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 576-591; Or- 
phica, Argonautica, 1160 sqq. 

3 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 659-717, who 
describes the purificatory rites. A sucking-pig was waved 
over the homicides ; then its throat was cut, and their hands 
were sprinkled with its blood. Similar rites of purification 


114 


THE LIBRARY, I, rx. 24-25 


angry at the murder of Apsyrtus. And as they were 
sailing past the Apsyrtides Islands, the ship spoke, 
saying that the wrath of Zeus would not cease unless 
they journeyed to Ausonia and were purified by Circe 
for the murder of Apsyrtus.1 So when they had 
sailed past the Ligurian and Celtic nations and had 
voyaged through the Sardinian Sea, they skirted 
Tyrrhenia and came to Aeaea, where they supplicated 
Circe and were purified.? | 

And as they sailed past the Sirens,’ Orpheus 
restrained the Argonauts by chanting a counter 
melody. Butes alone swam off to the Sirens, but 
Aphrodite carried him away and settled him in Lily- 
baeum. 

After the Sirens, the ship encountered Charybdis 
. and Scylla and the Wandering Rocks,* above which 
a great flame and smoke were seen rising. But Thetis 
with the Nereids steered the ship through them at 
the summons of Hera. 

Having passed by the Island of Thrinacia, where 
are the kine of the Sun,> they came to Corcyra, the 
island of the Phaeacians, of which Alcinous was 
king. But when the Colchians could not find the 


for homicide are represented on Greek vases. See my note 
on Pausanias, ii. 31. 8 (vol. ili. p. 277). 

8 About the Argonauts ay the Sirens, see Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon. iv. 891-921 ; Orphica, Argonautica, 1270- 
1297 ; Hyginus, Fab. 14. 

4 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 922 sqq. These 
Wandering Rocks are supposed to be the Lipari islands, two 
of which are still active volcanoes. 

5 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 964-979, accord- 
ing to whom the kine of the Sun were milk-white, with 
golden horns. 

6 About the Argonauts among the Phaeacians, see Apol- 
lonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 982 sqq.; Orphica, Argonautca, 
1298-1354 ; Hyginus, Fab. 23. 

115 


12 


APOLLODORUS 


τὴν ναῦν εὑρεῖν μὴ δυναμένων οἱ μὲν τοῖς Kepav- 
3 
νίοις ῖ ὄρεσι ππαρῴκησαν, οἱ δὲ εἰς τὴν ᾿Ιλλυρίδα 
κομισθέντες ἔκτισαν ᾿Αψυρτίδας νήσους" ἔνιοι δὲ 
\ 4 , \ 3 Ἁ 
πρὸς Φαίακας ἐλθόντες τὴν ᾿Αργὼ κατέλαβον καὶ 
\ / 3 ’ > 9 ’ φ 
τὴν Μήδειαν ἀπήτουν παρ᾽ ᾿Αλκεινόου. ὁ δὲ 
3 δι 4 > 4 [4 
εἶπεν, εἰ μὲν ἤδη συνελήλυθεν Ἰάσονι, δώσειν 
αὐτὴν ἐκείνῳ, εἰ δ᾽ ἔτε παρθένος ἐστί, τῷ πατρὶ 
᾽ , ς » , . 4» ἢ \ “ 
ἀποπέμψειν.Σ ᾿Αρήτη δὲ ἡ ᾿Αλκινόου γυνὴ φθά- 
σασα Μήδειαν ᾿Ιάσονι συνέζευξεν: ὅθεν οἱ μὲν 
Κόλχοι μετὰ Φαιάκων κατῴκησαν, οἱ δὲ ᾿Αργο- 
ναῦται μετὰ τῆς Μηδείας ἀνήχθησαν. 

26 Πλέοντες δὲ νυκτὸς σφοδρῷ περιπίπτουσι 
χειμῶνι. ᾿Απόλλων δὲ στὰς ἐπὶ τὰς Μελαντίους 
δειράς, τοξεύσας τῷ βέλει εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν 
κατήστραψεν. οἱ δὲ πλησίον ἐθεάσαντο νῆσον, 
τῷ δὲ παρὰ προσδοκίαν ἀναφανῆναιϑ προσορμι- 
σθέντες᾿ Ανάφην ἐκάλεσαν' ἱδρυσάμενοι δὲ βωμὸν 
? ’ 2 ᾽ δ ὶ θ 4 > 3 
Απόλλωνος αὐγλήτου" καὶ θυσιάσαντες ἐπ 

3 , 3 4 a 9 e \ 9% , 
εὐωχίαν ἐτράπησαν. δοθεῖσαι δ᾽ ὑπὸ ᾿Αρήτης 
Μηδείᾳ δώδεκα θεράπαιναι τοὺς ἀριστέας ἔσκωπ- 
τον μετὰ παιγνίας" ὅθεν ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἐν τῇ θυσίᾳ 
σύνηθές ἐστι σκώπτειν ταῖς γυναιξίν. 


1 Κεραυνίοις Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 175: κερκυ- 
palors A: κερκυραίων K. 2 ἀποπέμψειν E: ἀντιπέμψειν A. 

8 Μελαντίους Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1707 : μενοι- 
τίου A. 

4 A participle like καταπλαγέντες seems wanted. Compare 
ii, 5. 1. 

5 αἰγλήτον Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1716: αἰγαίου A. 


1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1106 sqq.; Or- 
phica, Argonautica, 1327 sqq. 
2 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1111-1169; 
Orphtca, Argonautica, 1342 sqq. 
Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1206 sqq. 
116 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 25-26 


ship, some of them settled at the Ceraunian moun- 
tains, and some journeyed to Illyria and colonized 
the Apsyrtides Islands. But some came to the 
Phaeacians, and finding the Argo there, they de- 
manded of Alcinous that he should give up Medea. 
He answered, that if she already knew Jason, he 
would give her to him, but that if she were still a 
maid he would send her away to her father.1 How- 
ever, Arete, wife of Alcinous, anticipated matters by 
marrying Medea to Jason;? hence the Colchians 
settled down among the Phaeacians® and the Argo- 
nauts put to sea with Medea. 

Sailing by night they encountered a violent storm, 
and Apollo, taking his stand on the Melantian ridges, 
flashed lightning down, shooting a shaft into the sea. 
Then they perceived an island close at hand, and 
anchoring there they named it Anaphe, because it 
had loomed up (anaphanenat) unexpectedly. So they 
founded an altar of Radiant Apollo, and having offered 
sacrifice they betook them to feasting ; and twelve 
handmaids, whom Arete had given to Medea, jested 
merrily with the chiefs; whence it is still customary 
for the women to jest at the sacrifice.‘ 


4 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1701-1730; 
Orphica, Argonautica, 1361-1367. From the description of 
Apollonius we gather that the raillery between men and 
women at these sacrifices was of a ribald character (αἰσχροῖς 
ἔπεσσιν). Here Apollodorus again departs from Apollonius, 
who places the intervention of Apollo and the appearance of 
the island of Anaphe after the approach of the Argonauts to 
Crete, and their repuse by Talos. Moreover, Apollonius tells 
how, after leaving Phaeacia, the Argonauts were driven by a 
storm to Libya and the Syrtes, where they suffered much 
hardship (Argon. iv. 1228-1628). This Libyan episode in 
the voyage of the Argo is noticed by Diodorus Siculus 
(iv. 56. 6), but entirely omitted by Apollodorus. 


117 


APOLLODORUS 


᾿Εντεῦθεν ἀναχθέντες κωλύονται Kpnry προσ- 
ίσχειν ὑπὸ Τάλω. τοῦτον οἱ μὲν τοῦ χαλκοῦ 
γένους εἶναι λέγουσιν, οἱ δὲ ὑπὸ Ηφαίστου Μίνωι 
δοθῆναι" ὃς ἦν χαλκοῦς ἀνήρ, οἱ δὲ ταῦρον αὐτὸν 
λέγουσιν. εἶχε δὲ φλέβα μίαν ἀπὸ αὐχένος 
κατατείνουσαν ἄχρι σφυρῶν: κατὰ δὲ τὸ τέρμα 3 
τῆς φλεβὸς ἧλος διήρειστο χαλκοῦς. οὗτος ὁ 
Τάλως τρὶς ἑκάστης ἡμέρας τὴν νῆσον περιτρο- 
χάξων ἐτήρει: διὸ καὶ τότε τὴν ᾿Αργὼ προσ- 
πλέουσαν θεωρῶν τοῖς λίθοις ἔβαλλεν. ἐξαπατη- 
θεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ Μηδείας ἀπέθανεν, ὡς μὲν ἔνιοι 
λέγουσι, διὰ φαρμάκων αὐτῷ μανίαν Μηδείας 
ἐμβαλούσης, ὡς δέ τινες, ὑποσχομένης ποιήσειν 
ἀθάνατον καὶ τὸν ἧλον ἐξελούσης, ἐκρυέντος τοῦ 
παντὸς ἰχῶρος αὐτὸν ἀποθανεῖν. τινὲς δὲ αὐτὸν 
τοξευθέντα ὑπὸ ἸΠοίαντος eis τὸ σφυρὸν τελευ- 
τῆσαι λέγουσι. 

Μίαν δὲ ἐνταῦθα νύκτα μείναντες Αἰγίνῃ προσ- 
ίσχουσιν ὑδρεύσασθαι θέλοντες, καὶ γίνεται περὶ 
τῆς ὑδρείας αὐτοῖς ἅμιλλα. ἐκεῖθεν δὲ διὰ τῆς 
Εὐβοίας καὶ τῆς Λοκρίδος πλεύσαντες εἰς ᾿Ιωλκὸν 


1 τέρμα Faber, Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: δέρμα A, 
Zenobius, Cent. v. 85, Westermann, Miiller. 





1 As to Talos, see Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1639- 
1693 ; Orphica, Argonautica, 1358-1360; Agatharchides, in 
Photius, Bibliotheca, p. 443 ὃ, lines 22-25, ed. Bekker ; Lucian, 
De saltatione, 49 ; Zenobius, Cent. v. 85; Suidas, 8.v. Σαρδά- 
vos γέλως ; Eustathius, on Homer, Odyssey, xx. 302, ἢ. 1893; 
Scholiast on Plato, Republic, i. p. 3374. Talos would seem 
to have been a bronze image of the sun represented as a man 
with a bull’s head. See The Dying God, pp. 74 8q.; A. B. 
Cook, Zews, i. 718 sqgq. In his account of the death of Talos 
our author again differs from Apollonius Rhodius, according 


118 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 26 


Putting to sea from there, they were hindered 
from touching at Crete by Talos! Some say that 
he was a man of the Brazen Race, others that he was 
given to Minos by Hephaestus; he was a brazen man, 
but some say that he was a bull. He had a single 
vein extending from his neck to his ankles, and a 
bronze nail was rammed home at the end of the vein. 
This Talos kept guard, running round the island 
thrice every day ; wherefore, when he saw the Argo 
standing inshore, he pelted it as usual with stones. 
His death was brought about by the wiles of Medea, 
whether, as some say, she drove him mad by drugs, 
or, as others say, she promised to make him immortal 
and then drew out the nail, so that all the ichor 
gushed out and he died. But some say that Poeas 
shot him dead in the ankle. 

After tarrying a single night there they put in to 
Aegina to draw water, and a contest arose among 
them concerning the drawing of the water.2, Thence 
they sailed betwixt Euboea and Locris and came to 


to whom Talos perished through grazing his ankle against a 
jagged rock, so that all the ichor in his body gushed out. This 
incident seems to have been narrated by Bophocles in one 
of his plays (Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 
1638 ; Pie Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, i. 110 
8qq-). The account, mentioned by Apollodorus, which re- 
ferred the death of Talos to the spells of Medea, is illustrated 
by a magnificent vase-painting, in the finest style, which 
represents Talos swooning to death in presence of the Argo- 
nauts, while the enchantress Medea stands by, gazing grimly 
at her victim and holding in one hand a basket from which 
she seems to be drawing with the other the fatal herbs. See 
A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. p. 721, with plate xr. 

2 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1765-1772, from 
whose account we gather that this story was told to explain 
the origin of a foot-race in Aegina, in which young men ran 
with jars full of water on their shoulders. 


11g 


APOLLODORUS 


ἦλθον, Tov πάντα πλοῦν ἐν τέτταρσι μησὶ τελειώ- 
σαντες. 

2 Πελίας δὲ ἀπογνοὺς τὴν ὑποστροφὴν τῶν 
᾿Αργοναυτῶν τὸν Αἴσονα κτείνειν ἤθελεν: ὁ δὲ 
αἰτησάμενος ἑαυτὸν ἀνελεῖν θυσίαν ἐπιτελῶν 
ἀδεῶς τοῦ ταυρείου σπασάμενος αἵματος ' ἀπέ- 
θανεν. ἡ δὲ Ἰάσονος μήτηρ ἐπαρασαμένη Πελίᾳ, 
νήπιον ἀπολιποῦσα παῖδα Ἰϊρόμαχον ἑαυτὴν 
ἀνήρτησε' ἸΠελίας δὲ καὶ τὸν αὐτῇ καταλειφθέντα 
παῖδα ἀπέκτεινεν. ὁ δὲ ᾿Ιάσων κατελθὼν τὸ μὲν 
δέρας ἔδωκε, περὶ ὧν δὲ ἠδικήθη μετελθεῖν ἐθέλων 
καιρὸν ἐξεδέχετο. καὶ τότε μὲν εἰς ἸΙσθμὸν μετὰ 
τῶν ἀριστέων πλεύσας ἀνέθηκε τὴν ναῦν Ποσει- 
δῶνι, αὖθις δὲ Μήδειαν παρακαλεῖ ζητεῖν ὅπως 
Πελίας αὐτῷ δίκας ὑπόσχῃ. ἡ δὲ εἰς τὰ βασί- 
λεια τοῦ Πελίου παρελθοῦσα πείθει τὰς θυγα- 
τέρας αὐτοῦ τὸν πατέρα κρεουργῆσαι καὶ καθε- 
ψῆσαι, διὰ φαρμάκων αὐτὸν ἐπαγγελλομένη 
ποιήσειν νέον' καὶ τοῦ πιστεῦσαι χάριν κριὸν 
μελίσασα καὶ καθεψήσασα ἐποίησεν ἄρνα. αἱ 
δὲ πιστεύσασαε τὸν πατέρα κρεουργοῦσι καὶ 
καθέψουσιν. Ακαστος ὃ δὲ μετὰ τῶν τὴν Ἰωλκὸν 

1 χαυρείου σπασάμενος αἵματος Εἰ : ταύρου αἷμα σπασάμενος A. 


3 πελίᾳ E: πελίαν A. 
3 Ἄκαστος Aegius: ἄδραστος EA. 





1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 50.1; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon. i. 777 8g. The ancients believed that bull’s blood was 
poisonous. Similarly Themistocles was popularly supposed 
to have killed himself by drinking bull’s blood (Plutarch, 
Themistocles, 31). 

? Her name was Perimede, according to Apollodorus (i. 9. 
16). Diodorus Siculus calls her Amphinome, and says that 
she stabbed herself after cursing Pelias (iv. 50. 1). 


ΣΖΟ 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 26-27 


Ioleus, having completed the whole voyage in four 
months. . 

Now Pelias, despairing of the return of the 
Argonauts, would have killed Aeson; but he re- 
quested to be allowed to take his own life, and in 
offering a sacrifice drank freely of the bull’s blood 
and died.1_ And Jason’s mother cursed Pelias and 
hanged herself,?, leaving behind an infant son 
Promachus; but Pelias slew even the son whom 
she had left behind. On his return Jason surren- 
dered the fleece, but though he longed to avenge 
his wrongs he bided his time. At that time he sailed 
with the chiefs to the Isthmus and dedicated the ship 
to Poseidon, but afterwards he exhorted Medea to 
devise how he could punish Pelias. So she repaired 
to the palace of Pelias and persuaded his daughters 
to make mince meat of their father and boil him, 
promising to make him young again by her drugs; 
and to win their confidence she cut up a ram and 
made it into a lamb by boiling it. So they believed 
her, made mince meat of their father and boiled 
him.‘ But Acastus buried his father with the help 


8 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 50. 1. 

4 With this account of the death of Pelias compare Dio- 
dorus Siculus, iv. 51 sq.; Pausanias, viii. 11. 2 sq.; Zenobius, 
Cent. iv. 92; Plautus, Pseudolus, Act iii. vv. 868 sqq. ; Cicero, 
De senectute, xxiii. 83; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 297-349 ; 
ene Fab. 24. The story of the fraud practised by Medea 
on Pelias is illustrated by Greek vase-paintings. For example, 
on a black-figured vase the ram is seen issuing from the 
boiling cauldron, while Medea and the two daughters of Pelias 
stand by watching it with gestures of glad surprise, and the 
aged white-haired king himself sits looking on expectant. See 
Mise J. E. Harrison, Greek Vase Paintings (London, 1894), 
plate ii; A. Baumeister, Denkmédler des klassischen Alter- 
tums, ii. 1201 84.) with fig. 1394. According to the author of 


121 


APOLLODORUS 


οἰκούντων τὸν πατέρα θάπτει, τὸν δὲ Ἰάσονα 
μετὰ τῆς Μηδείας τῆς Ἰωλκοῦ ἐκβάλλει. 

Οἱ δὲ ἧκον εἰς Κόρινθον, καὶ δέκα μὲν ἔτη 
διετέλουν εὐτυχοῦντες, αὖθις δὲ τοῦ τῆς Κορίνθου 
βασιλέως K avios τὴν θυγατέρα Τλαύκην 
᾿Ιάσονι ἐγγνῶντος, παραπεμψάμενος Ἰάσων Μή- 
δειαν ἐγάμει. ἡ δέ, ods τε ὥμοσεν Ἰάσων θεοὺς 
ἐπικαλεσαμένη καὶ τὴν ᾿Ιάσονος ἀχαριστίαν 
μεμψαμένη πολλάκις, τῇ μὲν γαμουμένῃ πέπλον 
μεμαγμένον ὃ φαρμάκοις ὃ ἔπεμψεν, ὃν ἀμφιεσα- 
μένη μετὰ τοῦ βοηθοῦντος πατρὸς πυρὶ λάβρῳ 
κατεφλέχθη, τοὺς δὲ παῖδας obs εἶχεν ἐξ Ἰάσονος, 
Μέρμερον καὶ Φέρητα, ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ λαβοῦσα 
παρὰ Ἡλίον ἅρμα πτηνῶν’ δρακόντων ἐπὶ 
τούτου φεύγουσα ἦλθεν εἰς ᾿Αθήνας. λέγεται δὲ 
«καὶ» ὅτι φεύγουσα τοὺς παῖδας ἔτι νηπίους 
ὄντας κατέλιπεν, ἱκέτας καθίσασα ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν 


1 μεμαγμένον Εἰ : μεμαγευμένον A. 

3. φαρμάκοις ER: φάρμακον A. 

8 κατεφλέχθη Εἰ : καταφλέγει A. 

4 πτηνῶν EC. Some MSS. read πτηνὸν. 


the epic Returns Sabioad Medea in like manner restored to 
outh Jason’s old father, Aeson ; according to Pherecydesand . 
Rimonides, she applied the magical restorative with success 
to her husband, Jason. Again, Aeschylus wrote a play called 
The Nurses of Dionysus, in which he related how Medea 
similarly renovated not only the nurses but their husbands by 
the simple process of decoction. See the Greek Argument to 
the Medea of Euripides, and the Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
Knights, 1321. (According to Ovid, Metamorph, vii. 25]-- 
294, Medea restored Aeson to youth, not by boiling him, but 
by draining his body of his effete old blood and replacing it by 
ἃ magic brew.) Again, when Pelops had heen killed and 


122 


THE LIBRARY, I. 1x. 27-28 


of the inhabitants of Iolcus, and he expelled Jason 
and Medea from Iolcus. 

They went to Corinth, and lived there happily 
for ten years, till Creon, king of Corinth, betrothed 
his daughter Glauce to Jason, who married 
her and divorced Medea. But she invoked the 
gods by whom Jason had sworn, and after often 
upbraiding him with his ingratitude she sent the 
bride a robe steeped in poison, which when Glauce 
had put on, she was consumed with fierce fire along 
with her father, who went to her rescue. But 
Mermerus and Pheres, the children whom Medea had 
by Jason, she killed, and having got from the Sun 
a car drawn by winged dragons she fled on it to 
Athens.? Another tradition is that on her flight she 
left behind her children, who were still infants, 
setting them as suppliants on the altar of Hera of the 


served up at a banquet of the aes by his cruel father Tanta- 
lus, the deities in pity restored him to life by boiling him in 
a cauldron from which he emerged well and whole except for 
the loss of his shoulder, of which Demeter had inadvertentl 
partaken, See Pindar, Olymp. i. 28. (40) sq., with the Schol- 
last; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 152-153. For similar 
stories of the magical restoration of youth and life, see 
Appendix, ‘*The Renewal of Youth.” 

See Euripides, Medea, 1136 sqg. It is said that in her 
agony Glauce threw herself into a fountain, which was 
thenceforth named after her (Pausanias, ii. 2.6). The fountain 
has been discovered and excavated in recent years. See 
G. W. Elderkin, ‘‘The Fountain of Glauce at Corinth,” 
American Journal of Archaeology, xiv. (1910), pp. 19-50. 

5 In this account of the tragic end of Medea’s stay at 
Corinth our author has followed the Medea of Euripides. 
Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 54; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 
391 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 25. According to Apuleius (Meta- 
morph. i. 10), Medea contrived to burn the king’s palace and 
the king himself in it, as well as his daughter. 


123 


APOLLODORUS 


τῆς “Hpas τῆς axpaias: Κορίνθιοι δὲ αὐτοὺς ava- 
στήσαντες κατετραυμάτισαν. 

Μήδεια δὲ ἧκεν εἰς ᾿Αθήνας, κἀκεῖ γαμηθεῖσα 
Αἰγεῖ παῖδα γεννᾷ Μῆδον. ἐπιβουλεύουσα δὲ 
Ψ ““" \ 4 3 n \ “, \ 
ὕστερον Θησεῖ φυγὰς ἐξ ᾿Αθηνῶν pera τοῦ παιδὸς 
ἐκβάλλεται. ἀλλ᾽ οὗτος μὲν πολλῶν κρατήσας 

9 
βαρβάρων τὴν ὑφ᾽ ἑαντὸν χώραν ἅπασαν Μηδίαν 
ἐκάλεσε, καὶ στρατευόμενος ἐπὶ ᾿Ινδοὺς ἀπέθανε: 
Μήδεια δὲ εἰς Κόλχους ἦλθεν ἄγνωστος, καὶ 
A 97 e Ἁ A 9 le! . 

καταλαβοῦσα Αἰήτην ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ Πέρσου 
τῆς βασιλείας ἐστερημένον, κτείνασα τοῦτον τῷ 
πατρὶ τὴν βασιλείαν ἀποκατέστησεν. 





1 Compare Pausanias, ii. 3.6; Aelian, Varta Historia, v. 
21; Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 9 and 264. Down to a 
comparatively late date the Corinthians used to offer annual 
sacrifices and perform other rites for the sake of expiating the 
murder of the children. Seven boys and seven girls, clad in 
black and with their hair shorn, had to spend a year in the 
sanctuary of Hera of the a aT where the murder had been 
perpetrated. These customs fell into desuetude after Corinth 
was captured by the Romans. See Pausanias, ii. 3. 7; 
Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 264; compare Philostratus, 
Herotca, xx. 24. 

2 According to one account, Medea attempted to poison 
Theseus, but his father dashed the poison cup from his lips. 
See below, Hpitome, i. 5 ag.; Plutarch, Theseus, 12; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 55. 4—6 ; Pausanias, ii. 3. 8 ; Scholiast on Homer, 
Il. xi. 741; Eustathius, Comment. on Dionysius Perieg. 
1017; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 406-424. According to Ovid, 


124 


THE LIBRARY, I. rx. 28 


Height ; but the Corinthians removed them and 
wounded them to death.! 

Medea came to Athens, and being there married 
to Aegeus bore him a son Medus. Afterwards, 
however, plotting against Theseus, she was driven 
a fugitive from Athens with her son.2_ But he con- 
quered many barbarians and called the whole 
country under him Media,’ and marching against 
the Indians he met his death. And Medea came 
unknown to Colchis, and finding that Aeetes had 
been deposed by his brother Perses, she killed Perses 
and restored the kingdom to her father.‘ 


the poison which Medea made use of to take off Theseus was 
aconite. 

8 For the etymology, compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 55. 5 
and 7, iv. 56.1; Strabo, xi. 13. 10, p. 526; Pausanias, ii. 3. 
8; Eustathius, Comment. on Dionysius Perieg. 1017; Hygi- 
nus, Fab. 27. 

4 According to others, it was not Medea but her son Medus 
who killed Perses. See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 56. 1; Hyginus, 
Fab. 27. Cicero quotes from an otherwise unknown Latin 
tragedy some lines in which the deposed Aeetes is repre- 
sented mourning his forlorn state in an unkingly and 
unmanly strain (Tusculan. Disput. iii. 12. 26). The narrative 
of Hyginus has all the appearance of being derived from a 
tragedy, perhaps the same tragedy from which Cicero quotes. 
But that tragedy itself was probably based on a Greek 
original ; for Diodorus Siculus introduces his similar account 
of the assassination of the usurper with the remark that the 
history of Medea had been embellished and distorted by the 
extravagant fancies of the tragedians. 


125 


Digitized by Google 


BOOK II 


B 


I. ᾽᾿Επειδὴ δὲ τὸ τοῦ Δευκαλίωνος διεξεληλύ- 
θαμεν γένος, ἐχομένως λέγωμεν ' τὸ ἸΙνάχειον. 

᾽Ωκεανοῦ καὶ Τηθύος γίνεται παῖς Ἴναχος, ἀφ᾽ 
οὗ ποταμὸς ἐν ΓΑργει Ἴναχος καλεῖται. τούτου 
καὶ Μελίας τῆς ᾽Ωκεανοῦ Φορωνεύς τε καὶ 
Αἰγιαλεὺς παῖδες ἐγένοντο. Αἰγιαλέως μὲν οὖν 
ἄπαιδος ἀποθανόντος ἡ χώρα ἅπασα Αἰγιάλεια 
ἐκλήθη, Φορωνεὺς δὲ ἁπάσης τῆς ὕστερον ἸΠελο- 
ποννήσου προσαγορευθείσης δυναστεύων ἐκ Τηλε- 
δίκης ὃ νύμφης "Ami καὶ Νιόβην ἐγέννησεν. 
"Amis μὲν οὖν εἰς τυραννίδα τὴν ἑαυτοῦ μετα- 
στήσας δύναμιν καὶ βίαιος ὧν τύραννος, ὀνομάσας" 
3 3 e “A \ ’ 9 ’ e \ 
ἀφ ἑαυτοῦ τὴν IleXotovyncov ᾿Απίαν, ὑπὸ 
Θελξίονος καὶ Τελχῖνος ἐπιβουλευθεὶς ἄπαις 
2 4 \ \ 4 / 4 
ἀπέθανε, καὶ νομισθεὶς θεὸς ἐκλήθη Σάραπις" 
Νιόβης δὲ καὶ Διός (4 πρώτῃ γυναικὶ Ζεὺς θνητῇ 
> » a ΝΜ > ’ e 3 », 4 
ἐμίγη) παῖς “Apyos ἐγένετο, ὡς δὲ ᾿Ακουσίλαός 

1 λέγωμεν Aegius: λέγομεν A. 

3 Μελίας Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 177, Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeus, p. 22 a: μελίσσης A. 

3 Τηλοδίκης Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 177, Scholiast 


on Plato, Timaeus, p. 22 a: ἐκ τῆς Λαοδίκης Heyne (in the 
text). 4 ὀναμάσας Bekker, Wagner (misprint). 


1 As to Inachus and his descendants, see Tzetzes, Schol, 
on Lycophron, 177 (who follows Apollodorus) ; Pausanias, ii. 
15. 5; Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 932; Scholiast on 


128 


BOOK II 


I. Havine now gone through the family of Deu- 
calion,.we have next to speak of that of Inachus. 

Ocean and Tethys had a son Inachus, after whom 
a river in Argos is called Inachus.1_ He and Melia, 
daughter of Ocean, had sons, Phoroneus and Aegia- 
leus. Aegialeus having died childless, the whole 
country was called Aegialia; and Phoroneus, reigning 
over the whole land afterwards named Peloponnese, 
begat Apis and Niobe by a nymph Teledice. Apis 
converted his power into a tyranny and named the 
Peloponnese after himself Apia; but being a stern 
tyrant he was conspired against and slain by 
Thelxion and Telchis. He left no child, and being 
deemed a god was called Sarapis.2, But Niobe had 
by Zeus (and she was the first mortal woman with 
whom Zeus cohabited) a son Argus, and also, so says 


Homer, Ji. i. 22. According to Apion, the flight of the 
Israelites from Egypt took place ini Sa reign of Inachus 
at Argos. See Eusebius, Praeparatio Hvangelu, x. 10. 10 sq. 
On the subject of Phoroneus there was an ancient epic 
Phoronis, of which a few verses have survived. See Hpt- 
corum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 209 sqq. 

2 Apollodorus identifies the Argive Apis with the Egyptian 
bull Apis, who was in turn identified with Serapis (Sarapis). 
As to the Egyptian Apis, see Herodotus, ii. 153 (with Wiede- 
mann’s note), iii. 27 and 28. As to Apia as a name for 
Peloponnese or Argos, see Aeschylus, Suppl. 260 sqq.; Pau- 
sanias, ii. 5. 7; Scholiast on Homer, Il. i. 22; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 177 ; Stephanus Byzantius, 3.v. ᾿Απία. 


129 
VOL. I. K 


APOLLODORUS 


φησι, καὶ Πελασγύς, ἀφ᾽ οὗ κληθῆναι τοὺς τὴν 
Πελοπόννησον οἰκοῦντας Πελασγούς. Ἡσίοδος 
δὲ τὸν “Πελασγὸν αὐτόχθονά φησιν εἶναι. ἀλλὰ 
περὶ μὲν τούτου πάλιν ἐροῦμεν' Αργος δὲ λαβὼν 
τὴν βασιλείαν ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ τὴν Πελοπόννησον 
ἐκάλεσεν ἼΑργος, καὶ γήμας Ἐὐάδνην τὴν Στρυ- 
μόνος καὶ Νεαίρας ἐ ἐτέκνωσεν Ἔκβασον Πείραντα 
᾿Επίδαυρον Κρίασον, ὃς καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν παρέ- 
λαβεν. 

᾿Εκβάσου δὲ ᾿Αγήνωρ γίνεται, τούτου δὲ ἼΑργος 
ὁ πανόπτης λεγόμενος. εἶχε δὲ οὗτος ὀφθαλμοὺς 
μὲν ἐν παντὶ τῷ σώματι, ὑπερβάλλων δὲ δυνάμει 
τὸν μὲν τὴν ᾿Αρκαδίαν λυμαινόμενον ταῦρον ἀνε- 
λὼν τὴν τούτον δορὰν ἠμφιέσατο, Σάτυρον δὲ 
τοὺς ᾿Αρκάδας ἀδικοῦντα καὶ ἀφαιρούμενον τὰ 
βοσκηματα ὑποστὰς ἀπέκτεινε. λέγεται δὲ ὅ ὅτι 
καὶ τὴν Ταρτάρου καὶ Τῆς Ἔχιδναν, ἣ τοὺς 
παριόντας συνήρπαζξεν, ἐπιτηρήσας κοιμωμένην 
ἀπέκτεινεν. ἐξεδίκησε δὲ καὶ τὸν ΓΑπιδος φόνον, 
τοὺς αἰτίους ἀποκτείνας. 

᾿Αργου δὲ καὶ ᾿Ισμήνης τῆς ᾿Ασωποῦ παῖς 
Ἴασος,Σ οὗ φασιν Ἰὼ γενέσθαι. Κάστωρ δὲ ὁ 
συγγράψας τὰ χρονικὰ καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν τραγικῶν 
Ἰνάχου τὴν ᾿Ιὼ λέγουσιν: ‘Hatodos δὲ καὶ ᾿Ακου- 


1 After λαβὼν the MSS. (A) add παρὰ Φορωνέως, which is 
omitted by Hercher and Wagner, following Heyne. 
3 “Iages Aegius: ἶσος A. 


1 See below, iii. 8. 1. 

2 Compare Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 932; Hyginus, 
Fab. 145. 

7 As to Argus and his many eyes, compare Aeschylus, 
Suppl. 303 sqq.; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen. 1116 ; Ovid 
Metamorph. i. 625 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 145; Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen. vii. 790 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latint, 


130 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 1-3 


Acusilaus, a son Pelasgus, after whom the inhabit- 
ants of the Peloponnese were called Pelasgians. 
However, Hesiod says that Pelasgus was a son of 
the soil. About him I shall speak again.1 But 
Argus received the kingdom and called the Pelo- 
ponnese after himself Argos; and having married 
Evadne, daughter of Strymon and Neaera, he begat 
Ecbasus, Piras, Epidaurus, and Criasus,* who also 
succeeded to the kingdom. 

Ecbasus had a son Agenor, and Agenor had a son 
Argus, the one who is called the All-seeing. He had 
eyes in the whole of his body,® and being exceed- 
ingly strong he killed the bull that ravaged Arcadia 
and clad himself in its hide; and when a satyr 
wronged the Arcadians and robbed them of their 
cattle, Argus withstood and killed him. It is said, 
too, that Echidna,® daughter of Tartarus and Earth, 
.who used to carry off passers-by, was caught asleep 
and slain by Argus. He also avenged the murder ot 
Apis by putting the guilty to death. 

Argus and Ismene, daughter of Asopus, had a son 
Iasus, who is said to have been the. father of Io.® 
But the annalist Castor and many of the tragedians 
allege that Io was a daugher of Inachus;’ and Hesiod 


ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 58q. (First Vatican Mythographer, 
18). 

4 Compare Dionysius, quoted by the Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoeniss. 1116, who says merely that Argus was clad 
in a hide and had eyes all over his body. 

5 As to the monster Echidna, half woman, half snake, see 
Hesiod, Theog. 295 sqq. 

6 Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. 1; Scholiast on Euripides, 
Orestes, 932. 

7 Compare Aeschylus, Prometheus, 589 sqq.; Herodotus, i. 
1; Plutarch, De malignitate Herodoti, 11; Lucian, Dtal. 
deorum, iii.; id. Dial. Marin. vii. 1; Pausanias, iii. 18. 13 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. i. 583 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 145. 

121 
κ2 


APOLLODORUS 


σίλαος Πειρῆνος αὐτήν φασιν εἶναι. ταύτην 
ἱερωσύνην τῆς Ἥρας ἔχουσαν Ζεὺς ἔφθειρε. 
φωραθεὶς δὲ ὑφ᾽ “Ἥρας τῆς μὲν κόρης ἁψάμενος 
εἰς βοῦν μετεμόρφωσε λευκήν, ἀπωμόσατο δὲ 
ταύτῃ μὴ συνελθεῖν διό φησιν Ἡσίοδος οὐκ 
ἐπισπᾶσθαι τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν θεῶν ὀργὴν τοὺς γινο- 
μένους ὅρκους ὑπὲρ ἔρωτος. Ἥρα δὲ αἰτησαμένη 
παρὰ Διὸς τὴν βοῦν φύλακα αὐτῆς κατέστησεν 
"Apryov τὸν πανόπτην, ὃν Φερεκύδης 2 μὲν ᾿Αρέ- 
στορος λέγει, ᾿Ασκληπιάδης δὲ Ἰνάχου, Κέρκωψ 
δὲ “Apyou καὶ Ἰσμήνης τῆς ᾿Ασωποῦ θυγατρός: 
᾿Ακουσίλαος δὲ γηγενῆ αὐτὸν λέγει. οὗτος ἐκ 
τῆς ἐλαίας ἐδέσμευεν αὐτὴν ἥτις ἐν τῷ Μυκη- 
ναίων ὑπῆρχεν ἄλσει. Διὸς δὲ ἐπιτάξαντος 
Ἑρμῇ κλέψαι τὴν βοῦν, μηνύσαντος Ἱέρακος, 
ἐπειδὴ λαθεῖν οὐκ ἠδύνατο, λίθῳ βαλὼν ἀπέ- 
KTELVE τὸν “Apyoy, ὅθεν ἀργειφόντης ἐκλήθη. 
Ἥρα δὲ τῇ βοὶ οἶστρον ἐμβάλλει ἡ δὲ πρῶτον 
ἧκεν εἰς τὸν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης Ἰόνιον κόλπον κληθέντα, 
ἔπειτα διὰ τῆς ᾿Ιλλυρίδος πορευθεῖσα καὶ τὸν 
Αἷμον ὑπερβαλοῦσα διέβη τὸν τότε μὲν καλού- 
μενον πόρον Θρᾷκιον, νῦν δὲ ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης Βόσ- 
πορον. ἀπελθοῦσα " δὲ εἰς Σκυθίαν καὶ τὴν 
Κιμμερίδα γῆν, πολλὴν χέρσον πλανηθεῖσα καὶ 
πολλὴν διανηξαμένη θάλασσαν Εὐρώπης τε καὶ 


1 ταύτῃ Wagner: ταύτην E: αὐτὴν A: ἀρχὴν Hercher. 

2 Φερεκύδης. . . ᾿Ασκληπιάδης Heyne (comparing Scholiast 
on Kuripides, Phoenissae, 1116), Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : 
᾿Ασκληπιάδης.. . Φερεκύδης A, Westermann. 

3 Képxwy Aegius: κέκροψ A. 

4 ἀπελθοῦσα ἫΝ ἐπελθοῦσα Α. 


— 


1 Compare Aeschylus, Suppl. 291 sqq.; Scholiast on Homer, 
132 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 3 


and Acusilaus say that she was a daughter of Piren. 
Zeus seduced her while she held the priesthood of 
Hera, but being detected by Hera he by a touch 
turned Io into a white cow! and swore that he had 
not known her; wherefore Hesiod remarks that 
lover’s oaths do not draw down the anger of the gods. 
But Hera requested the cow from Zeus for herself 
and set Argus the All-seeing to guard it. Pherecydes 
says that this Argus was a son of Arestor ;? but Asclep- 
iades says that he was a son of Inachus, and Cercops 
says that he was a son of Argus and Ismene, daugh- 
ter of Asopus; but Acusilaus says that he was earth- 
born.? He tethered her to the olive tree which was 
in the grove of the Mycenaeans. But Zeus ordered 
Hermes to steal the cow, and as Hermes could not do 
it secretly because Hierax had blabbed, he killed 
Argus by the cast of a stone ;* whence he was called 
Argiphontes.5 Hera next sent a gadfly to infest the 
cow,® and the animal came first to what is called 
after her the Ionian gulf. Then she journeyed through 
Illyria and having traversed Mount Haemus she 
crossed what was then called the Thracian Straits but 
is now called after her the Bosphorus.’ And having 
gone away to Scythia and the Cimmerian land she 
wandered over great tracts of land and swam wide 
stretches of sea both in Europe and Asia until at last 
Il. ii. 103 (who cites the present passage of Apollodorus) ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. i. 588 8qq. 

3 The passage of Pherecydes is quoted by the Scholiast on 
Euripides, Phoenissae, 1116. 

3 So Aeschylus, Prometheus, 305. 

4 Compare Scholiast on Aeschylus, Prometheus, 561 ; Scho- 
liast on Homer, 17}. ii. 103. 5 That is, slayer of Argus. 

6 For the wanderings of Io, goaded by the gadfly, see 
Aeschylus, Suppl. 540 sqq., Prometheus, 786 (805) sqq.; Ovid 
Metamorph. i. 724 8qq. 


Bosporos, ‘‘Cow’s strait ” or ‘‘ Ox-ford.” 133 


APOLLODORUS 


᾿Ασίας, τελευταῖον ἧκεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, ὅ ὅπου τὴν 
ἀρχαίαν μορφὴν ἀπολαβοῦσα γεννᾷ παρὰ τῷ 
Νείλῳ ποταμῷ Ἔπαφον παῖδα. τοῦτον δὲ Ἥρα 
δεῖται Κουρήτων ἀφανῆ ποιῆσαι' οἱ δὲ ἠφάνισαν 
αὐτόν. καὶ Ζεὺς μὲν αἰσθόμενος κτείνει Kov- 
ρητας, "Im δὲ ἐπὶ ζήτησιν τοῦ παιδὸς ἐτράπετο. 
πλανωμένη δὲ κατὰ τὴν Συρίαν ἅπασαν (ἐκεῖ 
γὰρ ἐμηνύετο «ὅτι 3 ἡ!» τοῦ Βυβλίων βασιλέως 
«γυνὴ» * ἐτιθήνει τὸν υἱόν) καὶ τὸν "Ἔπαφον εὑ- 
ροῦσα, εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἐλθοῦσα ἐγαμήθη Τηλεγόνῳ 
τῷ βασιλεύοντι τότε Αἰγυπτίων. ἱδρύσατο δὲ 
ἄγαλμα Δήμητρος, ἣν ἐκάλεσαν Ἶσιν Αἰγύπτιοι, 
καὶ τὴν ᾿Ιὼ Ἶσιν ὁμοίως προσηγόρευσαν. 
Ἔπαφος δὲ βασιλεύων Αἰγυπτίων γαμεῖ Μέμ- 
φιν τὴν Νείλου θυγατέρα, καὶ ἀπὸ ταύτης κτίζει 
Μέμφιν πόλιν, καὶ τεκνοῖ θυγατέρα Λιβύην, 
ἀφ᾽ ἧς ἡ χώρα Λιβύη ἐκλήθη. Λιβύης δὲ καὶ 
Ποσειδῶνος γίνονται παῖδες δίδυμοι ᾿Αγήνωρ καὶ 
Βῆλος. ᾿Αγήνωρ μὲν οὖν εἰς Φοινίκην ἀπαλ- 
λαγεὶς ἐβασίλευσε, κἀκεῖ τῆς μεγάλης pitns ἐγέ- 
veTo γενεάρχης" ὅθεν ὑπερθησόμεθα περὶ τούτου. 
Βῆλος δὲ ὑπομείνας ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ βασιλεύει μὲν 
Αἰγύπτου, γαμεῖ δὲ ᾿Αγχινόην ὃ τὴν Νείλου 
θυγατέρα, καὶ αὐτῷ γίνονται παῖδες δίδυμοι, 
: hid A: ἤει ΕΒ. 3 ὅτι inserted by Bekker : ὧς Heyne. 
3 ἡ a conjecture of Heyne’s. 4 γυνὴ inserted by Aegius. 
5 ᾿Αγχινόην A, Scholiast on Homer, JI. 1. 42 (citing the 
Second Book of ‘Apollodorus) : ᾿Αγχιρρόη Scholiast on Plato, 


Timaeus, p. 25 B: ᾽Αχι Tzetzes, Chiltades, vii. 353, and 
Schol. on Lycophron, 583. 


1 Compare Aeschylus, Prometheus, 846 (865) sqgq.; Herodo- 

ee ii, 153, iii. 27; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 748 sqq.; ’Hyginus, 
145. 

2 Isis, whom the ancients sometimes identified with Io (see 


134 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 3-4 


she came to Egypt, where she recovered her original 
form and gave birth to a son Epaphus beside the 
river Nile.1 Him Hera besought the Curetes to make 
away with, and make away with him they did. When 
Zeus learned of it, he slew the Curetes; but lo set 
out in search of the child. She roamed all over Syria, 
because there it was revealed to her that the wife of 
the king of Byblus was nursing her son ;? and having 
found Epaphus she came to Egypt and was married 
to Telegonus, who then reigned over the Egyptians. 
And she set up an image of Demeter, whom the 
Egyptians called Isis,? and lo likewise they called by 
the name of Isis.4 

Reigningover theEgyptians Epaphus married Mem- 
phis, daughter of Nile, founded and named the city 
of Memphis after her, and begat a daughter Libya, 
after whom the region of Libya was called.> Libya 
had by Poseidon twin sons, Agenor and Belus.6 Agenor 
departed to Phoenicia and reigned there, and there 
he became the ancestor of the great stock ; hence we 
shall defer our account of him.’ But Belus remained 
in Egypt, reigned over the country, and married 
Anchinoe, daughter of Nile, by whom he had twin 


below), is said to have nursed the infant son of the king of 
Byblus. See Plutarch, Jets et Osirts, 15 sg. Both stories 

robably reflect the search said to have been instituted by 
feis for the body of the dead Osiris. 

3 For the identification of Demeter with Isis, see Herodo- 
tus, ii. 59, 156 ; Diodorus Siculus, i. 13. 5, i. 25. 1, i. 96. 5. 

4 Herodotus remarked (ii. 41) that in art Isis was repre- 
sented like Io as a woman with cow’s horns. For the identifi- 
cation of Io and Isis, see Diodorus Siculus, i. 24. 8; Lucian, 
Dial. deorum, iii.; Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. 21. 106, 
p. 382, ed. Potter; Propertius, iii. 20. 17 sq.; Juvenal, Sat. 
vi. 526 899. ; Statius, Syl. i iii. 2. 101 8q.; Hyginus, Fab. 145. 

δ Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 894. 

* Compare J. Tzetzes, Chilvades, vii. 349 86. 

7 See below, iii. 1. 


135 


APOLLODORUS 


Αἴγυπτος καὶ Aavads, ὡς δέ φησιν Εὐριπίδης, 
καὶ Κηφεὺς καὶ Φινεὺς προσέτι. Δαναὸν μὲν 
οὖν Βῆλος ἐν Λιβύῃ κατῴκισεν," Αἴγυπτον δὲ ἐν 
᾿Αραβίᾳ, ὃς καὶ καταστρεψάμενος Σ τὴν Μελαμ- 
πόδων ὃ χώραν «ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ; " ὠνόμασεν Αἴγυπ- 
τον. γίνονται δὲ ἐκ πολλῶν γυναικῶν Αἰγύπτῳ 
μὲν παῖδες πεντήκοντα, θυγατέρες δὲ Δαναῷ 
πεντήκοντα. στασιασάντων δὲ αὐτῶν περὶ τῆς 
ἀρχῆς" ὕστερον, Δαναὸς τοὺς Αἰγύπτου παῖδας 
δεδοικώς, ὑποθεμένης ᾿Αθηνᾶς αὐτῷ ναῦν κατε- 
σκεύασε πρῶτος καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας ἐνθέμενος 
ἔφυγε. προσσχὼν δὲ Ῥόδῳ τὸ τῆς Λινδίας 
ἄγαλμα ᾿Αθηνᾶς ἱδρύσατο. ἐντεῦθεν δὲ ἧκεν εἰς 
"Apyos, καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτῷ παραδίδωσι 
Γελάνωρϑ8 ὁ τότε βασιλεύων «αὐτὸς δὲ κρατήσας 
τῆς χώρας ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας Δαναοὺς 
a@vopace>.® ἀνύδρου δὲ τῆς χώρας ὑπαρχούσης, 

1 κατῴκισεν R: κατώκησεν A. 

3. καταστρεψάμενος Scholiast on Homer, 7. i. 42, Scholiast 
on Plato, Timaeus, Ae 25 B: κατασκαψάμενος A. 

8 μελαμπόδων R, Scholiast on Homer, JI. i. 42, Scholiast on . 
Plato, Timaeua, p. 25 B, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 6: μὲν λαμπάδων A. 

4 ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ added by Aegius from the Scholiasts on Homer 
and Plato, ll.cc. 

5 περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς omitted by Heyne and Bekker. Compare 
Scholiast on Homer, Jl. i. 42, στασιάντων δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους 
περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς. 

6 προσσχὼν Scholiast on Homer, 77. i. 42: προσάγων A. 

7 Awdlas R: λυδίας A. 

8 TeAdvwp Heyne; compare Pausanias ii. 16. 1, ii. 19. 3, 94. : 
πελάνωρ A: é\Advwp Scholiast on Homer, Ji. i. 42. 

9 αὐτὸς δὲ κρατήσας τῆς χώρας ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας 
Δαναοὺς ὠνόμασεν. These words are cited in the present 
connexiun by the Scholiast on Homer, JJ. i. 42, as from the 
Second Book of Apollodorus. They are inserted by Aegius, 
Commelinus, Gale, and Miiller, but omitted by Heyne, 
Westermann, Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner. 
136 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 4 


sons, Egyptus and Danaus,! but according to Euripi- 
des, he had also Cepheus and Phineus. Danaus was 
settled by Belus in Libya, and Egyptus in Arabia ; 
but Egyptus subjugated the country of the Mela 
pods and named it Egypt after himself. Both had 
children by many wives; Egyptus had fifty sons, and 
Danaus fifty daughters. As they afterwards quar- 
relled concerning the kingdom, Danaus feared the 
sons of Egyptus, and by the advice of Athena he built 
a ship, being the first to do so, and having put his 
daughters on board he fled. And touching at Rhodes 
he set up the image of Lindian Athena.2 Thence 
he came to Argos and the reigning king Gelanor 
surrendered the kingdom to him;*® and having made 
_ himself master of the country he named the inhabi- 
tants Danai after himself. But the country being 


1 The following account of E ea and Danaus, including 
the settlement of Danaus aad is daughters at Argos, is 
yea verbally, with a few omissions and changes, By the 

choliast.on Homer, Jl. i. 42, who mentions the second book 
of Apollodorus as his authority. Compare Aeschylus, Suppl. 
318 sgq. ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hecuba, 886, and Orestes, 
872; Hyginus, Fab. 168 ; Servius on Virgil, Aen. x. 497. 

2 Compare Herodotus, ii. 182; Marmor Parium, 15-17, 
pp. 544, 546, ed. C. Miiller (fragmenta Historicorum 

aecorum, vol.i.); Diodorus Siculus, v. 58. 1; Strabo, xiv. 
2.11, p. 655 ; Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangeli, iii. 8. As 
to the worship of the goddess, see Cecil Torr, Rhodes in 
Ancient Times (Cambridge, 1885), pp. 74 8q., 94 sq. In 
recent years a chronicle of the temple of Lindian Athena has 
been discovered in Rhodes: it is inscribed on a marble slab. 
See Chr. Blinkenberg, La Chronique du temple Lindten 
(Copenhagen, 1912). 

3 Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. 1, ii, 19. 3 ag. ' 


137 








APOLLODORUS 


ἐπειδὴ καὶ τὰς πηγὰς éEnpave Tlocedav μηνίων 
Ἰνάχῳ᾽ διότι τὴν χώραν “Hpas! ἐμαρτύρησεν 
εἶναι, τὰς θυγατέρας ὑδρευσομένας ἔπεμψε. μία 
δὲ αὐτῶν ᾿Αμυμώνη ζητοῦσα ὕδωρ ῥίπτει βέλος 
ἐπὶ ἔλαφον καὶ κοιμωμένου Σατύρου τυγχάνει, 
κἀκεῖνος περιαναστὰς ἐπεθύμει συγγενέσθαι: 
Ποσειδῶνος 53 ἐπιφανέντος ὁ Σάτυρος μὲν ἔφυγεν, 
᾿Αμυμώνη δὲ τούτῳ συνευνάζεται, καὶ αὐτῇ 
Ποσειδῶν τὰς ἐν Λέρνῃ πηγὰς ἐμήνυσεν. 

Οἱ δὲ Αἰγύπτου παῖδες ἐλθόντες εἰς “Apyos 
τῆς τε ἔχθρας παύσασθαι παρεκάλουν καὶ τὰς 
θυγατέρας αὐτοῦ: γαμεῖν ἠξίουν. Δαναὸς δὲ ἅμα 
μὲν ἀπιστῶν αὐτῶν τοῖς ἐπαγγέλμασιν, ἅμα δὲ 
καὶ μνησικακῶν περὶ τῆς φυγῆς, ὡμολόγει τοὺς 
γάμους καὶ διεκλήρου τὰς κόρας. Ὕπερμνή- 
στραν μὲν οὖν τὴν πρεσβυτέραν ἐξεῖλον Λυγκεῖ 
καὶ Γοργοφόνην" IIpwret οὗτοι γὰρ ἐκ βασιλίδος 
γυναικὸς ᾿Αργυφίης ἐγεγόνεισαν Αἰγύπτῳ. τῶν δὲ 
λοιπῶν ἔλαχον Βούσιρις μὲν καὶ ᾿Εἰγκέλαδος καὶ 
Λύκος καὶ Δαΐφρων τὰς Δαναῷ γεννηθείσας ἐξ 
Εὐρώπης Αὐτομάτην ᾿Αμυμώνην ᾿Αγανὴν Σκαιήν. 
αὗται δὲ ἐκ βασιλίδος ἐγένοντο Δαναῷ, ἐκ δὲ 
᾿Ἐλεφαντίδος Γοργοφόνη καὶ Ὕπερμνήστρα. 


1 “Ἥρας Heyne, comparing Pausanias, ii. 15,5: ᾿Αθηνᾶς A. 

2 Γοργοφόνην Aegius: γοργοφόντην A. 

3 After Ὑκερμνήστρα the MSS. (A) add Λυγκεὺς δὲ Καλύκην 
ἔλαχεν. These words are rightly omitted by Hercher and 
Wagner, following Heyne: they are bracketed by C. Miiller, 
but retained by Westermann and Bekker. 


1 Compare Pausanias, ii. 15. 5. 
3 Compare Euripides, Phoentssae, 187 sqq.; Lucian, Dtal. 
Marin. vi.; Philostratus, Imagines, i.8 ; Scholiast on Homer, 


138 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 4-5 


waterless, because Poseidon had dried up even the 
_ springs out of anger at Inachus for testifying that the 

land belonged to Hera,! Danaus sent his daughters 
to draw water. One of them, Amymone, in her search 
for water threw a dart at a deer and hit a sleeping 
satyr, and he, starting up, desired to force her; but 
Poseidon appearing on the scene, the satyr fled, and 
Amymone lay with Poseidon, and he revealed to her 
the springs at Lerna.” 

But the sons of Egyptus came to Argos, and exhor- 
ted Danaus to lay aside his enmity, and begged 
to marry his daughters. Now Danaus distrusted 
their professions and bore them a grudge on account 
of his exile ; nevertheless he consented to the marriage 
and allotted the damsels among them.’ First, they 
picked out Hypermnestra as the eldest to be the 
wife of Lynceus, and Gorgophone to be the wife of 
Proteus; for Lynceus and Proteus had been borne 
to Egyptus by a woman of royal blood, Argyphia ; 
but of the rest Busiris, Enceladus, Lycus, and 
Daiphron obtained by lot the daughters that 
had been borne to Danaus by Europe, to wit, 
Automate, Amymone, Agave, and Scaea. These 
daughters were borne to Danaus by a queen; but 
Gorgophone and Hypermnestra were borne to him 


Il. iv. 171; Propertius, iii. 18. 47 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 169. 
There was a stream called Amymone at Lerna. See Strabo, 
viii. 6. 8, p. 371; Pausanias, 1). 37. 1 and 4; Hyginus, l.c. 

ὃ For the marriage of the sons of Egyptus with the 
daughters of Danaus, and its tragic sequel, see Zenobius, 
Cent. ii. 6; Scholiast on Euripides, Hecuba, 886, and Orestes, 
872 ; Scholiast on Homer, Ib iv. 171; Hyginus, Fab. 168 ; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. x. 497. With the Fist of names of 
the bridal pairs as recorded by Apollodorus, compare the 
list given by Hyginus, Fab. 170. 


139 


APOLLODORUS 


Ιστρος δὲ “Ἱπποδάμειαν, Χαλκώδων ‘Podiar, 
᾿Αγήνωρ Κλεοπάτραν, Χαῖτος ᾿Αστερίαν, Διο- 
κορυστὴς ᾿ἱπποδαμείαν, ΓΑλκηςΣ Γλαύκην, ᾿Αλ- 
κμήνωρ ᾿Ἱππομέδουσαν, Ἱππόθοος Γόργην, Ev- 
χήνωρ ᾿Ιφιμέδουσαν, “Ἱππόλυτος ‘Podnv. οὗτοι 
μὲν οἱ δέκα ἐξ ᾿Αραβίας γυναικός, ai δὲ παρθένοι 
ἐξ ἁμαδρνάδων νυμφῶν, αἱ μὲν ᾿Ατλαντείης, αἱ 
δὲ ἐκ Φοίβης. ᾿Αγαπτόλεμος δὲ ἔλαχε Πειρήνην, 
Κερκέτης δὲ Δώριον, Εὐρυδάμας Φαρτιν,} Αἴγεος 
Μνήστραν, ΓΆργιος Εὐίππην, ᾿Αρχέλαος ᾿Ανα- 
ξιβίην, Μενέμαχος Νηλώ, οἱ «μὲν» ἑπτὰ ἐκ 
Φοινίσσης γυναικός, αἱ δὲ παρθένοι Αἰθιοπίδος. 
ἀκληρωτὶ δὲ ἔλαχον δι’ ὁμωνυμίαν τὰς Μέμφιδος 
οἱ ἐκ Τυρίας, Κλειτὸς Κλειτήν, Σθένελος Σθενέ- 
λην, Χρύσιππος Χρυσίππην. οἱ δὲ ἐκ Καλιάδνης 
νηΐδος νύμφης παῖδες δώδεκα ἐκληρώσαντο περὶ 
τῶν ἐκ Πολυξοῦς νηΐδος νύμφης" ἦσαν δὲ οἱ μὲν 
παῖδες Εὐρύλοχος Φάντης Περισθένης “Ερμος 
Δρύας ἸΠοταμὼν Κισσεὺς Λίξος Ἴμβρος Βρομίος 
Πολύκτωρ Χθονίος, αἱ δὲ κόραι Αὐτονόη Θεανὼ 
Ἠλέκτρα Κλεοπάτρα Εὐρυδίκη Γλαυκίππη ᾽Αν- 
θήλεια Ἰλεοδώρη Εὐίππη ᾿Ερατὼ Στύγνη Βρύκη. 
οἱ δὲ «ἐκ; Γοργόνος Αἰγύπτῳ γενόμενοι ἐκληρώ- 
σαντο περὶ τῶν ἐκ Πιερίας, καὶ λαγχάνει ἸΕερί- 
φας μὲν ᾿Ακταίην, Οἰνεὺς δὲ Ποδάρκην, Αἴγυπτος 


1 Ἱπποδάμειαν. This name has already occurred two 
lines higher up; hence Heyne conjectured Κλεοδάμειαν or 
Φιλοδάμειαν, comparing Pausanias, iv. 30. 2 (where the 
better reading seems to be SuAodduera). Wagner conjec- 
tured ‘Ixwo0énv, comparing Hyginus, Fab. 170. 

2 "Αλκης R: ἄλκις A. 

8 Φάρτιν KR: φάρτην A: φαιναρέτην Hercher. Heyne con- 
jectured ddpny, 


140 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 5 


by Elephantis. And Istrus got Hippodamia; Chal- 
codon got Rhodia; Agenor got Cleopatra; Chaetus 
got Asteria; Diocorystes got Hippodamia; Alces 
got Glauce; Alemenor got Hippomedusa; Hippo- 
thous got Gorge; Euchenor got Iphimedusa; Hip- 
polytus got Rhode. These ten sons were begotten 
on an Arabian woman; but the maidens were 
begotten on Hamadryad nymphs, some being 
daughters of Atlantia, and others of Phoebe. 
Agaptolemus got Pirene; Cercetes got Dorium; 
Eurydamas got Phartis; Aegius got Mnestra ; 
Argius got Evippe; Archelaus got Anaxibia ; 
Menemachus got Nelo. These seven sons were be- 
gotten on a Phoenician woman, and the maidens on 
an Ethiopian woman. The sons of Egyptus by Tyria 
got as their wives, without drawing lots, the daugh- 
ters of Danaus by Memphis in virtue of the similarity 
of their names ; thus Clitus got Clite; Sthenelus got 
Sthenele; Chrysippus got Chrysippe. The twelve 
sons of Egyptus by the Naiad nymph Caliadne cast 
lots for the daughters of Danaus by the Naiad nymph 
Polyxo: the sons were Eurylochus, Phantes, Peri- 
sthenes, Hermus, Dryas, Potamon, Cisseus, Lixus, 
_ Imbrus, Bromius, Polyctor, Chthonius ; and the dam- 
sels were Autonoe, Theano, Electra, Cleopatra, Eury- 
dice, Glaucippe, Anthelia, Cleodore, Evippe, Erato, 
Stygne, Bryce. The sons of Egyptus by Gorgo, 
cast lots for the daughters of Danaus by Pieria, and 
Periphas got Actaea, Oeneus got Podarce, Egyptus 


I4I 


APOLLODORUS 


Διωξίππην, Μενάλκης ᾿Αδίτην, Λάμπος ’Oxvure- 
την, Ιδμων Πυλάργην. οὗτοι δέ εἰσι νεώτατοι" 
Ἴδας ἹἹπποδίκην, Δαΐφρων ᾿Αδιάντην (αὗται δὲ 
3 ‘ > + ad , , 
ἐκ μητρὸς ἐγένοντο“ Epons), Πανδίων Καλλιδίκην, 
Μ € 
Αρβηλος Οἴμην, Ὑπέρβιος Κελαινώ, Ἵππο- 
κορυστὴς ὙὝπερίππην' οὗτοι ἐξ ᾿Ηφαιστίνης, αἱ 
δὲ ἐκ Kpwvods. 

‘0 δὲ 3 x 4 9 Ἁ 4 e 4 

ς δὲ éxAnpwacavtTo? τοὺς γάμους, ἑστιάσας 
ἐγχειρίδια δίδωσι ταῖς θυγατράσιν. αἱ δὲ κοιμω- 
μένους τοὺς νυμφίους ἀπέκτειναν πλὴν Ὕπερμνή- 
στρας" αὕτη γὰρ Λυγκέα διέσωσε παρθένον αὐ- 
Ν 4 \ , > ἃ ἃ 

τὴν φυλάξαντα' διὸ καθείρξας αὐτὴν Δαναὸς 
ἐφρούρει. αἱ δὲ ἄλλαι τῶν Δαναοῦ θυγατέρων 
τὰς μὲν κεφαλὰς τῶν νυμφίων ἐν τῇ Λέρνῃ κατώ- 
βυξαν, τὰ δὲ σώματα πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐκήδευσάν. 
καὶ αὐτὰς ἐκάθηραν ᾿Αθηνᾶ τε καὶ Ἑ, ρμῆς Διὸς 
κελεύσαντος. Δαναὸς δὲ ὕστερον ὝὙπερμνήστραν 
Λυγκεῖ συνῴκισε, τὰς δὲ λοιπὰς θυγατέρας εἰς 
γυμνικὸν ἀγῶνα τοῖς νικῶσιν ἔδωκεν. 

> 4 \ 3 A 3 ὔ 

Αμυμώνη δὲ ἐκ Ποσειδῶνος ἐγέννησε Ναύ- 
πλιον. οὗτος μακρόβιος γενόμενος, πλέων τὴν 
θάλασσαν, τοῖς ἐμπίπτουσιν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ ἐπυρσο- 


1 οὗτοι Heyne (conjecture), Westermann: οἱ δὲ νεώτατοι 
(omitting εἰσι) Hercher: ὀκτὼ MSS., Aegius, Commelinus, 
Gale, Heyne (in text), Bekker: téxrw Wagner. 

2 ἐκληρώσαντο KA: ἐκληρώσατο Wagner, comparing Zeno- 
bius, Cent. ii. 6, where, however. we should rather read 
éxAnpwoavro instead of ἐκληρώσατο; for the middle voice of 
κληροῦν cannot be used in the sense of ““ allotting.” 


1 Compare Pindar, Nem. i. 6 (10), with the Scholiast ; 
Pausanias, ii. 19. 6, ii. 20. 7, ii. 21. 1 and 2; Horace, Odes, 
iii. 11. 30 eqg.; Ovid, Heroides, xiv. 

2 Compare Zenobius, Cent. iv. 86. According to Pausanias 


142 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. ς 


got Dioxippe, Menalces got Adite, Lampus got Ocy- 
pete, Idmon got Pylarge. The youngest sons of 
Egyptus were these: Idas got Hippodice; Daiphron 
got Adiante (the mother who bore these damsels was 
Herse); Pandion got Callidice; Arbelus got Oeme ; 
Hyperbius got Celaeno; Hippocorystes got Hyper- 
ippe ; the mother of these men was Hephaestine, and 
the mother of these damsels was Crino. 

When they had got their brides by lot, Danaus 
made a feast and gave his daughters daggers; and 
they slew their bridegrooms as they slept, all but 
Hypermnestra; for she saved Lynceus because he 
had respected her virginity:1 wherefore Danaus 
shut her up and kept her under ward. But the rest 
of the daughters of Danaus buried the heads of their 
bridegrooms in Lerna? and paid funeral honours to 
their bodies in front of the city; and Athena and 
Hermes purified them at the command of Zeus. 
Danaus afterwards united Hypermnestra to Lynceus; 
and bestowed his other daughters on the victors in 
an athletic contest.® 
- Amymone had a son Nauplius by Poseidon.‘ This 
Nauplius lived to a great age, and sailing the sea he 
used by beacon lights to lure to death such as he fell 


(ii. 24. 2) the heads of the sons of Egyptus were buried on 
the Larisa, the acropolis of Argos, 1 the headless trunks 
were buried at Lerna. 

8 Compare Pindar, Pyth. ix. 112 (195), with the Scholiasts ; 
Pausanias, iii. 12.2. The legend may reflect an old custom 
of racing for a bride. See The Magic Art and the Evolution 
of Kings, ii. 299 sqqg. It is said that Danaus instituted 
games which were celebrated every fifth (or, as we should say, 
every fourth) year, and at which the prize of the victor in 

the foot-race was a shield. See Hyginus, Fab. 170. 

: 4 Compare Strabo, viii. 6. 2, p. 368; Pausanias, ii. 38. 2, 
iv. 35. 2. 


143 


APOLLODORUS 


dope! συνέβη οὖν καὶ αὐτὸν τελευτῆσαι ἐκείνῳ 
τῷ θανάτῳ. πρὶν δὲ τελευτῆσαι ἔγημε ὃ ὡς μὲν 
οἱ τραγικοὶ λέγουσι, Κλυμένην τὴν Κατρέως, ὡς 
δὲ ὁ τοὺς νόστους γράψας, Φιλύραν, ὡς δὲ 
Κέρκωψ,Δ Ἡσιόνην, καὶ ἐγέννησε Ἰ]αλαμήδην 
Οἴακα Ναυσιμέδοντα. 

II, Λυγκεὺς δὲ μετὰ Δαναὸν “Apyous δυνα- 
στεύων ἐξ Ὕπερμνήστρας τεκνοῖ παῖδα Αβαντα. 
τούτου δὲ καὶ ᾿Αγλαΐας ὃ τῆς Μαντινέως δίδυμοι 
παῖδες ἐγένοντο ᾿Ακρίσιος καὶ Lpotras. οὗτοι 
καὶ κατὰ γαστρὸς μὲν Ett ὄντες ἐστασίαζον πρὸς 
ἀλλήλους, ὡς δὲ ἀνετράφησαν, περὶ τῆς βασιλείας 
ἐπολέμουν, καὶ πολεμοῦντες εὗρον ἀσπίδας πρῶ- 
τοι. καὶ κρατήσας ᾿Ακρίσιος Ipotrov “Apyous 
ἐξελαύνει. ὁ δ᾽ ἧκεν εἰς Λυκίαν πρὸς Ἰοβάτην, 
ὡς δέ τινές ὅδ: πρὸς ᾿Αμφιάνακτα" καὶ γαμεῖ 
τὴν τούτου θυγατέρα, ὡς μὲν “Ὅμηρος, ΓΑντείαν, 
ὡς δὲ οἱ τραγικοί, Σθενέβοιαν. κατάγει δὲ 
αὐτὸν ὁ κηδεστὴς μετὰ στρατοῦ Λυκίων, καὶ 
a: ereeeence J. Kuhn, on Pausanias, ii. 25. 4: ἐδυσφόρει 


2 ἐκείνῳ τῷ θανάτῳ: After these words the MSS. add 
ᾧπερ τῶν ἄλλων τελευτησάντων ἐδυσφόρει, Which appears to 
be a corrupt and ungrammatical gloss on ἐκείνῳ τῷ θανάτῳ. 
The clause is retained by Heyne, Westermann, Miller, 
Bekker, and Wagner, but is rightly omitted by Hercher. 
J. Kuhn (i.c.) ah Si to retain the clause, but to alter 
ἐδυσφόρει as before into ἐπυρσοφόρει; but this would not 
suffice to restore the grammar and sense. For such a 
restoration a sentence like ᾧπερ ἄλλους τελευτῆσαι ἐποίει 
πυρσοφορῶν would be required. 

3 πρὶν δὲ τελευτῆσαι ἔγημε A: πρὶν τελευτῇσαι. ἔγημε δὲ 
Wagner (connecting πρὶν τελευτῆσαι with the preceding sen- 
tence). + Képrwy Aegius: κέκροψ A. 

5 *AyAatas Heyne, comparing Scholiast on Euripides, 
Orestes, 965: ἀγαλλίας A: ᾿Ωκαλείας Aegius, Commelinus, Gale. 


144 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 5-1. 1 


in with.1 It came to pass, therefore, that he himself 
died by that very death. But before his death he 
married a wife; according to the tragic poets, she 
was Clymene, daughter of Catreus; but according to 
the author of The Returns,? she was Philyra ; and ac- 
cording to Cercops she was Hesione. By her he had 
Palamedes, Oeax, and Nausimedon. 

II. Lynceus reigned over Argos after Danaus and 
begat a son Abas by Hypermnestra; and Abas had 
twin sons Acrisius and Proetus*® by Aglaia, daughter 
of Mantineus. These two quarrelled with each other 
while they were still in the womb, and when they 
were grown up they waged war for the kingdom,‘ and 
in the course of the war they were the first to invent 
shields. And Acrisius gained the mastery and drove 
Proetus from Argos; and Proetus went to Lycia to 
the court of Iobates or, as some say, of Amphianax, 
and married his daughter, whom Homer calls Antia,® 
but the tragic poets call her Stheneboea.® His 
father-in-law restored him to his own land with an 


1 See below, Epitome, vi. 7-11. 

2 Nostot, an epic poem describing the return of the Homeric 
heroes from Troy. See Hpicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 52 sgg.; Hesiod, in this series, pp. 524 sqq.; 
D. B. Monro, in his edition of Homer, Odyssey, Bks. xiii.— 
xxiv. pp. 378-382. 

3 ὧς this and what follows compare Pausanias ii. 16. 2, 

* So the twins Esau and Jacob quarrelled both in the 
womb and in after life (Genesis, xxv. 21 sgqq.). Compare 
Rendel Harris, Boanerges, pp. 279 sq., who argues that 
Proetus was the elder twin, who, as in the case of Esau and 
Jacob, was worsted by his younger brother. 

5 Homer, 11. vi. 160. 

6 See below, ii. 3. 1, iii. 9. 1. Euripides called her 
Stheneboea (Eustathius, on Homer, Ji. vi. 158, p 632). 


145 
VOL. I. L 


APOLLODORUS 


καταλαμβάνει Τίρυνθα, ταύτην αὐτῷ Κυκλώπων 
τειχισάντων. μερισάμενοε δὲ τὴν ᾿Αργείαν 
ἅπασαν κατῴκουν, καὶ ᾿Ακρίσιος μὲν Αργους 
βασιλεύει, ἸΪροῖτος δὲ Τίρυνθος. καὶ γίνεται 
3 ’ A > 3 J A / 
Ακρισίῳ μὲν ἐξ Evpudixns τῆς Λακεδαίμονος 
Δανάη, Προίτῳ δὲ ἐκ Σθενεβοίας Λυσίππη καὶ 
2 3 4 e \ ς 3 4 
Idivon καὶ ᾿Ιφιάνασσα. αὗται δὲ ὡς ἐτελειώ- 
[4 
σαν, ἐμάνησαν, ὡς μὲν Ἡσίοδός φησιν, ὅτι τὰς 
Διονύσου τελετὰς οὐ κατεδέχοντο, ὡς δὲ ᾽Ακου- 
/ , \ a ef a 3 , 
σίλαος λέγει, διότι τὸ τῆς Ἥρας ξόανον ἐξηυτέ- 
λισαν. γενόμεναι δὲ ἐμμανεῖς ἐπλανῶντο ἀνὰ 
\ > ’ Φ 4 \ \ 4 / 
τὴν ᾿Αργείαν ἅπασαν, αὖθις δὲ τὴν ᾿Αρκαδίαν 
καὶ τὴν Πελοπόννησον διελθοῦσαι μετ᾽ ἀκοσ- 


1 καὶ τὴν Πελοπόννησον omitted by Hercher and Wagner. 
We should perhaps read καὶ τὴν «λοιπὴν; Πελοπόννησον. 





1 Compare Bacchylides, Hpinic. x. 77 8g.; Pausanias, ii. 
25. 8; Strabo, viii. 6. 8, p. 371. 

3 Compare Bacchylides, Hpinic. x. 40-112 ; Herodotus, ix. 
34; Strabo, viii. 3 19, p. 346; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 68 ; Pau- 
sanias, ii. 7. 8, ii. 18. 4, v. 5. 10, viii. 18. 7 84. ; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Nem. ix. 13 (30); Clement of Alexandria, Strom. vii. 
4. 26, p. 844, ed. Potter ; Stephanus Byzantius, δῦ. ᾿Αζανία ; 
Virgil, Hcl. vi. 48 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. xv. 325 sqq.; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxv. 47; Servius, on Virgil, Hcl. vi. 48 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iii. 453; Vitruvius, 
viii. 3.21. Of these writers, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, 
and, in one passage (ii. 18. 4), Pausanias, speak of the mad- 
ness of the Argive women in general, without mentioning 
the daughters of Proetus in particular. And, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, with whom Pausanias in the same passage 
(ii. 18. 4) agrees, the king of Argos at the time of the affair 
was not Proetus but Anaxagoras, son of Megapenthes. As 
to Megapenthes, see Apollodorus, ii. 4. 4. According to 
Virgil the damsels imagined that they were turned into 
cows ; and Servius and Lactantius Placidus inform us that 
this notion was infused into their minds by Hera (Juno) 
to punish them for the airs of superiority which they 


146 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 1-2 


army of Lycians, and he occupied Tiryns, which the 
Cyclopes had fortified for him.1 They divided the 
whole of the Argive territory between them and 
settled in it, Acrisius reigning over Argos and 
Proetus over Tiryns. And Acrisius had a daughter 
Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon, and 
Proetus had daughters, Lysippe, Iphinoe, and Iphi- 
anassa, by Stheneboea. When these damsels were 
grown up, they went mad,? according to Hesiod, 
because they would not accept the rites of Dionysus, 
but according to Acusilaus, because they disparaged 
the wooden image of Hera. In their madness they 
roamed over the whole Argive land, and afterwards, 
passing through Arcadia and the Peloponnese, 


assumed towards her; indeed, in one place Lactantius 
Placidus says that the angry goddess turned them into 
heifers outright. In these legends Mr. A. B. Cook sees 
reminiscences of priestesses who assumed the attributes and 
assimilated themselves to the likeness of the cow-goddess 
Hera. See his Zeus, i. 451 sgg. But it is possible that the 
tradition describes, with mythical accessories, a real form of 
madness by which the Argive women, or some portion of them, 
were temporarily affected. We may compare a somewhat 
similar form of temporary insanity to which the women of the 
wild Jakun tribe in the Malay Peninsula are said to be liable. 
‘* A curious complaint was made to the Penghulu of Piang-gu, 
in my presence, by a Jakun man from the Anak Endau. He 
stated that all the women of his settlement were frequently 
seized by a kind of madness—presumably some form of 
hysteria—and that they ran off singing into the jungle, each 
woman by herself, and stopped there for several days and 
nights, finally returning almost naked, or with their clothes 
all torn to shreds. He said that the first outbreak of this 
kind occurred a few years ago, and that they were still 
frequent, one usually taking place every two or three months. 
They were started by one of the women, whereupon all the 
others followed suit.” See Ivor H. N. Evans, ‘‘ Further 
Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of Pahang,” Journal of the 
Federated Malay States Museums, vol. ix. part 1, January 
1920, p. 27 (Calcutta, 1920). 147 


L 2 


APOLLODORUS 


’ e ’ lo 9 , 3 4 
pias ἁπάσης διὰ τῆς ἐρημίας ἐτρόχαζον. Me- 
λάμπους δὲ ὁ ᾿Αμυθάονος καὶ Εἰδομένης τῆς 
Ἄβαντος, μάντις ὧν καὶ τὴν διὰ φαρμάκων καὶ 
καθαρμῶν θεραπείαν πρῶτος εὑρηκώς, ὑπισχνεῖται 
θεραπεύειν τὰς παρθένους, εἰ λάβοι τὸ τρίτον 
μέρος τῆς δυναστείας. οὐκ ἐπιτρέποντος δὲ 
IIpotrov θεραπεύειν ἐπὶ μισθοῖς τηλικούτοις, ἔτι 
μᾶλλον ἐμαίνοντο αἱ παρθένοι καὶ προσέτι μετὰ 
τούτων αἱ λοιπαὶ γυναῖκες" καὶ γὰρ αὗται τὰς 
οἰκίας ἀπολιποῦσαι τοὺς ἰδίους ἀπώλλυον παῖδας 
καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐρημίαν ἐφοίτων. προβαινούσης δὲ 
ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τῆς συμφορᾶς, τοὺς αἰτηθέντας 
μισθοὺς ὁ IIpotros ἐδίδου. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο θερα- 
πεύειν ὅταν ἕτερον τοσοῦτον τῆς γῆς ὁ ἀδελφὸς 
αὐτοῦ λάβῃ Βίας. ἹἸΠροῖτος δὲ εὐλαβηθεὶς μὴ 
βραδυνούσης τῆς θεραπείας αἰτηθείη καὶ πλεῖον, 
θεραπεύειν συνεχώρησεν ἐπὶ τούτοις. Μελάμ- 
πους δὲ παραλαβὼν τοὺς δυνατωτάτους τῶν 
νεανιῶν μετ᾽ ἀλαλαγμοῦ Kai τινος ἐνθέου χορείας 
ἐκ τῶν ὀρῶν αὐτὰς εἰς Σικνῶνα συνεδίωξε. κατὰ 
δὲ τὸν διωγμὸν ἡ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν θυγατέρων 
᾿Ιφινόη μετήλλαξεν: ταῖς δὲ λοιπαῖς τυχούσαις 
καθαρμῶν σωφρονῆσαι συνέβη. καὶ ταύτας μὲν 
ἐξέδοτο IIpotros Μελάμποδι καὶ Βίαντι, παῖδα 
δ᾽ ὕστερον ἐγέννησε Μεγαπένθην. 

III. Βελλεροφόντης δὲ ὁ Γλαύκου τοῦ Σισύφου, 
κτείνας ἀκουσίως ἀδελφὸν Δηλιάδην,1 ὡς δέ τινές 
φασι ἸΠειρῆνα,3 ἄλλοι δὲ ᾿Αλκιμένην, πρὸς Προῖ- 


1 Δηλιάδην J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, vii. 812: ἰλιάδην A. 


2 πΠειρῆνα J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, vii. 812: Melpny A, Zeno- 
bius, Cent. ii. 87. 


148 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 2=11, 1 


they ran through the desert in the most disorderly 
fashion. But Melampus, son of Amythaon by Ido- 
mene, daughter of Abas, being a seer and the first to 
devise the cure by means of drugs and purifications, 
promised to cure the maidens if he should receive the 
third part of the sovereignty. When Proetus 
refused to pay so high a fee for the cure, the 
maidens raved more than ever, and besides that, the 
other women raved with them; for they also aban- 
doned their houses, destroyed their own children, 
and flocked to the desert. Not until the evil had 
reached a very high pitch did Proetus consent to 
pay the stipulated fee, and Melampus promised to 
effect a cure whenever his brother Bias should re- 
ceive just so much land as himself. Fearing that, if 
the cure were delayed, yet more would be demanded 
of him, Proetus agreed to let the physician proceed 
on these terms. So Melampus, taking with him the 
most stalwart of the young men, chased the women 
in a bevy from the mountains to Sicyon with shouts 
and a sort of frenzied dance. In the pursuit Iphinoe, 
the eldest of the daughters, expired ; but the others 
were lucky enough to be purified and so to re- 
cover their wits. Proetus gave them in marriage to 
Melampus and Bias, and afterwards begat a son, 
Megapenthes. 

III. Bellerophon, son of Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, 
having accidentally killed his brother Deliades or, as 
some say, Piren, or, as others will have it, Alcimenes, 


1 According to Bacchylides (Epinic. x. 95 sqq.), the father 
of the damsels vowed to sacrifice twenty red oxen to the Sun, 
if his daughters were healed : the vow was heard, and on the 
intercession of Artemis the angry Hera consented to allow 
the cure. 


149 


APOLLODORUS 


τον ἐλθὼν καθαίρεται. καὶ αὐτοῦ Σθενέβοια 
ἔρωτα ἴσχει, καὶ προσπέμπει 1 λόγους περὶ συν- 
ουσίας. τοῦ δὲ ἀπαρνουμένον, λέγει πρὸς 
IIpotrov ὅτε Βελλεροφόντης αὐτῇ περὶ φθορᾶς 
προσεπέμψατο λόγους. ἸἹΠροῖτος δὲ πιστεύσας 
ἔδωκεν ἐπιστολὰς αὐτῷ πρὸς ᾿Ιοβάτην κομίσαι,3 
ἐν αἷς ἐνεγέγραπτο Βελλεροφόντην ἀποκτεῖναι. 
ἸΙἸοβάτης δὲ ἀναγνοὺς 8 ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ Χίμαιραν 
κτεῖναι, νομίζων αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ θηρίου διαφθαρή- 
Ν ᾽ , εν 9 \ a 3 
σεσθαι" ἦν γὰρ οὐ μόνον évt ἀλλὰ πολλοῖς οὐκ 
3.9, 4 Ἁ 4 L 
εὐάλωτον, εἶχε δὲ προτομὴν μὲν λέοντος, οὐρὰν 
δὲ δράκοντος, τρίτην δὲ κεφαλὴν μέσην αἰγός, 
δι ἧς πῦρ ἀνίει. καὶ τὴν χώραν διέφθειρε, καὶ 
τὰ βοσκήματα ἐλυμαίνετο: μία γὰρ φύσις τριῶν 
θηρίων εἶχε δύναμιν. λέγεται δὲ καὶ τὴν Χί- 
patpay ταύτην ὃ τραφῆναι μὲν ὑπὸ ᾿Αμισωδάρου, 
καθάπερ εἴρηκε καὶ Ὅμηρος, γεννηθῆναι δὲ ἐκ 
Τυφῶνος καὶ ᾿ Exiédyns, καθὼς Ἣσίοδος ἱστορεῖ. 
2 ’ φ ς Ν e ’ 2. δ A 
ἀναβιβάσας οὖν ἑαυτὸν ὁ Βελλεροφόντης ἐπὶ τὸν 


1 προσπέμπει Faber: προπέμπει A. 

2 κομίσαι Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. ii. 87): 
κομίσειν A, Heyne, Miiller: κομίζειν Westermann, Bekker, 
Hercher. 

3 ἀναγνοὺς Hercher, Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. 
11. 87): ἐπιγνοὺς A. 

4 ula yap φύσις τριῶν θηρίων εἶχε δύναμιν. Wagner would 
transpose this sentence so as to make it follow immediately 
the words πολλοῖς οὐκ εὐάλωτον above, omitting the 
following εἶχε δὲ The sentence would then run: ἦν γὰρ οὐ 
μόνον ἑνὶ ἀλλὰ πολλοῖς οὐκ εὐάλωτον: μία yap φύσις τριῶν 
θηρίων εἶχε δύναμιν, προτομὴν μὲν λέοντος κτλ. The change 
ete the sense and is confirmed by Zenobius, Cent. 
ii. 87. 

5 καὶ τὴν Χίμαιραν ταύτην omitted by Hercher and Wagner, 
following Heyne. 


150 


THE LIBRARY, II. πὶ. 1-2 


came to Proetus and was purified. And Stheneboea 
fell in love with him,? and sent him proposals for a 
meeting; and when he rejected them, she told 
Proetus that Bellerophon had sent her a vicious pro- 
posal. Proetus believed her, and gave him a letter 
to take to Iobates, in which it was written that he 
was to kill Bellerophon. Having read the letter, 
Tobates ordered him to kill the Chimera, believing 
that he would be destroyed by the beast, for it was 
more than a match for many, let alone one; it had the 
fore part of a lion, the tail of a dragon, and its third 
head, the middle one, was that of a goat, through 
which it belched fire. And it devastated the country 
and harried the cattle; for it was a single creature 
with the power of three beasts. It is said, too, that 
this Chimera was bred by Amisodares, as Homer also 
affirms,’ and that it was begotten by Typhon on 
Echidna, as Hesiod relates. So Bellerophon mounted 

1 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 17; τά. 
Chiliades, vii. 810 δᾳᾳ.; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. vi. 155. 
According to one account, mentioned by these writers, 
Bellerophon received his name (meaning slayer of Bellerus) 
because he had slain a tyrant of Corinth called Bellerus. 

2 In the following story of Bellerophon, our author follows 
Homer, 1]. vi. 155 sqq. (where the wife of Proetus is called 
Antia instead of Stheneboea). Compare Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 17; id. Chiliades, vii 816 sgg.; Zenobius, 
Cent. ii. 87 (who probably followed Apollodorus) ; Hyginus, 
Fab. 57; id. Astronom. ii. 18 ; Scriptores rerum mythwarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 24, 119 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 71 and 72; Second Vatican Mythographer, 
131). Euripides composed a tragedy on the subject called 
Stheneboea. See Tragicorum Graccorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck?, pp. 567 sqqg. According to Tzetzes (Schol. on 
Lycophron, 17), Iobates refrained from slaying Bellerophon 
with his own hand in virtue of an old custom which forbade 
those who had eaten together to kill each other. 

3 Homer, 11. xvi. 328 86. 4 Hesiod, Theog. 319 86. 


151 


APOLLODORUS 


Πήγασον,, ὃν εἶχεν ἵππον ἐκ Μεδούσης πτηνὸν 
γεγεννημένον καὶ Ποσειδῶνος, ἀρθεὶς εἰς ὕψος 
ἀπὸ τούτου κατετόξευσε τὴν Χίμαιραν. μετὰ 
δὲ τὸν ἀγῶνα τοῦτον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ ᾿Σολύμοις 
μαχεσθῆναι." ὡς δὲ ἐτελεύτησε καὶ τοῦτον, 
᾿Αμαζόσιν ἐπέταξεν ἀγωνίσασθαι 8 αὐτόν. ὡς δὲ 
καὶ ταύτας ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς γενναιότητι ἃ Λυκίων 
διαφέρειν δοκοῦντας ἐπιλέξας ἐπέταξεν ἀπο- 
κτεῖναι λοχήσαντας. ὡς δὲ καὶ τούτους ἀπέκτεινε 
πάντας, θαυμάσας τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ὁ ᾿Ιοβάτης 
τά τε γράμματα ἔδειξε καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτῷ μένειν 
ἠξίωσε: δοὺς δὲ τὴν θυγατέρα Φιλονόην καὶ 
θνήσκων τὴν βασιλείαν κατέλιπεν αὐτῷ 

IV. ᾿Ακρισίῳ δὲ “περὶ παίδων γενέσεως ἀρρένων 
χρηστηριαξομένῳ ὁ ὁ θεὸς ἔφη γενέσθαιϊἷ παῖδα ἐκ 
τῆς θυγατρός, ὃς αὐτὸν ἀποκτενεῖ.δ δείσας δὲ 
ὁ9 ᾿Ακρίσιος τοῦτο, ὑπὸ γῆν θάλαμον κατα- 

1 roy Πήγασον ees τὰς πηγὰς A. 

2 μαχεσθῆναι MS μαχέσασθαι Heyne, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher. But for the aorist μαχεσθῆναι see Pausanias, v. 
4. 9, μαχεσθῆναι ; Plutarch, De solertia animalium, 15, μαχε- 
σθέντα : and on such forms of the aorist in later Greek, see 
Lobeck, Phrynichus, pp. 731 sq.; W. G. Rutherford, The 
New Phrynichus, pp. 191 sqq. 

3 ἀγωνίσασθαι R®BT, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 87: ἀγωνίζεσθαι 
LN, Heyne, Westermann, Miller, Bekker, Hercher. 

4 γενναιότητι Bekker, Hercher: τε νεότητι A: τότε νεότητι 
Gale, Westermann, Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. 
τοὺς τότε ῥώμῃ νεότητος S:apépovras). 

5 Sots δὲ τὴν θυγατέρα. .. κατέλιπεν αὐτῷ A: Sots δὲ αὐτῷ 
τὴν θυγατέρα. .. κατέλιπεν, Wagner (comparing Zenobius, 
Cent. ii. 87). 6 ὁ Πύθιος Εἰ. 

7 γενέσθαι EA, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41, Scholiast on Homer, 
Il. xiv, 319: γενήσεσθαι Hercher. Perhaps we should read 
γενέσθαι ἂν. 

8 ἀποκτενεῖ Εἰ : ἀποκτείνῃ A, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41. 

9 δὲ ὁ ο ae Cent. i. 41, Scholiast on Homer, 77. 
xiv. 319: 


152 


᾿ς 











THE LIBRARY, II. m1, 2-1v. 1 


his winged steed Pegasus, offspring of Medusa and 
Poseidon, and soaring on high shot down the Chimera 
from the height.! After that contest lobates ordered 
him to fight the Solymi, and when he had finished 
that task also, he commanded him to combat the 
Amazons. And when he had killed them also, he 
picked out the reputed bravest of the Lycians and 
bade them lay an ambush and slay him. But 
when Bellerophon had killed them also to a man, 
Iobates, in admiration of his prowess, showed him 
the letter and begged him to stay with him; more- 
over he gave him his daughter Philonoe,? and dying 
bequeathed to him the kingdom. 

IV. When Acrisius inquired of the oracle how he 
should get male children, the god said that his 
daughter would give birth to a son who would kill 
him.* Fearing that, Acrisius built a brazen chamber 


1 For the combat of Bellerophon with the Chimera, see 
Homer, Il. vi. 179 sqq.; Hesiod, Theog. 319 sqg.; Pindar, 
Olymp. xiii. 84 (120) sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 57. 

Anticlia, according to the Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. 
xiii 59 (82); Casandra, according to the Scholiast on Homer, 
11, vi. 155. 

8 The following legend of Perseus (ii. 4. 1—t) seems to be 
based on that given by Pherecydes in his second book, which 
is cited as his authority by the Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1091, 1515, whose narrative agrees 
closely with that of Apollodorus. The narrative of Apollo- 
dorus is quoted, for the most part verbally, but as usual 
without acknowledgment, by Fenobiua, Cent. i. 41, who, 
however, like the Scholiast on Apollonius (W.cc.), passes over 
in silence the episode of Andromeda. Compare Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 838 (who may have followed Apollo- 
dorus); Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xiv. 319. The story of 
Danae, the mother of Perseus, was the theme of plays by 
Sophocles and Euripides. See Tragicorum Graecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 143 sqq., 168 eqq., 453 sqq.; The 
Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 38 
$9q9., 115 8qq. Ἴ 


ee 153 


APOLLODORUS 


σκευάσας χάλκεον τὴν Δανάην ἐφρούρει. ταύτην 
μέν, ὡς ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, ἔφθειρε Προῖτος, ὅθεν 
αὐτοῖς καὶ ἡ στάσις ἐκινήθη" ὡς δὲ ἔνιοί φασι, 
Ζεὺς μεταμορφωθεὶς εἰς υσὸν καὶ διὰ τῆς 
ὀροφῆς εἰς τοὺς Δανάης εἰσρυεὶς κόλπους συν- 
ἢἤλθεν. αἰσθόμενος δὲ ᾿Ακρίσιος ὕστερον ἐ 
αὐτῆς γεγεννημένον Περσέα, μὴ πιστεύσας ὑπὸ 
Διὸς ἐφθάρθαι, τὴν θυγατέρα μετὰ τοῦ παιδὸς 
9 ’ N 3 4 
εἰς λάρνακα βαλὼν ἔρριψεν εἰς θάλασσαν. προσ- 
ενεχθείσης δὲ τῆς λάρνακος Σερίφῳ Δίκτυς ἄρας 
ἀνέτρεφε! τοῦτον. βασιλεύων δὲ τῆς Σερίφου 
4 > \ ’ὔ; ’ 4 4 
Πολυδέκτης ἀδελφὸς Δίκτυος, Δανάης ἐρασθείς, 
καὶ ἠνδρωμένου Περσέως μὴ δυνάμενος αὐτῇ 
συνελθεῖν, συνεκάλει τοὺς φίλους, μεθ᾽ ὧν καὶ 
Περσέα, λέγων ἔρανον συνάγειν ἐπὶ τοὺς 'Ἵππο- 
δαμείας τῆς Οἰνομάου γάμους. τοῦ δὲ Περσέως 
εἰπόντος καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ τῆς Γοργόνος οὐκ 
A A Cal wv 

avrepeiv,? παρὰ μὲν τῶν λοιπῶν ἤτησεν ἵππους, 
παρὰ δὲ τοῦ Περσέως οὐ λαβὼν τοὺς ἵππους, 
ἐπέταξε τῆς Γοργόνος κομίζειν τὴν κεφαλήν. ὁ 
δὲ “Ερμοῦ καὶ ᾿Αθηνᾶς προκαθηγουμένων ἐπὶ τὰς 
Φόρκου παραγίνεται 8 θυγατέρας, ᾿Ενυὼ καὶ 
Πεφρηδὼ 4 καὶ Δεινώ' ἦσαν δὲ αὗται Κητοῦς τε 
καὶ Φόρκου, Γοργόνων ἀδελφαί, γραῖαι ἐκ γενετῆς. 
ἕνα τε ὀφθαλμὸν αἱ τρεῖς καὶ ἕνα ὀδόντα εἶχον, 

1 ἀνέτρεφε A, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41: ἀνέθρεψε E, Wagner. 

2 ἀντερεῖν Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher : 
ἀνταίρειν A, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 41 (corrected by Gaisford). 

3 παραγίνεται Zenobius, Cent. i. 41: γίνεται A. 

4 Πεφρηδὼ Heyne (compare Hesiod, Theog. 273): μεμ- 
φρηδὼ A. 


1 Compare Sophocles, Antigone, 944 sqq. Horace repre- 
sents Danae as shut up in a brazen tower (Odes, iii. 16. 1 aqq.), 


154 


THE LIBRARY, ITI. tv. 1-2 


under ground and there guarded Danae.! However, 
she was seduced, as some say, by Proetus, whence 
arose the quarrel between them ;? but some say that 
Zeus had intercourse with her in the shape of a 
stream of gold which poured through the roof into 
Danae’s lap. When Acrisius afterwards learned 
that she had got a child Perseus, he would not 
believe that she had been seduced by Zeus, and put- 
ting his daughter with the child in a chest, he cast 
it into the sea. The chest was washed ashore on 
Seriphus, and Dictys took up the boy and reared 
him. Polydectes, brother of Dictys, was then king 
of Seriphus and fell in love with Danae, but could 
not get access to her, because Perseus was grown to 
man’s estate. So he called together his friends, 
including Perseus, under the pretext of collecting 
contributions towards a wedding-gift for Hippodamia, 
daughter of Oenomaus.? Now Perseus having de- 
clared that he would not stick even at the Gorgon’s 
head, Polydectes required the others to furnish 
horses, and not getting horses from Perseus ordered 
him to bring the Gorgon’s head. So under the 
guidance of Hermes and Athena he made his way 
to the daughters of Phorcus, to wit, Enyo, Pephredo, 
and Dino; for Phorcus had them by Ceto, and they 
were sisters of the Gorgons, and old women from 
their birth. The three had but one eye and one 

2 That is, between Acrisius and Proetus. See above, ii. 2. 1. 

3 That is, he pretended to be a suitor for the hand of 
Hippodamia and to be collecting a present for her, such as 
suitors were wont to offer to their brides. As to Hippodamia 
and her suitors, see Hpitome, ii. 4 804. 

4 As to the Phorcides, compare Hesiod, Theog. 270 sqq.; 
Aeschylus, Prometheus, 794 sqq.; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 22 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 774 sqq.; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 12. 
Aeschylus wrote a satyric play on the subject. See T'ragico- 
rum Grascorsin Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 83 sq. 


155 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ ταῦτα παρὰ μέρος ἤμειβον ἀλλήλαις. ὧν 
κυριεύσας ὁ Περσεύς, ὡς ἀπήτουν, ἔφη δώσειν 
ἂν ὑφηγήσωνται τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν ἐπὶ τὰς νύμφας 
φέρουσαν. αὗται δὲ αἱ νύμφαι πτηνὰ εἶχον 
πέδιλα καὶ τὴν κίβισιν, Hv φασιν εἶναι πήραν" 
[Πίνδαρος δὲ καὶ Ἡσίοδος ἐν ᾿Ασπίδι ἐπὶ τοῦ 
Περσέως" 


Πᾶν δὲ μετάφρενον εἶχε «κάρα!» δεινοῖο πελώρον 
<Topyots>, ἀμφὶ δέ μιν κίβισις θέε. 


εἴρηται δὲ παρὰ τὸ κεῖσθαι ἐκεῖ ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὴν 
τροφήν.]} εἶχον δὲ καὶ τὴν <“Aidos> κυνῆν. 
ὑφηγησαμένων δὲ τῶν Φορκίδων, ἀποδοὺς τόν τε 
ὀδόντα καὶ τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν αὐταῖς, καὶ παραγενό- 
μενος πρὸς τὰς νύμφας, καὶ τυχὼν ὧν ἐσπούδαζε, 
τὴν μὲν κίβισιν περιεβάλετο, τὰ δὲ πέδιλα τοῖς 
Δ᾽ Ἰαὰ προσήρμοσε, τὴν δὲ κυνῆν τῇ κεφαλῇ 
ἐπέθετο. ταύτην ὄχων αὐτὸς μὲν οὖς ἤθελεν 
ΝΜ e ‘ ΝΜ \ 3 ς ra) \ A 
ἔβλεπεν, ὑπὸ ἄλλων δὲ οὐχ ἑωρᾶτο. λαβὼν δὲ 
καὶ παρὰ “Eppod ἀδαμαντίνην ἅρπην, πετόμενος 
a ee \ pias < Ὁ ΟΣ, , 
εἰς τὸν ᾽Ωκεανὸν ἧζεὲ καὶ «ἀτέχαβε ῆς Γοργόνας 
κοιμωμένας. ἦσαν δὲ αὗται Σθενὼ Evpvadn 
Μέδουσα. μόνη δὲ ἦν θνητὴ Μέδουσα" διὰ τοῦτο 
ἐπὶ τὴν ταύτης κεφαλὴν Περσεὺς ἐπέμφθη. εἶχον 
δὲ αἱ Γοργόνες κεφαλὰς μὲν περιεσπειραμένας 
φολίσι δρακόντων, ὀδόντας δὲ μεγάλους ὡς συῶν, 
καὶ χεῖρας χαλκᾶς, καὶ πτέρυγας χρυσᾶς, δι’ ὧν 
ἐπέτοντο. τοὺς δὲ ἰδόντας λίθους ἐποίουν. ἐπιστὰς 


1 The passage enclosed in square brackets is probably a 
gloss which has crept into the text. 

3 τὴν <"Aidos> κυνῆν Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. 
i. 41; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838): τὴν κυνῆν A. 


156 


THE LIBRARY, II, rv. 2 


tooth, and these they passed to each other in turn. 
Perseus got possession of the eye and the tooth, and 
when they asked them back, he said he would 
give them up if they would show him the way to 
the nymphs. Now these nymphs had winged 
sandals and the ae which they say was a wallet. 
But Pindar an esiod in The Shield say of 
Perseus :—! 


“ But all his back had on the head of a dread monster, 
The Gorgon, and round him ran the kibtsis.”’ 


The kibists is so called because dress and food are de- 
posited in it.2 They had also the cap of Hades. 
_ When the Phorcides had shown him the way, he 
gave them back the tooth and the eye, and coming 
to the nymphs got what he wanted. So he slung 
the wallet (Aibisis) about him, fitted the sandals to 
his ankles, and put the cap on his head. Wearing it, 
he saw whom he pleased, but was not seen by 
others. And having received also from Hermes an 
adamantine sickle he flew to the ocean and caught the 
Gorgons asléep. They were Stheno, Euryale, and 
Medusa. Now Medusa alone was mortal; for that 
reason Perseus was sent to fetch her head. But the 
Gorgons had heads twined about with the scales of 
dragons, and great tusks like swine’s, and brazen 
hands, and golden wings, by which they flew ; and 
they turned to stone such as beheld them. So Perseus 


1 Hesiod, Shteld of Hercules, 223 8q. 
2 The word κίβισις is absurdly derived by the writer from 
κεῖσθαι and ἐσθής. The gloss is probably an interpolation. 


157 





APOLLODORUS 


οὖν αὐταῖς ὁ Περσεὺς κοιμωμέναις, κατευθυνούσης 
τὴν χεῖρα ᾿Αθηνᾶς, ἀπεστραμμένος, καὶ βλέπων 
εἰς ἀσπίδα χαλκῆν, δι’ ἧς τὴν εἰκόνα τῆς Γορ- 
γόνος ἔβλεπεν, ἐκαρατόμησεν αὐτήν. ἀποτμη- 
θείσης δὲ τῆς κεφαλῆς, ἐκ τῆς Γοργόνος ἐξέθορε 
Πήγασος πτηνὸς ἵππος, καὶ Χρυσάωρ ὁ ὁ Γηρυόνου 
πατήρ' τούτους δὲ ἐγέννησεν ἐκ Ποσειδῶνος. 0 
μὲν οὖν Περσεὺς ἐνθέμενος εἰς τὴν κίβισιν τὴν 
κεφαλὴν τῆς Μεδούσης ὀπίσω πάλιν ἐχώρει, αἱ 
δὲ Topryoves ἐκ τῆς κοίτης ἀναστᾶσαιϊ τὸν Περσέα 
ἐδίωκον, καὶ συνιδεῖν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἠδύναντο διὰ τὴν 
κυνῆν. ἀπεκρύπτετο γὰρ ὑ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς. 
Παραγενόμενος δὲ εἰς Αἰθιοπίαν, ἧς ἐβασίλευε 
Κηφεύς, εὗρε τὴν τούτου θυγατέρα ᾿Ανδρομέδαν 
παρακειμένην βορὰν θαλασσίῳ KNTEL Κασσι.- 
ἔπεια γὰρ ἡ Κηφέως γυνὴ Νηρηίσιν ἤρισε περὶ 
κάλλους, καὶ πασῶν εἶναι κρείσσων ηὔχησεν' 
ὅθεν αἱ Νηρηίδες ἐ ἐμήνισαν, καὶ Ποσειδῶν αὐταῖς 
μεθ μὰ πλήμμυράν τε ἐπὶ τὴν χώραν 
ἔπεμψε καὶ κῆτος. Ἄμμωνος δὲ χρήσαντος τὴν 
ἀπαλλαγὴν τῆς συμφορᾶς, ἐὰν ἡ Κασσιεπείας 
θυγάτηρ ᾿Ανδρῥομέδα προτεθῇ τῷ κήτει βορά, 
τοῦτο ἀναγκασθεὶς 0 Κηφεὺς ὑπὸ τῶν Αἰθιόπων 
ἔπραξε, καὶ προσέδησε τὴν θυγατέρα πέτρᾳ. 
ταύτην θεασάμενος ὁ ἹἸΠερσεὺς καὶ ἐρασθεὶς 


} ἀναστᾶσαι A: ἀναπτᾶσαι Wagner, comparing Zenobius, 
Cent. i. 41. 


1 Compare Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 782 89. 
2 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 280 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. iv . 
784 8qq., vi. 119 8q.; Hyginus, Fab. 151. 
* For the story of aoe see Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 836; Conon, Narrat. 40 (who rationalizes the 


158 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1v. 2-3 


stood over them as they slept, and while Athena 
guided his hand and he looked with averted gaze on 
a brazen shield, in which he beheld the image of the 
Gorgon,! he beheaded her. When her head was cut 
off, there sprang from the Gorgon the winged horse 
Pegasus and Chrysaor, the father of Geryon ; these 
she had by Poseidon.* So Perseus put the head 
of Medusa in the wallet (Atbisis) and went back 
again ; but the Gorgons started up from their slum- 
ber and pursued Perseus: but they could not see 
him on account of the cap, for he was hidden by it. 
Being come to Ethiopia, of which Cepheus was 
king, he found the king’s daughter Andromeda set 
out to be the prey of a sea monster.’ For Cassiepea, 
the wife of Cepheus, vied with the Nereids in beauty 
and boasted to be better than them all; hence the 
Nereids were angry, and Poseidon, sharing their 
wrath, sent a flood and a monster to invade the 
land. But Ammon having predicted deliverance 
from the calamity if Cassiepea’s daughter Andromeda 
were exposed as a prey to the monster, Cepheus was 
compelled by the Ethiopians to do it, and he bound 
his daughter to a rock. When Perseus beheld her, 
he loved her and promised Cepheus that he would 


story); Eratosthenes, Cataster. 16, 17, and 36; Ovid, Meta- 
morph. iv. 665 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 64; 1d. Astronom. ii. 11 ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 24 aq. (First Vatican Mythographer, 73). facto to 
the first two of these writers, the scene of the tale was laid 
at Joppa. The traces of Andromeda’s fetters were still 
pointed out on the rocks at Joppa in the time of Josephus 
(Bell. Jud. iii. 9. 2). Sophocles and Euripides composed 
tragedies on the subject, of which some fragments remain. 
See Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck®, ΡΒ. 
167 δηᾳ.. 392 δᾳᾳ.; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. 
Pearson, i. 78 qq. 


a 


159 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀναιρήσειν ὑπέσχετο Κηφεῖ τὸ κῆτος, εἰ μέλλει 
σωθεῖσαν αὐτὴν αὐτῷ δώσειν γυναῖκα. ἐπὶ τού- 
τοις γενομένων ὅρκων, ὑποστὰς τὸ κῆτος ὄκτεινε 
καὶ τὴν ᾿Ανδρομέδαν ἔλυσεν. ἐπιβουλεύοντος 
δὲ αὐτῷ Φινέως, ὃς ἦν ἀδελφὸς τοῦ Κηφέως 
ἐγγεγνημένος ἃ πρῶτος τὴν ᾿Ανδρομέδαν, μαθὼν 
τὴν ἐπιβουλήν, τὴν To ova δείξας μετὰ τῶν 
συνεπιβουλευόντων αὐτὸν ἐλίϑωσε παραχρῆμα. 
παραγενόμενος δὲ εἰς Σέριφον, καὶ καταλαβὼν 
προσπεφευγυΐαν " τοῖς βωμοῖς μετὰ τοῦ Δίκτυος 
τὴν μητέρα διὰ τὴν Πολυδέκτου βίαν, εἰσελθὼν 
εἰς τὰ βασίλεια," συγκαλέσαντος τοῦ Πολυδέκτου 
τοὺς φίλους ἀπεστραμμένος τὴν κεφαλὴν τῆς 
Γοργόνος ἔδειξε' τῶν δὲ ἰδόντων, ὁποῖον & ἕκαστος 
ἔτυχε σχῆμα ἔχων, ἀπελιθώθη. καταστήσας δὲ 
τῆς Σερίφου Δίκτυν βασιλέα, ἀπέδωκε τὰ μὲν 
πέδιλα καὶ τὴν κίβισιν καὶ τὴν κυνῆν Ἑρμῇ, τὴν 
δὲ κεφαλὴν τῆς Γοργόνος ᾿Αθηνᾷ. Ἑρμῆς μὲν 
οὖν τὰ π οειρημένα πάλιν ἀπέδωκε ταῖς νύμφαις, 
᾿Αθηνᾶ é ἐν μέσῃ τῇ ἀσπίδι τῆς Topyovos τὴν 
κεφαλὴν ἐνέθηκε." λέγεται δὲ ὑπ᾽ ἐνίων ὅτι be 
᾿Αθηνᾶν ἡ Μέδουσα ἐκαρατομήθη: φασὶ δὲ ὅτι 
καὶ περὶ κάλλους ἠθέλησεν ἡ Topyw αὐτῇ συγ- 
κριθῆναι. 

Περσεὺς δὲ μετὰ Δανάης καὶ ᾿Ανδρομέδας 
ἔσπευδεν εἰς “Apyos, ἵνα ᾿Ακρίσιον θεάσηται. ὁ 
δὲ «τοῦτο μαθὼν καὶ; ὃ δεδοικὼς τὸν χρησμόν, 


1 ἀγγεγνημένος R: ἐγγενόμενος A: ἐγγυώμενος Heyne, 
Westermann, Miller, Bekker, Hercher. 

3 προσπεφευγυῖαν Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838 : xpo- 
πεφευγυῖαν A. 8 τὰ βασίλεια R: τὸν βασιλέα A. 

4 ἐνέθηκε Heyne: ἀνέθηκε A. 

5 χρῦτο μαθὼν καὶ These words, absent in the MSS., are 
restored by Wagner from Zenobius, Cent. i. 41. 


160 


THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 3~4 


kill the monster, if he would give him the rescued 
damsel to wife. These terms having been sworn 
to, Perseus withstood and slew the monster and 
released Andromeda. However, Phineus, who was 
a brother of Cepheus, and to whom Andromeda 
had been first betrothed, plotted against him; but 
Perseus discovered the plot, and by showing the 
Gorgon turned him and his fellow conspirators at 
once into stone. And having come to Seriphus he 
found that his mother and Dictys had taken refuge 
at the altars on account of the violence of Poly- 
dectes; so he entered the palace, where Polydectes 
had gathered his friends, and with averted face he 
showed the Gorgon’s head; and all who beheld it 
were turned to stone, each in the attitude which he 
happened to have struck. Having appointed Dictys 
king of Seriphus, he gave back the sandals and the 
wallet (Aibests) and the cap to Hermes, but the 
Gorgon’s head he gave to Athena. Hermes restored 
the aforesaid things to the nymphs and Athena — 
inserted the Gorgon’s head in the middle of her 
shield. But it is alleged by some that Medusa was 
beheaded for Athena’s sake; and they say that the 
Gorgon was fain to match herself with the goddess 
even in beauty. 

Perseus hastened with Danae and Andromeda to 
Argos in order that he might behold Acrisius. 
But he, learning of this and dreading the oracle,} 

1 That is, the oracle which declared that he would be 
killed by the son of Danae. See above, ii. 4. 1. 


161 
VOL. I. ‘ M 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀπολιπὼν “Apyos εἰς τὴν Πελασγιῶτιν ἐχώρησε 
γῆν. Τευταμίδου ' δὲ τοῦ Λαρισσαίων Σ βασιλέως 
ἐπὶ κατοιχομένῳ τῷ πατρὶ διατιθέντος ὃ γυμνικὸν 
ἀγῶνα, παρεγένετο καὶ ὁ Περσεὺς ἀγωνίσασθαι 
θέλων, ἀγωνιζόμενος δὲ πένταθλον, τὸν δίσκον 
ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿Ακρισίον πόδα βαλὼν παραχρῆμα 
ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν. αἰσθόμενος δὲ τὸν χρησμὸν 
τετελειωμένον * τὸν μὲν ᾿Ακρίσιον ἔξω τῆς πόλεως 
ἔθαψεν, αἰσχυνόμενος δὲ εἰς ΓΑργος ἐπανελθεῖν 
ἐπὶ τὸν κλῆρον τοῦ δι’ αὐτοῦ τετελευτηκότος, 
παραγενόμενος εἰς Τίρυνθαδ πρὸς τὸν Προίτου 
παῖδα Μεγαπένθην ἠλλάξατο, τούτῳ τε τὸ "Αρ- 
γος ἐνεχείρισε. καὶ Μεγαπένθης μὲν ἐβασίλευσεν 
᾿Αργείων, Περσεὺς δὲ Τίρυνθος, προστειχίσας 
Μίδειαν ὅ καὶ Μυκήνας. ἐγένοντο δὲ ἐξ ᾿Ανδρο- 
μέδας παῖδες αὐτῷ, πρὶν μὲν ἐλθεῖν εἰς τὴν 
Ἑλλάδα Πέρσης, ὃν παρὰ Κηφεῖ κατέλιπεν 
(ἀπὸ τούτου δὲ τοὺς Περσῶν βασιλέας λέγεται 
γενέσθαι), ἐν Μυκήναις δὲ ᾿Αλκαῖος καὶ Σθένελος 
καὶ “Ελειοςῖ Μήστωρ τε καὶ ᾿Ηλεκτρύων, καὶ 
θυγάτηρ Τοργοφόνη, ἣν Tlepinpns ἔγημεν. 


1 Τευταμίδου EK, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838 (com- 
pore Dionysius Halicarnasensis, Antiquit. Rom. i. 28. 3), 

ercher, agner: τευταμία A, Westermann: Τευταμίου, 
Heyne, Miiller, Bekker. 

* Λαρισσαίων EA, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838, 
Zenobius, Cent. i. 41: Λαρισαίων ΒΔ, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner. 

* διατιθέντος E, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41: διατεθέντος A. 

2 τετελειωμένον Ri: τετελεσμένον A. 

5 τίρυνθα R: τίρυνθον A. 

° Μίδειαν Aegius: μήδειαν A: Μίδεαν Heyne. See below, 
ii, 4. 6, p. 170, note. 

7 Ἕλειος Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838: ἕλης R: 
ἕλας R8C: ἕλλας 8. 


162 





THE LIBRARY, II. tv. 4-5 


forsook Argos and departed to the Pelasgian land. 
Now Teutamides, king of Larissa, was holding 
athletic games in honour of his dead father, and 
Perseus came to compete. He engaged in the 
pentathlum, but in throwing the quoit he struck 
Acrisius on the foot and killed him instantly.! Per- 
ceiving that the oracle was fulfilled, he buried 
Acrisius outside the city,? and being ashamed to 
return to Argos to claim the inheritance of him 
who had died by his hand, he went to Megapenthes, 
son of Proetus, at Tiryns and effected an exchange 
with him, surrendering Argos into his hands.? So 
Megapenthes reigned over the Argives, and Perseus 
reigned over Tiryns, after fortifying also Midea and 
Mycenae.* And he had sons by Andromeda: before 
he came to Greece he had Perses, whom he left 
behind with Cepheus (and from him it is said that 
the kings of Persia are descended) ; and in Mycenae 
he had Alcaeus and Sthenelus and Heleus and 
Mestor and Electryon,® and a daughter Gorgophone, 
whom Perieres married.° | 


1 Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. 2. 

? According to another account, the grave of Acrisius was 
in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of Larissa. See 
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. iii. 45, p. 39, ed. Potter. 

3 As to this exchange of kingdoms, compare Pausanias, 
ii. 16. 3. 

4 As to the fortification or foundation of Mycenae by Per- 
seus, see Pausanias, ii. 15. 4, ii. 16. 3. 

5 As to the sons of Perseus and Andromeda, compare 
Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xix. 116; Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon. i. 747. The former agrees with Apollodorus 
as to the five sons born to Perseus in Mycenae, except that 
he calls one of them Aelius instead of Heleus; the latter 
mentions only four sons, Alcaeus, Sthenelus, Mestor, and 
Electryon. 

© See below, iii. 10. 3. 


163 
M 2 


APOLLODORUS 


"Ex μὲν οὖν ᾿Αλκαίου καὶ ᾿Αστυδαμείας τῆς 
Πέλοπος, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι λέγουσι Λαονόμης τῆς 
Γουνέως, ὡς δὲ ἄλλοι πάλιν ᾿Ἱππονόμης τῆς 
Μενοικέως, ᾿Αμφιτρύων ἐγένετο καὶ θυγάτηρ 
᾿Αναξώ, ἐκ δὲ Μήστορος καὶ Λυσιδίκης τῆς 
Πέλοπος ᾿Ἰπποθόη. ταύτην ἁρπάσας Ποσειδῶν 
καὶ κομίσας ἐπὶ tas ᾿Εχινάδας νήσους μίγνυται, 
καὶ γεννᾷ Τάφιον, ὃς ῴκισε Τάφον καὶ τοὺς λαοὺς 
Τηλεβόας ἐκάλεσεν, ὅτι τηλοῦ τῆς πατρίδος ἔβη. 
ἐκ Tadiov δὲ παῖς Πτερέλαος ἐγένετο" τοῦτον 
ἀθάνατον ἐποίησε Ποσειδῶν, ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ χρυ- 
ony ἐνθεὶς τρῖχα. ἹΙτερεέλάῳ δὲ ἐγένοντο παῖδες 
Χρομίος Τύραννος ᾿Αντίοχος Χερσιδάμας Μήστωρ 
Εὐήρης. 

᾿Ηλεκτρύων δὲ γήμας τὴν ᾿Αλκαίου θυγατέρα 
᾿Αναξώ, ἐγέννησε θυγατέρα μὲν ᾿Αλκμήνην, παῖ- 
δας δὲ «Στρατοβάτην;" Γοργοφόνον Φυλόνομον 3 
Κελαινέα ᾿Αμφίμαχον Λυσίνομον Χειρίμαχον 
᾿Ανάκτορα ᾿Αρχέλαον, μετὰ δὲ τούτους καὶ νόθον 
ἐκ Φρυγίας γυναικὸς Μιδέας 8 Λικύμνιον. 


1 Στρατοβάτην added by Aegius from Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 932 ; compare Sehcliaet-on Pindar, Olymp. vii. 
28 (49). 

2 Φυλόνομον RR*B, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932: 
φιλονόμον C. 

3 Μιδέας Pindar, Ol. vii. 29 (53), Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: Μηδείας A, Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 932, where Miiller, the editor, reads 
Μιδέας in the text ‘‘auctoritate Apollodori,” but adds that 
““ Nostri Codd. consentiunt in pndelas.” 





1 The name Teleboans is derived by the writer from telou 
ebé (τηλοῦ ἔβη), ‘he went far.” The same false etymology 
is accepted by Tzetzes (Schol. on Lycophron, 932). Stra 


164 








THE LIBRARY, II. ww. 5 


Alcaeus had a son Amphitryon and a daughter 
Anaxo by Astydamia, daughter of Pelops; but some 
say he had them by Laonome, daughter of Guneus, 
others that he had them by Hipponome, daughter 
of Menoeceus ; and Mestor had Hippothoe by 
Lysidice, daughter of Pelops. This Hippothoe was 
carried off by Poseidon, who brought her to the 
Echinadian Islands, and there had intercourse with 
her, and begat Taphius, who colonized Taphos 
and called the people Teleboans, because he had 
gone far! from his native land. And Taphius had a 
son Pterelaus, whom Poseidon made immortal by 
implanting a golden hair in his head.2 And to 
Pterelaus were born sons, to wit, Chromius, Tyrannus, 
Antiochus, Chersidamas, Mestor, and Eueres. 

Electryon married Anaxo, daughter of Alcaeus,® 
and begat a daughter Alcmena,‘ and sons, to wit, 
Stratobates, Gorgophonus, Phylonomus, Celaeneus, 
Amphimachus, Lysinomus, Chirimachus, Anactor, 
and Archelaus; and after these he had also a 
bastard son, Licymnius, by a Phrygian woman 
Midea.° 
says (x. 2. 20, p. 459) that the Taphians were formerly called 
Teleboans. 2 See below, ii. 4. 7. 

3 Thus Electryon married his niece, the daughter of his 
brother Alcaeus (see above, ii. 4. 5). Similarly Butes is said 
to have married the daughter of his brother Erechtheus (iii. 
15. 1), and Phineus is reported to have been betrothed 
to the daughter of his brother Cepheus (ii. 4. 3). Taken 
together, these traditions perhaps point to a custom of 
marriage with a niece, the daughter of a brother. 

4 According to another account, the mother of Alcmena 
was a daughter of Pelops (Euripides, Heraclidae, 210 sq.), her 
name being variously given as Lysidice (Scholiast on Pindar, 
Olymp. vii. 27 (49); Plutarch, Theseus, 6) and Eurydice 
(Diodorus Siculus, iv. 9. 1). 

& Compare Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. vii. 27 (49). : 

se) 


APOLLODORUS 


Σθενέλου δὲ καὶ Νικίππης τῆς Πέλοπος ᾿Αλ- 
xvovn καὶ Μέδουσα, ὕστερον δὲ καὶ Εὐρυσθεὺς 
ἐγένετο, ὃς καὶ Μυκηνῶν ἐβασίλευσεν. ὅτε γὰρ 
Ἡρακλῆς ἔμελλε γεννᾶσθαι, Ζεὺς ἐν θεοῖς ἔφη 
τὸν ἀπὸ Περσέως γεννηθησόμενον τότε βασιλεύ- 
σειν Μυκηνῶν, Ἥρα δὲ διὰ 3 ζῆλον Εἰλειθυίας 3 
ἔπεισε τὸν μὲν ᾿Αλκμήνης τόκον ἐπισχεῖν, Εὐρυ- 
σθέα δὲ τὸν Σθενέλου παρεσκεύασε γεννηθῆναι 
ἑπταμηνιαῖον ὄντα. 

᾿λεκτρύονος δὲ βασιλεύοντος Μυκηνῶν, μετὰ 
Ταφίων οἱ Ilreperdouv παῖδες ἐλθόντες τὴν 
Μήστορος ἀρχὴν [τοῦ μητροπάτορος]  ἀπῇτουν, 
καὶ μὴ προσέχοντος ᾿Ηλεκτρύονος ἀπήλαυνον τὰς 


1 ᾿Αλκυόνη Wagner (comparing Diodorus Siculus, iv. 19, 7) : 
ἀλκυνόη R: ἀλκινόη A. 2 διὰ E: διὰ τὸν A. 

. 3. Εἰλειθυίας ΕΑ, Wagner: Εἰλείθυιαν Heyne, Westermann, 

Miller, Bekker, Hercher. 

4 Ταφίων Heyne: Tagiov MSS., Westermann, Miller, 
Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

5 τοῦ μητροπάτορος (compend.) R: τῶ μητροπάτωρος δ: τῷ 
μητροπάτορι A. As Heyne saw, the words are probably a 
Ste which has crept into the text. Wagner does not 

racket them. 

6 προσέχοντος Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932: προσέ- 
xovres A. 

1 According to other accounts, her name was Antibia 
(Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xix. 119) or Archippe (J. Tzetzes, 
Ohiliades, ii. 172, 192). 

2 Compare Homer, Jl. xix. 95-133, where (v. 119) the 
Tlithyias, the goddesses of childbirth, are also spoken of in 
the plural. According to Ovid (Metamorph. ix. 292 sqq.), 
the cueaeres of childbirth (Lucina, the Roman equivalent 
of Ilithyia) delayed the birth of Hercules by sitting at 
the door of the room with crossed legs and clasped hands 
until, deceived by a false report that Alemena had been 
delivered, she relaxed her posture and so allowed the birth 
to take place. Oompare Pausanias, ix. 11. 3 Antoninus 


166 





THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 5-6 


Sthenelus had daughters, Alcyone and Medusa, by 
Nicippe,! daughter of Pelops; and he had after- 
wards a son Eurystheus, who reigned also over 
Mycenae. For when Hercules was about to be born, 
Zeus declared among the gods that the descendant 
of Perseus then about to be born would reign over 
Mycenae, and Hera out of jealousy persuaded the 
Jlithyias to retard Alemena’s delivery,? and contrived 
that Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus, should be born a 
seven-month child.’ 

When Electryon reigned over Mycenae, the sons 
of Pterelaus came with some Taphians and claimed 
the kingdom of Mestor, their maternal grand- 
father, and as Electryon paid no heed to the claim, 


Liberalis, Transform. 29, according to whom it was the 
Fates and Ilithyia who thus retarded the birth of Hercules. 
Among the Efiks and Ibibios, of Southern Nigeria, ‘‘ the 
ancient custom still obtains that locks should be undone 
and knots untied in the house of a woman who is about to 
bear a babe, since all such are thought, by sympathetic magic, 
to retard delivery. A case was related of a jealous wife, 
who, on the advice of a witch doctor versed in the mysteries 
of her sex, hid a selection of padlocks beneath her garments, 
then went and sat down near the sick woman’s door and 
surreptitiously turned the key in each. She had previously 
stolen an old waist-cloth from her rival, which she knotted 
so tightly over and over that it formed a ball, and, as an 
added recaution, she locked her fingers closely together and 
sat with crossed legs, exactly as did sane Lucina of old when 
determined to prevent the birth of the infant Hercules” 
(D. Amaury Talbot, Woman’s Mysteries of a Primitive 
People, the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria (London, etc. 1915), 
p- ra See further T'aboo and the Perils of the Soul, pp, 294 sqq. 

3 Compare Scholiast on Homer, 11. xix. 119; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 172 sqq., 192 sqq. 

4 Taphius, the father of Pterelaus, was a son of Hippothoe, 
who was a daughter of Mestor. See above, ii. 4.5. Thus 
Mestor was not the maternal grandfather, but the great- 
great-grandfather of the sons of Pterelaus. Who the maternal 


167 


APOLLODORUS 


βόας" ἀμυνομένων δὲ τῶν ᾿Ηλεκτρύονος παΐδων, 
4 4 1 3 7 9 la φ ὠθ 
ἐκ προκλήσεως " ἀλλήλους ἀπέκτειναν. ἐσωθη 
δὲ τῶν ᾿Ηλεκτρύονος παίδων Λικύμνιος ἔτι νέος 
ὑπάρχων, τῶν δὲ Πτερελάου Ἐν ήρης, ὃς καὶ τὰς 
ναῦς ἐφύλασσε. τῶν δὲ Ταφίων οἱ διαφυγόντες 
3 4 A , ‘ φ ’ Ἁ 
ἀπέπλευσαν τὰς ἐλαθείσας βόας ἑλόντες, καὶ 
παρέθεντο τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν ᾿Ηλείων Πολυξένῳ" 
᾿Αμφιτρύων δὲ παρὰ Πολυξένου λυτρωσάμενος 
αὐτὰς ἤγαγεν εἰς Μυκήνας.Σ ὁ δὲ ᾿Ηλεκτρύων 
τὸν τῶν παίδων θάνατον βουλόμενος ἐκδικῆσαι, 
Ἁ A ’᾽ 9 ’ Α Α 
παραδοὺς τὴν βασιλείαν ᾿Αμφιτρύωνι καὶ τὴν 
9 n 
θυγατέρα ᾿Αλκμήνην, ἐξορκίσας ἵνα μέχρι τῆς 
ἐπανόδου παρθένον αὐτὴν φυλάξῃ, στρατεύειν ἐπὶ 
Τηλεβόας Stevoeiro. ἀπολαμβάνοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ 
Ἁ Ud “ > 7 3 4 9 9 9 \ 
τὰς Boas, μιᾶς ἐκθορούσης ᾿Αμφιτρύων ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν 
ἀφῆκεν ὃ μετὰ χεῖρας εἶχε ῥόπαλον, τὸ δὲ ἀπο- 
κρουσθὲν ἀπὸ τῶν κεράτων εἰς τὴν ᾿Ηλεκτρύονος 
Ἁ A 9 , > S Ψ \ 
κεφαλὴν ἐλθὸν ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν. ὅθεν λαβὼν 
ταύτην τὴν πρόφασιν Σθένελος παντὸς “Apyous 


1 προκλήσεως Gale: προβλήσεως A. 
2 Μυκήνας Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932: Μυκήνην 
RR&B. 


grandfather of the sons of Pterelaus was we do not know, 
since the name of their mother is not recorded. The words 
‘‘their maternal grandfather” are probably a gloss which has 
crept into the text. See the Critical Note. Apart from the 
difficulty created by these words, it is hard to suppose that 
Electryon was still reigning over Mycenae at the time of this 
expedition of the sons of Pterelaus, since, being a son of 
Perseus, he was a brother of their great-great-grandfather 
Mestor. 

1 Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 747-751, with the 
Scholiast on τ. 747; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932, 
whose account seems based on that of Apollodorus. 


168 








THE LIBRARY, II. 1. 6 


they drove away his kine; and when the sons of 
Electryon stood on their defence, they challenged 
and slew each other.! But of the sons of Electryon 
there survived Licymnius, who was still young; 
and of the sons of Pterelaus there survived Everes, 
who guarded the ships. Those of the Taphians - 
who escaped sailed away, taking with them the 
cattle they had lifted, and entrusted them to 
Polyxenus, king of the Eleans; but Amphitryon 
ransomed them from Polyxenus and. brought them 
to Mycenae. Wishing to avenge his sons’ death, 
Electryon purposed to make war on the Teleboans, 
but first he committed the kingdom to Amphitryon 
along with his daughter Alcmena, binding him 
by oath to keep her a virgin until his return.* 
However, as he was receiving the cows back, one 
of them charged, and Amphitryon threw at her the 
club which he had in his hands. But the club 
rebounded from the cow’s horns and _ striking 
Electryon’s head killed him. Hence Sthenelus 
laid hold of this pretext to banish Amphitryon from 


3 Compare Hesiod, Shield of Hercules, 14 sqq., where it is 
said that Amphitryon might not go in to his wife Alemena 
until he had avenged the death of her brothers, the sons of 
Electryon, who had been slain in the fight with the Taphians. 
The tradition points to a custom which enjoined an avenger 
of blood to observe strict chastity until he had taken the life 
of his enemy. 

+ A similar account of the death of Electryon is given 
by Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932, who seems to follow 
Apollodorus. According to this version of the legend, the 
_ slaying of Electryon by Amphitryon was purely accidental. 

But according to Hesiod (Shteld of Hercules, 11 8ᾳ., 79 84.) 
the two men quarrelled over the cattle, and Amphitryon 
killed Electryon in hot blood. Compare the Scholiast on 
Homer, Jl. xiv. 323. 


τόρ 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐξέβαλεν ᾿Αμφιτρύωνα, καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῶν Μυκη- 
νῶν καὶ τῆς Τίρυνθος αὐτὸς κατέσχε' τὴν δὲ 
Μίδειαν, μεταπεμψάμενος τοὺς Πέλοπος παῖδας 
᾿Ατρέα καὶ Θυέστην, παρέθετο τούτοις. 
᾿Αμφιτρύων δὲ σὺν ᾿Αλκμήνῃ καὶ Λικυμνίῳ 
παραγενόμενος ἐπὶ Θήβας ὑπὸ Κρέοντος ἡγνίσθη, 
καὶ δίδωσι τὴν ἀδελφὴν Περιμήδην Λικυμνίῳ. 
λεγούσης δὲ ᾿Αλκμήνης γαμηθήσεσθαι αὐτῷ τῶν 
ἀδελφῶν αὐτῆς ἐκδικήσαντι τὸν θάνατον, ὑποσχό- 
μενος ἐπὶ Τηλεβόας στρατεύει ᾿Αμφιτρύων, καὶ 
παρεκάλει συλλαβέσθαι Κρέοντα. ὁ δὲ ἔφη 
στρατεύσειν, ἐὰν πρότερον ἐκεῖνος τὴν Καδμείαν 3 
τῆς ἀλώπεκος ἀπαλλάξῃ" ἔφθειρε γὰρ τὴν " Καδ- 
μείαν ἀλώπηξ θηρίον. ὑποστάντος δὲ ὅμως 
εἱμαρμένον ἦν αὐτὴν μηδέ τινα καταλαβεῖν. 
ἀδικουμένης δὲ τῆς χώρας, ἕνα τῶν ἀστῶν παῖδα 
οἱ Θηβαῖοι κατὰ μῆνα προετίθεσαν αὐτῇ, πολλοὺς 
ἁρπαξούσῃ,δ τοῦτ᾽ εἰ μὴ γένοιτος ἀπαλλαγεὶς 
1 μίδειαν Bekker, Hercher: Μίδεαν Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller: μήδειαν A. Both forms, Μίδεια and Μίδεα, are 
recognized by Strabo (viii. 6. 11, p. 373) and Stephanus 
Byzantius (8.v. Μίδεια), but Strabo preferred the form Μίδεα 
for the city in Argolis, and the form Μίδεια for the similarly 
named city in Boeotia. In the manuscripts of Pausanias 
the name is reported to occur in the forms Μιδεία, Midéa, 
Μήδεια, Mndela, and Μηδέα, of which the forms Midela, Μήδεια, 
and Μηδεία appear to be the best attested. See Pausanias, 
ii. 16. 2, ii. 25. 9, vi. 20. 7, viii. 27. 1, with the critical 
commentaries of Schubart and Walz, of Hitzig and Bliimner. 
The editors of Pausanias do not consistently adopt any one 
of these forms. For example, the latest editor (F. Spiro) 
adopts the form Midela in one passage (ii. 16. 2), Μήδεια ina 
second (ii. 25. 9), Midéa in a third (vi. 20. 7), and Μίδεια ina 
fourth (viii. 27. 1). 
2 αὐτῷ Wagner, following Eberhard and comparing 
Scholiast on Homer, 7]. xiv. 323; Hesiod, Shield of Her. 


170 








THE LIBRARY, II. ιν. 6-7 


the whole of Argos, while he himself seized the 
throne of Mycenae and Tiryns; and he entrusted 
Midea to Atreus and Thyestes, the sons of Pelops, 
whom he had sent for. 

Amphitryon went with Alemena and Licymnius to 
Thebes and was purified by Creon! and gave his 
sister Perimede to Licymnius. And as Alcmena 
said she would marry him when he had avenged her 
brothers’ death, Amnphitryon engaged to do so, and 
undertook an expedition against the Teleboans, and 
invited Creon to assist him. Creon said he would 
join in the expedition if Amphitryon would first rid 
the Cadmea of the vixen; for a brute of a vixen was 
ravaging the Cadmea.? But though Amphitryon 
undertook the task, it was fated that nobody should 
catch her. As the country suffered thereby, the 
Thebans every month exposed a son of one of the 
citizens to the brute, which would have carried 
off many if that were not done. So Amphitryon 


1 That is, for the killing of Electryon. Compare Hesiod, 
Shield of Hercules, 79 sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
932; Euripides, Hercules Furens, 16 eq. 

2 The animal had its lair at Teumessus, and hence was 
known as the Teumessian fox. See Pausanias, ix. 19. 1; 
Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 41; Fs teen Cent. xvi. 
42; Suidas, 8.v. Τευμησία ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, i. 553 sqq. 
(who refers to Apollodorus as his authority); Ovid, Meta- 
morph. vii. 762 sqq. By an easy application of the rational- 
istic instrument, which cuts so many mythological knots, the 
late Greek writer Palaephatus (De Incredib. 8) converted the 
ferocious animal into a gentleman (καλὸς κἀγαθὸς) named Fox, 
of a truculent disposition and predatory habits, who proved 
a thorn in the flesh to the Thebans, until Cephalus rid them 
of the nuisance by knocking him on the head. 


cules, 14 sqqg.: τῷ A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher. 3 χὴν Καδμείαν A: τοὺς Καδμείους Hercher. 
4 τὴν A: γῆν Hercher. © ἁρπαξούσῃ Palmer: ἁρπαζούσῃ A. 


171 


APOLLODORUS 


οὖν ᾿Αμφιτρύων εἰς ᾿Αθήνας πρὸς Κέφαλον τὸν 
Δηιονέως, συνέπειθεν ἐπὶ μέρει τῶν ἀπὸ Τηλε- 
βοῶν λαφύρων ἄγειν ἐπὶ τὴν θήραν τὸν κύνα ὃν 
Πρόκρις ἤγαγεν ἐκ Κρήτης παρὰ Μίνωος λαβοῦ- 
ca: ἦν δὲ καὶ τούτῳ πεπρωμένον πᾶν, 6 τε ἂν 
διώκῃ, λαμβάνειν. διωκομένης οὖν ὑπὸ τοῦ κυνὸς 
τῆς ἀλώπεκος, Ζεὺς ἀμφοτέρους λίθους ἐποίησεν. 
᾿Αμφιτρύων δὲ ἔχων ἐκ μὲν Θορικοῦ τῆς ᾿Αττικῆς 
Κέφαλον συμμαχοῦντα, ἐκ δὲ Φωκέων Πανοπέα, 
ἐκ δὲ “λους ' τῆς ᾿Αργείας “Ελειον τὸν Περσέως, 
ἐκ δὲ Θηβῶν Κρέοντα, τὰς τῶν Ταφίων νήσους 
ἐπόρθει. ἄχρι μὲν οὖν ἔξη Πτερέλαος, οὐκ ἐδύ- 
vato τὴν Τάφον ἑλεῖν: ὡς δὲ ἡ Πτερελάου θυγάτηρ 
Κομαιθὼ ἐρασθεῖσα ᾿Αμφιτρύωνος τὴν χρυσῆν 
τρίχα τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἐξείλετο, 
Πτερελάου τελευτήσαντος ἐχειρώσατο τὰς νήσους 
ἁπάσας. τὴν μὲν οὖν Κομαιθὼ κτείνει 5. ᾿Αμφι- 
τρύων καὶ τὴν λείαν ἔχων εἰς Θήβας ἔπλει, καὶ 
Ν 4 ε ’ \ / , 3 ” 
Tas νήσους “Ελείῳ καὶ Κεφάλῳ δίδωσι. κἀκεῖνοι 
πόλεις αὐτῶν ἐπωνύμους κτίσαντες κατῴκησαν. 
Πρὸ τοῦ δὲ ᾿Αμφιτρύωνα παραγενέσθαι εἰς 
Θήβας Ζεύς, διὰ νυκτὸς ἐλθὼν καὶ τὴν μίαν 
τριπλασιάσας νύκτα,5 ὅμοιος ᾿Αμφιτρύωνι γενό- 
1 “Erous Aegius: ἑλούσης A. 7 κτείνει RR®: κτείνας A. 
3 χὴν μίαν τριπλασιάσας νύκτα MSS. and editions. The 
Vatican Epitome (E) reads as follows: τὴν μίαν νύκτα πεντα- 
πλασιάσας ἢ κατά τινας τριπλασιάσας, of καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τριέσπερον 
ἀξιοῦσι λέγεσθαι τὸν Ἡρακλέα : ‘having multiplied the single 
night fivefold or threefold, according to some, who on that 
account claim for Hercules the title of Triesperus (He of the 
Three Evenings).” The title of Triesperus is similarly ex- 
plained by Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 33. The multi- 
plication of the night fivefold appears to be mentioned by 


no other ancient writer Compare R. Wagner, Hpitoma 
Vaticana, p. 98. 


172 





THE LIBRARY, II. tv. 7-8 


betook him to Cephalus, son of Deioneus, at 
Athens, and persuaded him, in return for a share 
of the Teleboan spoils, to bring to the chase 
the dog which Procris had brought from Crete 
as a gift from Minos!; for that dog was destined 
to catch whatever it pursued. So then, when the 
vixen was chased by the dog, Zeus turned both of 
them into stone. Supported by his allies, to wit, 
Cephalus frem Thoricus in Attica, Panopeus from 
Phocis, Heleus, son of Perseus, from Helos in Ar- 
golis, and Creon from Thebes, Amphitryon ravaged 
the islands of the Taphians. Now, so long as Ptere- 
laus lived, he could not take Taphos; but when 
Comaetho, daughter of Pterelaus, falling in love 
with Amphitryon, pulled out the golden hair from 
her father’s head, Pterelaus died,? and Amphitryon 
subjugated all the islands. He slew Comaetho, and 
sailed with the booty to Thebes,’ and gave the 
islands to Heleus and Cephalus; and they founded 
cities named after themselves and dwelt in them. 

But before Amphitryon reached Thebes, Zeus 
came by night and prolonging the one night threefold 
he assumed the likeness of Amphitryon and bedded 

1 As to Procris, see below, iii. 15. 1. 

2 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932. For the 
ee story of Nisus and his daughter Megara, see below, 
111. .ο ὃ. 

8 In the sanctuary of Ismenian Apollo at Thebes, the 
historian Herodotus saw a tripod bearing an inscription in 
‘*Cadmean letters,’”’ which set forth that the vessel had been 
dedicated by Amphitryon from the spoils of the Teleboans. 
See Herodotus, v. 59. Among the booty was a famous goblet 
which Poseidon had given to his son Teleboes, and which 
Teleboes had given to Pterelaus. See Athenaeus, xi. 99, 
Ρ. 498c; Plautus, Amphttryo, 256 sq. For the expedition of 


Amphitryon against the Teleboans or Taphians, see alsoStrabo, 
x. 2.20; Pausanias, i. 37.6; Plautus, Amphitryo, 183-256. 


173 


APOLLODORUS 


μενος ᾿Αλκμήνῃ συνευνάσθη καὶ Ta γενόμενα 
wept! Τηλεβοῶν διηγήσατο. ᾿Αμφιτρύων δὲ παρα- 
γενόμενος, ὡς οὐχ ἑώρα φιλοφρονουμένην πρὸς 
αὐτὸν τὴν γυναῖκα, ἐπυνθάνετο τὴν αἰτίαν: εἰ- 
πούσης δὲ ὅτι τῇ προτέρᾳ νυκτὶ παραγενόμενος 
αὐτῇ συγκεκοίμηται, μανθάνει παρὰ Τειρεσίου 
τὴν γενομένην τοῦ Διὸς συνουσίαν. ᾿Αλκμήνη δὲ 
δύο ἐγέννησε παῖδας, Διὶ μὲν Ἡρακλέα, μιᾷ νυκτὶ 
πρεσβύτερον, ᾿Αμφιτρύωνι δὲ ᾿Ιφικλέα. τοῦ δὲ 
παιδὸς ὄντος ὀκταμηνιαίου δύο δράκοντας ὑπερ- 
4 [7 > 4 Ἁ 9 \ ” [ΟῚ 

μεγέθεις “Ἥρα ἐπὶ τὴν εὐνὴν ἔπεμψε, διαφθαρῆναι 

\ 4 / 9 ’ ΛΑ 3 ᾽ 
τὸ βρέφος θέλουσα. ἐπιβοωμένης δὲ ᾿Αλκμήνης 
᾿Αμφιτρύωνα, Ἡρακλῆς διαναστὰς ἄγχων ἑκατέ- 
pats ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοὺς διέφθειρε. PDépexvdns δέ 
φησιν ᾿Αμφιτρύωνα, βουλόμενον μαθεῖν ὁπότερος 
ἣν τῶν παίδων ἐκείνου, τοὺς δράκοντας εἰς τὴν 

> A a \ A A 3 2 
εὐνὴν ἐμβαλεῖν, καὶ τοῦ μὲν ᾿Ιφικλέους φυγόντος 

A € a lo! 
τοῦ δὲ ‘Hpaxdéous ὑποστάντος μαθεῖν ὡς ᾿Ιφικλῆς 
ἐξ αὐτοῦ γεγέννηται. 

᾿Εδιδάχθη 56? Ἡρακλῆς ἁρματηλατεῖν μὲν 
ὑπὸ ᾿Αμφιτρύωνος, παλαίειν δὲ ὑπὸ Αὐτολύκου, 
τοξεύειν δὲ ὑπὸ Εὐρύτου, ὁπλομαχεῖν δὲ ὑπὸ 

1 περὶ (compend.) Ib, Bekker, Hercher: παρὰ A. 
2 δὲ ΒΗ: μὲν A. 


1 For the deception of Alcmena by Zeus and the birth of 
Hercules and Iphicles, see Hesiod, Shield of Hercules, 27-56 ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 9; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xiv. 323, 
and Od. xi. 266; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 33; Hy- 
inus, Fab. 29. The story was the subject of plays by 
Sophocles and Euripides which have perished (Tragitcorum 
Graccorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 156, 386 8qq.; 
The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C Pearson, i. 76 8qq.) ; 
and it is the theme of a well-known comedy of Plautus, the 
Amphitryo, which is extant. In that play (Prologue, 1128q9.), 


174 


THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 8-9 


with Alemena! and related what had happened con- 
cerning the Teleboans. But when Amphitryon 
arrived and saw that he was not welcomed by his 
wife, he inquired the cause ; and when she told him 
that he had come the night before and slept 
with her, he learned from Tiresias how Zeus had 
enjoyed her. And Alcmena bore two sons, to wit, 
Hercules, whom she had by Zeus and who was the 
elder by one night, and Iphicles, whom she had by 
Amphitryon. When the child was eight months 
old, Hera desired the destruction of the babe and 
sent two huge serpents to the bed. Alcmena called 
Amphitryon to her help, but Hercules arose and 
killed the serpents by strangling them with both his 
hands.?, However, Pherecydes says that it was 
Amphitryon who put the serpents in the bed, be- 
cause he would know which of the two children was 
his, and that when Iphicles fled, and Hercules stood 
his ground, he knew that Iphicles was begotten of 
his body. 

Hercules was taught to drive a chariot by Amphi- 
tryon, to wrestle by Autolycus, to shoot with the 
bow by Eurytus, to fence by Castor, and to play the 


Plautus mentions the lengthening of the night in which 
Jupiter (Zeus) begat Hercules. The Scholiast on Homer (1, 
xiv. 323) says that Zeus persuaded the Sun not to rise for 
three days; and the threefold night is mentioned also by 
Diodorus Siculus (iv. 9. 2). The whole story was told by 
Pherecydes, as we learn from the Scholiasts on Homer (Zl. 
xiv. 323; Od. xi. 266) ; and it is likely that Apollodorus here 
follows him, for he refers to Pherecydes a few lines below. 

7 As to the infant Hercules and the serpents, compare 
Pindar, Nem. i. 33 (50) sqqg.; Theocritus, xxiv.; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 10. 1; Pausanias, i. 24. 2;- Plautus, Amphttryv, 
1123 sqg.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 288 eg.; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 
According to Theocritus (xxiv. 1), Hercules was ten months 
old when he strangled the serpents. - 

I 


10 


APOLLODORUS 


Κάστορος, κιθαρῳδεῖν δὲ ὑπὸ Λίνον. οὗτος δὲ ἦν 
ἀδελφὸς ᾿Ορφέως: ἀφικόμενος δὲ εἰς Θήβας καὶ 
Θηβαῖος γενόμενος ὑπὸ Ἡρακλέους τῇ κιθάρᾳ 
πληγεὶς ἀπέθανεν' ἐπιπλήξαντα γὰρ αὐτὸν ὁρ- 
γισθεὶς ἀπέκτεινε. δίκην δὲ ἐπαγόντων τινῶν 
αὐτῷ φόνου, παρανέγνω νόμον ‘PadapdvOvos 
λέγοντος, ὃς ἂν ἀμύνηται τὸν χειρῶν ἀδίκων 
/ 1 10 a @ A 9 vO 2 
κατάρξαντα, ἀθῷον eivat, καὶ οὕτως ἀπελύθη. 
δείσας δὲ ᾿Αμφιτρύων μὴ πάλιν τι ποιήσῃ τοιοῦ- 
τον, ἔπεμψεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὰ βουφόρβια. κἀκεῖ 
τρεφόμενος μεγέθει τε καὶ ῥώμῃ πάντων διή- 
νεγκεν. ἦν δὲ καὶ θεωρηθεὶς φανερὸς ὃ ὅτι Δεὸς 
παῖς ἦν: τετραπηχυαῖον μὲν γὰρ εἶχε τὸ σῶμα, 
πυρὸς δ᾽ ἐξ ὀμμάτων ἔλαμπεν αἴγλην. οὐκ ἠστό- 
et δὲ οὔτε τοξεύων οὔτε ἀκοντίζων. 
9 a , e ᾽ 4 
Εν δὲ τοῖς βουκολίοις ὑπάρχων ὀκτωκαιδε- 
καέτης τὸν Κιθαιρώνειον ἀνεῖλε λέοντα. οὗτος 
« ’, lel Le] > 
yap ὁρμώμενος ἐκ τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος τὰς ᾿Αμφι- 
τρύωνος ἔφθειρε Boas καὶ τὰς Θεσπίου.. βασι- 
1 κατάρξαντα Ἐἰ : ἄρξαντα A. 2 ἀπελύθη ERR®: ἀπελάθη R. 
3 φανερὸς R: φανερῶς Εἰ : φοβερὸς A. 
4 Θεσπίου Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: Θεστίου EA, Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller. This king’s name is variously re- 
κρήνης by the ancients in the forms Θέσπιος and Θέστιος. In 
avour of the form Θέσπιος, see below, ii. 7. 6; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 29. 2. In favour of the form Θέστιος, see below, 
ii. 4. 12, ii. 7. 8 (where Θεστίου occurs in the MSS.) ; Pausa- 
nias, iii. 19. 5, ix. 27. 6. When we consider the variation 
of the MSS. on this ee the extreme slightness of the 
difference (a single stroke of the pen) between the two forms, 
and the appropriateness of the form @éomos for the name of 
a king of Thespiae, we may surmise that the true form is 
Θέσπιος, and that it should everywhere replace Θέστιος in 
our editions of Greek authors. There is at all events no 


doubt that Diodorus Siculus read the name in this form, 
for he speaks of Θέσπιος as βασιλεύων τῆς ὁμωνύμου χώρας. 


176 





THE LIBRARY, ITI, 1v. 9-10 


lyre by Linus.! This Linus was a brother of Orpheus ; 
he came to Thebes and became a Theban, but was 
killed by Hercules with a blow of the lyre; for 
being struck by him, Hercules flew into a rage and 
slew him.?, When he was tried for murder, Hercules 
quoted a law of Rhadamanthys, who laid it down 
that whoever defends himself against a wrongful 
aggressor shall go free, and so he was acquitted. But 
fearing he might do the like again, Amphitryon sent 
him to the cattle farm; and there he was nurtured 
and outdid all in stature and strength. Even by the 
look of him it was plain that he was a son of Zeus; 
for his body measured four cubits,? and he flashed a 
gleam of fire from his eyes; and he did not miss, 
neither with the bow nor with the javelin. 

While he was with the herds and had reached 
his eighteenth year he slew the lion of Cithaeron, 
for that animal, sallying from Cithaeron, harried 
the kine of Amphitryon and of Thespius.4 Now 


1 As to the education of Hercules, see Theocritus, xxiv. 104 
8qq., according to whom Hercules learned wrestling not from 
' Autolycus but from Harpalycus, son of Hermes. 

2 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iii. 67.2 ; Pausanias, ix. 29.9; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 213 sq. 

8 Four cubits and one foot, according to the exact measure- 
ment of the historian Herodorus. See J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii. 210 sq.; 1d. Schol. on Lycophron, 662. 

4 According to another account, the lion of Cithaeron was 
killed by Alcathous (Pausanias, i. 41. 3 sqg.). But J. Tzetzes 
(Chiliades, ii. 216 sq.) agrees with Apollodorus, whose 
account of Hercules he seems to follow. 





Heyne, though he admits that he had not been consistent 
(‘* Animo in gravioribus occupato non fui satis constans in hoc 
nomine”) deliberately preferred Θέσπιος to Θέστιος : ‘‘Verum 
tamen necesse est Thespii nomen, si quidem Thespiadae dictae 
sunt filiae.” See his critical note on ii. 7. 8 (vol. i. p. 226). 


177 
VOL. I. N 





APOLLODORUS 


λεὺς δὲ ἦν οὗτος Θεσπιῶν, πρὸς ὃν ἀφίκετο 
Ἡρακλῆς ἑλεῖν βουλόμενος τὸν λέοντα. ὁ δὲ 
αὐτὸν ἐξένισε πεντήκοντα ἡμέρας, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν 
θήραν ἐξιόντι νυκτὸς ἑκάστης μίαν cuvevvate 
θυγατέρα (πεντήκοντα δὲ αὐτῷ ἦσαν ἐκ Μεγα- 
μήδης γεγεννημέναι τῆς ᾿Αρνέου) ἐσπούδαζε γὰρ 
πάσας ἐξ Ἡρακλέους τεκνοποιήσασθαι. Ἥρα- 
κλῆς δὲ μίαν νομίζων εἶναι τὴν ἀεὶ συνευναζο- 
μένην, συνῆλθε πάσαις. καὶ χειρωσάμενος τὸν 
λέοντα τὴν μὲν δορὰν ἠμφιέσατο, τῷ χάσματι δὲ 
ἐχρήσατο κόρυθι. 

Ανακάμπτοντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῆς θήρας συνήν- 
τησαν κήρυκες παρὰ ‘Epyivou πεμφθέντες, ἵνα 
παρὰ Θηβαίων τὸν δασμὸν λάβωσιν. ἐτέλουν δὲ 
Θηβαῖοι τὸν δασμὸν “Epyive δι’ αἰτίαν τήνδε. 
Κλύμενον tov Μινυῶν βασιλέα λίθῳ βαλὼν 
Μενοικέως ἡνίοχος, ὄνομα ἹΠεριήρης, ἐν Ὄγ- 
χηστῷ" τι ἀφιδ ρος τεμένει τιτρώσκει: ὁ δὲ 
κομισθεὶς εἰς ᾿Ορχομενὸν ἡμιθνὴς ἐπισκήπτει 
τελευτῶν ᾿Εργίνῳ τῷ παιδὶ ἐκδικῆσαι τὸν θάνα- 
τον αὐτοῦ. στρατευσάμενος δὲ ᾿Εργῖνος ἐπὶ Θή- 
βας, κτείνας οὐκ ὀλίγους ἐσπείσατο μεθ᾽ ὅρκων, 
ὅπως πέμπωσιν αὐτῷ Θηβαῖοι δασμὸν ἐπὶ εἴκοσιν 
ἔτη, κατὰ ἔτος ἑκατὸν βόας. ἐπὶ τοῦτον τὸν 


1 ᾽ογχηστῷ Aegius: ᾽ορχηστῷ A. 


o 


1 As to Hercules and the daughters of Thespius, compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 29. 2.89g.; Pausanias, ix. 27. 6 δᾳ.; 
Athenaeus, xiii. 4, p. 556F; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 221 sqq. 
The father of the damsels is called Thestius by Pausanias and 
Athenaeus, who refers to Herodorus as his authority. See 
the Critical Note. 


178 





THE LIBRARY, ITI. 1v. to—11 


this Thespius was king of Thespiae, and Hercules 
went to him when he wished to catch the 
lion. The king entertained him for fifty days, and 
each night, as Hercules went forth to the hunt, 
Thespius bedded one of his daughters with him 
(fifty daughters having been borne to him by Mega- 
mede, daughter of Arneus) ; for he was anxious that 
all of them should have children by Hercules. 
Thus Hercules, though he thought that his bed- 
fellow was always the same, had intercourse with 
them 4111 And having vanquished the lion, he 
dressed himself in the skin and wore the scalp? as a 
helmet. 

As he was returning from the hunt, there met 
him heralds sent by Erginus to receive the tribute 
from the Thebans.* Now the Thebans paid tribute 
to Erginus for the following reason. Clymenus, 
king of the Minyans, was wounded with a cast of a 
stone by a charioteer of Menoeceus, named Perieres, 
in a precinct of Poseidon at Onchestus; and being 
carried dying to Orchomenus, he with his last breath 
charged his son Erginus to avenge his death. So 
Erginus marched against Thebes, and after slaughter- 
ing not a few of the Thebans he concluded a treaty 
with them, confirmed by oaths, that they should 
send him tribute for twenty years, a hundred kine 
every year. Falling in with the heralds on their 


2 More exactly, ‘‘the gaping mouth.” In Greek art 
Hercules is commonly represented wearing the lion’s skin, 
often with the lion’s scalp as a hood on his head. See, for 
example, A. Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, 
i. figs. 724, 726, 729, 730. 

3 As to Hercules and Erginus, compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 10. 3-5; Pausanias, ix. 37. 2 8ᾳ. ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii, 226 sqq. 


179 
N 2 





APOLLODORUS 


δασμὸν εἰς Θήβας τοὺς κήρυκας ἀπιόντας συντυ- 

A € A 4 3 Α 3 “ 
χὼν Ἡρακλῆς ἐλωβήσατο' ἀποτεμὼν yap αὐτῶν 
τὰ ὦτα καὶ τὰς ῥῖνας, καὶ [διὰ σχοινίων ]} τὰς χεῖ- 
pas δήσας ἐκ τῶν τραχήλων, ἔφη τοῦτον ᾿Ἐργίνῳ 
καὶ. Μινύαις δασμὸν κομίζειν. ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἀγανακ- 
τῶν ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ Θήβας. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ λα- 
βὼν ὅπλα παρ᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς καὶ πολεμαρχῶν ᾿Ἔργῖνον 
μὲν ἔκτεινε, τοὺς δὲ Μινύας ἐτρέψατο καὶ τὸν 
δασμὸν διπλοῦν ἠνάγκασε Θηβαίοις φέρειν. συν- 
ἔβη δὲ κατὰ τὴν μάχην ᾿Αμφιτρύωνα γενναίως 
μαχόμενον τελευτῆσαι. λαμβάνει δὲ Ἣρακλῆς 
παρὰ Κρέοντος ἀριστεῖον τὴν πρεσβυτάτην θυγα- 
τέρα Μεγάραν, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖδες ἐγένοντο τρεῖς, 
Θηρίμαχος Κρεοντιάδης Δηικόων. τὴν δὲ νεωτέ- 
pav θυγατέρα Κρέων ᾿Ιφικλεῖϑ δίδωσιν, ἤδη παῖδα 
᾿Ιόλαον ἔχοντι ἐξ Αὐτομεδούσης τῆς ᾿Αλκάθου. 
» Ν > / \ ? ’ 
ἔγημε δὲ καὶ ᾿Αλκμήνην μετὰ τὸν ᾿Αμφιτρύωνος 
θάνατον Διὸς παῖς Ῥαδάμανθυς, κατῴκει δὲ ἐν 
3 a 
Ὡκαλέαις τῆς Βοιωτίας πεφευγώς. 

1 διὰ σχοινίων ab inepto Graeculo apposita suspicor, Heyne. 
The words are at least misplaced, if, as seems probable, 
ἀποτεμὼν is to be understood as applying to ras χεῖρας as well | 
as to τὰ ὦτα καὶ τὰς ῥῖνας. 

" ἀγανακτῶν. Heyne proposed to insert ἐκεῖνος or ᾿Εργῖνος. 
The sense seems to require one or the other. 

3 Ἰφικλεῖ Wagner: ἰφίκλῳ A. For the form ᾿Ιφικλῆς, see 
i. 8. 2, ii. 4. 8 (thrice), ii. 7. 3; and compare R. Wagner, 
Epitoma Vaticana, pp. 98 ag. 

ὁ ᾽Ωκαλέαις A. In Homer (Jl. ii. 501), Strabo (ix. 2. 26, 


p. 410), and Stephanus Byzantius (s.v. ᾿Ωκαλέα) the name 
occurs in the singular, ’"Oxadéa (’"Qxarém Homer). 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10.6; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii, 228. As to the sons of Hercules by Megara, compare 
below, ii. 7.8. The ancients differed considerably as to the 


180 





THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 11 | 


way to Thebes to demand this tribute, Hercules out- 
raged them ; for he cut off their ears and noses and 
hands, and having fastened them [by ropes] from their 
necks, he told them to carry that tribute to Erginus 
and the Minyans. Indignant at this outrage, Erginus 
marched against Thebes. But Hercules, having re- 
ceived weapons from Athena and taken the com- 
mand, killed Erginus, put the Minyans to flight, and 
compelled them to pay double the tribute to the 
Thebans. And it chanced that in the fight Amphi- 
tryon fell fighting bravely. And Hercules received 
from Creon his eldest daughter Megara as a prize of 
valour,! and by her he had three sons, Therimachus, | 
Creontiades, and Deicoén. But Creon gave his 
younger daughter to Iphicles, who already had a son 
Iolaus by Automedusa, daughter of Alcathus. And 
Rhadamanthys, son of Zeus, married Alemena after 
the death of Amphitryon, and dwelt as an exile at 
Ocaleae in Boeotia.? 


nuimber and names of the children whom Hercules had by 
. Megara. According to Pindar (Isthm. iv. 63 sq.) there were 
eight of them. Euripides speaks of three (Hercules Furens, 
995 sq.). See Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. iv. 61 (104); 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 48 and 663; Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 269 (who agrees with Apollodorus and quotes 
Asclepiades as his authority); Hyginus, Fab. 31 and 32. 
The Thebans celebrated an annual festival, with sacrifices 
‘and games, in honour of the children. See Pindar, Isthm. 
iv. 61 (104) sqq., with the Scholiast. 

2 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 50, who says 
that Rhadamanthys fled from Crete because he had murdered 
his own brother. He agrees with Pausanias that the worthy 
couple took up their abode at Ocaleae (or Ocalea) in Boeotia. 
Their tombs were shown near Haliartus, in Boeotia. - See 
Plutarch, Lysander, 28. The grave of Alemena was excavated 
in antiquity, during the Spartan occupation of the Cadmea. 
It was found to contain a small bronze bracelet, two earthen- 


181 





APOLLODORUS 


ΠΡρομαθὼν 1 δὲ παρ᾽ ᾿Ευρύτου 5 τὴν τοξικὴν 
€ “a , ¢ fo) , ’ b 
Ηρακλῆς ἔλαβε παρὰ “Ἑρμοῦ μὲν ξίφος, παρ 
᾿Απόλλωνος δὲ τόξα, παρὰ δὲ Ἡφαίστου θώρακα 
χρυσοῦν, παρὰ δὲ ᾿Αθηνᾶς πέπλον: ῥόπαλον μὲν 
γὰρ αὐτὸς ἔτεμεν ἐκ Νεμέας. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν πρὸς Μινύας μάχην συνέβη αὐτῷ 
κατὰ ζῆλον “Hpas μανῆναι, καὶ τούς τε ἰδίους 
παῖδας, οὗς ἐκ Μεγάρας εἶχεν, εἰς πῦρ ἐμβαλεῖν 
καὶ τῶν ᾿Ιφικλέους" δύο" διὸ καταδικάσας ἑαυτοῦ 
φυγὴν καθαίρεται μὲν ὑπὸ Θεσπίον," παραγενό- 
μενος δὲ εἰς Δελφοὺς πυνθάνεται τοῦ θεοῦ ποῦ 

/ e \ / , A ε 
κατοικήσει. ἡ δὲ Πυθία τότε πρῶτον Ἡρακλέα 
αὐτὸν προσηγόρευσε: τὸ δὲ πρώην ὅ ᾿Αλκείδης 


1 προμαθὼν A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher: προσμαθὼν ER, Wagner. 

2 Ἑυρύτονυ Aegius, Commelinus, Gale, Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher: αὐτοῦ A, Wagner. 

3 ἰφικλέους E: ἰφίκλον A. 

ὁ Θεσπίον Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: Θεστίου EA, Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller. 5 πρώην E: πρῶτον A. 


ware jars, and a bronze tablet inscribed with ancient and 
unknown characters. See Plutarch, De genio Socratis, 5. 

A different story of the marriage of Rhadamanthys and 
Alemena was told by Pherecydes. According to him, when 
Alcmena died at a good old age, Zeus commanded Hermes to 
steal her body from the coffin in which the sons of Hercules 
were conveying it to the grave. Hermes executed the com- 
mission, adroitly substituting a stone for the corpse in the 
coffin. Feeling the coffin very heavy, the sons of Hercules 
set it down, and taking off the lid they discovered the fraud. 
They took out the stone and set it up in a sacred grove at 
Thebes, where was a shrine of Alemena. Meantime Hermes 
had carried off the real Alemena to the Islands of the Blest, 
where she was married to Rhadamanthys. See Antoninus 
Liberalis, 7’ransform. 33. This quaint story is alluded to by 
Puusanias, who tells us (ix. 16. 7) that there was no tomb of 
Alcmena at Thebes, because at her death she had been turned 
to stone. 


182 





THE LIBRARY, II. 1v. 11-12 


Having first learned from Eurytus the art of 
archery,! Hercules received a sword from Hermes, a 
bow and arrows from Apollo,? a golden breastplate 
from Hephaestus, and a robe from Athena; for he 
had himself cut a club at Nemea. 

Now it came to pass that after the battle with the 
Minyans Hercules was driven mad through the 
jealousy of Hera and flung his own children, whom 
he had by Megara, and two children of Iphicles into 
the fire ;? wherefore he condemed himself to exile, 
and was purified by Thespius, and repairing to 
Delphi he inquired of the god where he should 
dwell.4| The Pythian priestess then first called 
him Hercules, for hitherto he was called Alcides.§ 


1 See above ii. 4.9. According to another account, Hercu- 
les learned archery from the exile Rhadamanthys (Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 50), and if we accept the MS. reading 
αὐτοῦ in the present passage (see Critical Note), this was the 
version of the story here followed by Apollodorus. But it 
seems more likely that αὐτοῦ is a scribe’s mistake for Εὐρύτου 
than that Apollodorus should have contradicted himself flatly 
in two passages so near each other. The learned Tzetzes (/.c.) 
mentions no less than three different men—Teutarus, Eurytus, 
and Rhadamanthys—to whom the honour of having taught 
Hercules to shoot was variously assigned by tradition. 

2 As to the gifts of the gods to Hercules, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 13. 3, who, besides the sword and bow given by 
Hermes and Apollo, mentions horses given by Poseidon. 

9 Compare Euripides, Hercules Furens, 967 8qq.; Moschus, 
iv. 13 sgqg.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 11. 1 84ᾳ.; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 38; Nicolaus Damascenus, Frag. 20, in Frag- 
menta Historiccrum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 369; 
Hyginus, Fab. 32. 

4 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10. 7. 

5 Hercules was called Alcides after his grandfather Alcaeus, 
the father of Amphitryon. See above, ii. 4. 8. But, accord- 
ing to another account, the hero was himself called Alcaeus 
before he received the name of Hercules from Apollo. See 
Sextus Empiricus, pp. 398 84., ed. Im. Bekker; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Olymp. vi. 68 (115) 

183 


APOLLODORUS 


προσηγορεύετο. κατοικεῖν δὲ αὐτὸν εἶπεν ἐν 
Τίρυνθι, Ἑὐρυσθεῖ λατρεύοντα ἔτη δώδεκα, καὶ 
τοὺς ἐπιτασσομένους ἄθλους δέκαϊ ἐπιτελεῖν, καὶ 
οὕτως ἔφη, τῶν ἄθλων συντελεσθέντων, ἀθάνατον 
αὐτὸν ἔσεσθαι. 

V. Τοῦτο ἀκούσας ὁ Ἡρακλῆς εἰς Τίρυνθα ἦλθε, 
καὶ τὸ προσταττόμενον ὑπὸ Εὐρυσθέως ἐτέλει. 
πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τοῦ Νεμέου λέον- 
τος τὴν δορὰν κομίξειν' τοῦτο δὲ ζῷον ἦν ἄτρω- 
τον, ἐκ Τυφῶνος γεγεννημένον.2 πορευόμενος οὖν 
ἐπὶ τὸν λέοντα ἦλθεν εἰς Κλεωνάς, καὶ ξενίζεται 
παρὰ ἀνδρὶ χερνήτῃ Μολόρχῳ. καὶ θύειν ἱερεῖον 
θέλοντι εἰς ἡμέραν ἔφη τηρεῖν τριακοστήν, καὶ ἂν 
μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς θήρας σῶος ἐπανέλθῃ, Ati σωτῆρι 
θύειν, ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ, τότε ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζειν. 


1 δέκα Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: δώδεκα EA. 
2 γεγεννημένον ER®: γεγενημένον A. 
3 τότε ws Aegius: τῷ τέως A. 


1 For the labours of Hercules, see Sophocles, T'rachiniae, 
1091 sqq.; Euripides, Hercules Furens, 359 sqq., 1270 sqq. ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10 94ᾳ.;: Pausanias, v. 10. 9, v. 26. 7; 
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 208 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, 229 sqq.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 287 sqq.; Ovid, Meta- 
morph. ix. 182 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 

2 As to the Nemean lion, compare Hesiced, Theog. 326 sqq.; 
Bacchylides, Hpinic. viii. 6 sqq.; Sophocles, Trachiniae, 1091 
sqq.; Theocritus, xxv. 162 sqg.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 11. 3 sq.; 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 12; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, τι. 232 sq.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 30. According to Hesiod, the Nemean lion was 
Ley Se by Orthus, the hound of Geryon, upon the monster 
Kchidna. Hyginus says that the lion was bred by the Moon. 

3 As to Hercules and Molorchus, compare Tibullus, iv. 1. 
12 8ᾳ.; Virgil, Georg. iii. 19, with Servius’s note ; Martial, iv. 
64. 30, ix. 43. 13; Statius, Sylv. iii. 1. 28. | 

4 The Greeks had two distinct words for sacrificing, 
according as the sacrifice was offered to a god or to a hero, 
that is, to a worshipful dead man; the former sacrifice was 
expressed by the verb θύειν, the latter by the verb ἐναγίζειν. 


184 








THE LIBRARY, II. τν. 12-v. 1 


And she told him to dwell in Tiryns, serving 
Eurystheus for twelve years and to perform the ten 
labours imposed on him, and so, she said, when the 
tasks were accomplished, he would be immortal.! 

V. When Hercules heard that, he went to Tiryns 
and did as he was bid by Eurystheus. First, Eurys- 
theus ordered him to bring the skin of the Nemean 
lion ;2 now that was an invulnerable beast begotten 
by Typhon. On his way to attack the lion he came 
to Cleonae and lodged at the house of a day-labourer, 
Molorchus ;* and when his host would have offered 
a victim in sacrifice, Hercules told him to wait for 
thirty days, and then, if he had returned safe from 
the hunt, to sacrifice to Saviour Zeus, but if he were 
dead, to sacrifice to him as to a hero. And having 


The verbal distinction can hardly be preserved in English, 
except by a periphrasis. For the distinction between the 
two, see Pausanias, ii. 10. 1, ii. 11. 7, iii. 19. 3; and for more 
instances of ἐναγίζειν in this sense, see Pausanias, iii. 1. 8, 
vi. 2). 11, vii. 17. 8, vii. 19. 10, vii. 20. 9, viii. 14. 10 and 
11, viii. 41. 1, ix. 5. 14, ix. 18. 3 and 4, ix. 38. 5, x. 24.6; 
Inscriptiones Graecae Megaridis, Oropiae, Boeotiae, ed. 
G. Dittenberger, p. 32, No. 53. For instances of the 
antithesis between θύειν and ἐναγίζειν, see Herodotus, ii. 44; 
Plutarch, De MHerodoti malignitate, 13; Ptolemaeus 
Hephaest., Nov. Hist. iii. (Mythographt Graect, ed. A. 
Westermann, p. 186); Pollux, viii. 91; Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoenissac, 274. The corresponding nouns θυσίαι 
and ἐναγίσματα are similarly opposed to each other. See 
Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 58. Another word which 
is used only of sacrificing to heroes or the dead is ἐντέμνειν. 
See, for example, Thucydides, v. 11, ὡς ἥρωΐ re ἐντέμνουσι (of 
the sacrifices offered at Amphipolis to Brasidas). Sometimes 
the verbs ἐναγίζειν and ἐντέμνειν are coupled in this sense. 
See Philostratus, Heroica, xx. 27 and 28. For more evidence 
as to the use of these words, see Fr. Pfister, Der Reliquien- 
κι im Altertum (Giessen, 1909-1912), pp. 466 egg. Compare 
P. Foucart, Le culte des héros chez les Grecs (Paris, 1918), pp. 
96, 98 (from the Mémoires de ? Académie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres, vol. xiii). 

185 


APOLLODORUS 


εἰς δὲ “τὴν Νεμέαν ἀφικόμενος καὶ τὸν λέοντα 
μαστεύσας ἐτόξευσε τὸ πρῶτον" ὡς δὲ ἔμαθεν 
ἄτρωτον ὄντα, ἀνατεινάμενος τὸ ῥόπαλον ἐδίωκε. 
συμφυγόντος δὲ εἰς ἀμφίστομον; σπήλαιον αὐτοῦ 
τὴν ἑτέραν ἐνῳκοδόμησεν5" εἴσοδον, διὰ δὲ τῆς 
ἑτέρας ἐπεισῆλθε τῷ θηρίῳ, καὶ περιθεὶς τὴν 
χεῖρα τῷ τραχήλῳ κατέσχεν ἄγχων ἕ ἕως ἔπνιξε, 
καὶ θέμενος ἐπὶ τῶν ὦμων ἐκόμιζεν εἰς Κλεωνάς.3 
καταλαβὼν δὲ τὸν _Modopxov ἐν τῇ τελευταίᾳ 
τῶν ἡμερῶν ὡς νεκρῷ μέλλοντα τὸ ἱερεῖον ἐναγί- 
ζειν, σωτῆρι θύσας Διὲ ἦγεν εἰς Μυκήνας τὸν 
λέοντα. Εὐρυσθεὺς δὲ καταπλαγεὶς αὐτοῦ τὴν 
ἀνδρείαν ἀπεῖπε τὸ λοιπὸνδ αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν πόλιν 
εἰσιέναι, δεικνύειν δὲ : πρὸ τῶν πυλῶν ἐκέλευε τοὺς 
ἄθλους. φασὶ δὲ ὅτι δείσας καὶ πίθον ἑαυτῷ 
χαλκοῦν εἰσκρυβῆναι ὑ ὑπὸ γῆν" κατεσκεύασε, καὶ 
πέμπων κήρυκα Κοπρέα Πέλοπος τοῦ ᾿Ηλείου 
ἐπέταττε τοὺς ἄθλους. οὗτος δὲ Ἴφιτον κτείνας, 
φυγὼν εἰς Μυκήνας καὶ τυχὼν παρ᾽ Εὐρυσθέως 
καθαρσίων ἐ ἐκεῖ κατῴκει. 

2 Δεύτερον δὲ ἄθλον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τὴν Λερναΐαν 
ὕδραν κτεῖναι" αὕτη δὲ ἐν τῷ τῆς Λέρνης ἕλει 
ἐκτραφεῖσα ἐξέβαινεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον καὶ τά τε 


1 «τὺ! ἀμφίστομον Wagner, comparing Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 1]. 3 85. 2 ἐνῳκοδόμησεν E: ἀνῳκοδόμησεν A. 

3 Κλεωνάς Hercher, Wagner (comparing Pediasmus, De 
Hercults laboribus, 1): Μυκήνας A. 

i καταπλαγεὶς E: καταλαβὼν A. 

5 ἀπεῖπε τὸ λοιπὸν Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ἀπείπατο 
λοιπὸν EA. δ γῆν E: γῆς A. 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12. 1, who however places 
this incident after the adventure with the Erymanthian boar. 

2 As to the herald Copreus, compare Homer, Jj. xv. 639 86., 
with the note of the Scholiast. 


186 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 1-2 


come to Nemea and tracked the lion, he first shot an 
arrow at him, but when he perceived that the beast 
was invulnerable, he heaved up his club and made 
after him. And when the lion took refuge in a 
cave with two mouths, Hercules built up the one 
entrance and came in upon the beast through the 
other, and putting his arm round its neck held it 
tight till he had choked it; so laying it on_ his 
shoulders he carried it to Cleonae. And finding 
Molorchus on the last of the thirty days about to 
sacrifice the victim to him as to a dead man, he sacri- 
ficed to Saviour Zeus and brought the lion to Mycenae. 
Amazed at his manhood, Eurystheus forbade him 
thenceforth to enter the city, but ordered him to ex- 
hibit the fruits of his labours before the gates. They 
say, too, that in his fear he had a bronze jar made . 
for himself to hide in under the earth,! and that he 
sent his commands for the labours through a herald, 
Copreus,? son of Pelops the Elean. This Copreus 
had killed Iphitus and fled to Mycenae, where he was 
purified by Eurystheus and took up his abode. 

As a second labour he ordered him to kill the 
Lernaean hydra.’ That creature, bred in the swamp 
of Lerna, used to go forth into the plain and ravage 


3 Compare Euripides, Hercules Furens, 419 sqq.; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 11. 5 84ᾳ.; Pausanias, ii. 37.4, v. 5.10, v. 17. 11; 
Zenobius, Cent. vi, 26; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 
212 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, ii. 237 sqq.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 
299 sq.; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 69 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 
Diodorus and Ovid multiply the hydra’s heads to a hundred ; 
the sceptical Pausanias (ii. 37. 4) would reduce them to one. 
Both Diodorus and Pausanias, together with Zenobius and 
Hyginus, mention that Hercules poisoned his arrows with 
the gall of the hydra. The account which Zenobius gives of 
the hydra is clearly based on that of Apollodorus, though 
as usual he does not name his authority. 


187 


APOLLODORUS 


βοσκήματα καὶ τὴν χώραν διέφθειρεν. εἶχε δὲ 
ἡ ὕδρα ὑπερμέγεθες σῶμα, κεφαλὰς ἔχον ἐννέα, 
τὰς μὲν ὀκτὼ θνητάς, τὴν δὲ μέσην ἀθάνατον. 
ἐπιβὰς οὖν ἅρματος, ἡνιοχοῦντος ᾿ ᾿Ιολάου, παρε- 
γένετο εἰς τὴν Δέρνην, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἵππους 
ἔστησε, τὴν δὲ ὕδραν εὑρὼν ἔν τινὲ hogy ! παρὰ 
τὰς πηγὰς τῆς ᾿Αμυμώνης, ὅ ὅπου ὁ φωλεὸς αὐτῆς 
ὑπῆρ ε, βάλλων βέλεσι πεπυρωμένοις ἠνάγκασεν 
ἐξελ εἶν, ἐκβαίνουσαν δὲ αὐτὴν κρατήσας κατεῖ- 
χεν. ἡ δὲ θατέρῳ " τῶν ποδῶν ἐνείχετο * περι- 
πλακεῖσα. τῷ ῥοπάλῳ δὲ τὰς κεφαλὰς κόπτων 
οὐδὲν ἀνύειν ἠδύνατο", μιᾶς γὰρ κοπτομένης 
κεφαλῆς δύο ἀνεφύοντο. ἐπεβοήθει δὲ καρκίνος 
τῇ ὕδρᾳ ὑπερμεγέθης, δάκνων τὸν πόδα. διὸ 
τοῦτον ᾿ἀποκτείνας ἐπεκαλέσατο καὶ αὐτὸς βοη- 
θὸν τὸν Ἰόλαον, ὃς μέρος TL ,καταπρήσας τῆς 
ἐγγὺς ὕλης τοῖς ᾿δαλοῖς ἐπικαίων τὰς ἀνατολὰς 
τῶν κεφαλῶν ἐκώλυεν ἀνιέναι. ᾿καὶ τοῦτον τὸν 
τρόπον τῶν ἀναφυομένων κεφαλῶν περυγενόμενος, 
τὴν ἀθάνατον ἀποκόψας κατώρυξε καὶ βαρεῖαν 
ἐπέθηκε πέτραν, παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν φέρουσαν διὰ 
Λέρνης εἰς ᾿Ελαιοῦντα" τὸ δὲ σῶμα τῆς ὕδρας 
ἀνασχίσας τῇ χολῇ τοὺς ὀιστοὺς ἔβαψεν. Εὐ- 
ρυσθεὺς δὲ ἔφη μὴ δεῖν καταριθμῆσαι τοῦτον ἐν 
τοῖς δέκα 8 τὸν ἄθλον' οὐ γὰρ μόνος ἀλλὰ καὶ 
μετὰ Ἰολάου τῆς ὕδρας περιεγένετο. 


1 λόφῳφ EA: τόπῳ L, V (first hand, in margin). 

2 θατέρῳ E: θᾶττον 

3 ἐνείχετο E: ἠνείχετο Α. 

4 ἠδύνατο Εἰ, Zenobius, Cent. vi. 26: ἐδύνατο A. 

5 καὶ E, Zenobius, ‘Cent. vi. 26: κατὰ A. 

ὃ ᾿Ελαιοῦντα, L. Ross, Reisen und Reiserouten dur ah Grie- 
chenland, i. (Berlin, 1841), p. 156 note: ἐλεοῦντα EA. 


188 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 2 


both the cattle and the country. Now the hydra had 
a huge body, with nine heads, eight mortal, but the 
middle one immortal. So mounting a chariot 
driven by Iolaus, he came to Lerna, and having 
halted his horses, he discovered the hydra on a hill 
beside the springs of the Amymone, where was its 
den. By pelting it with fiery shafts he forced it to 
come out, and in the act of doing so he seized and 
held it fast. But the hydra wound itself about one 
of his feet and clung to him. Nor could he effect 
anything by smashing its heads with his club, for as 
fast as one head was smashed there grew up two. A 
huge crab also came to the help of the hydra by biting 
his foot.!. So he killed it, and in his turn called for 
help on Iolaus who, by setting fire to a piece of the 
neighbouring wood and burning the roots of the 
heads with the brands, prevented them from sprouting. 
Having thus got the better of the sprouting heads, he 
chopped off the immortal head, and buried it, and put 
a heavy rock on it, beside the road that leads through 
Lerna to Elaeus. But the body of the hydra he slit 
up and dipped his arrows in the gall. However, 
Eurystheus said that this labour should not be 
reckoned among the ten because he had not got the 
better of the hydra by himself, but with the help of 
Tolaus. 


1 For this service the crab was promoted by Hera, the foe 
of Hercules, to the rank of a constellation in the sky. See 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 11 (who quotes as his authority the 
Heraclia of Panyasis) ; Hyginus, Astronomica, ii. 23. 


7 χοῦτον KE, Pediasmus, De Herculis laboribus, 2 (τὸν ἀγῶνα 
τοῦτον) : omitted in A. 
8 δέκα Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: δώδεκα EA, Pediasmus, 
De Herciulis laboribus, 2. 
189 


3 


APOLLODORUS 

Τρίτον ἄθλον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τὴν Kepuvirey ? 
ἔλαφον εἰς Μυκήνας ἔμπνουν ἐνεγκεῖν. ἦν δὲ 7 
ἔλαφος ἐν Οἰνόῃ, χρυσόκερως, ᾿Αρτέμιδος ἑερά' 
διὸ καὶ βουλόμενος αὐτὴν Ἡρακλῆς μήτε ἀνελεῖν 
μήτε τρῶσαι, συνεδίωξεν ὅλον ἐνιαυτόν. ἐπεὶ δὲ 
κάμνον τὸ θηρίον τῇ διώξει συνέφυγεν εἰς ὄρος 
τὸ λεγόμενον Ἀρτεμίσιον, κἀκεῖθεν ἐπὶ ποταμὸν 
Λάδωνα, τοῦτον διαβαίνειν μέλλουσαν τοξεύσας 
συνέλαβε, καὶ θέμενος ἐπὶ τῶν ὦμων διὰ τῆς 
᾿Αρκαδίας ἡ ἠπείγετο. μετ᾽ ᾿Απόλλωνος δὲ Ἄρτεμις 
συντυχοῦσα ἀφῃρεῖτο, καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν ξῷον αὐτῆς 
κτείνοντα ὅ κατεμέμφετο. ὁ δὲ ὑποτιμησάμενος 
τὴν ἀνάγκην, καὶ τὸν αἴτιον εἰπὼν Εὐρυσθέα 
γεγονέναι, πραὔνας τὴν ὀργὴν τῆς θεοῦ τὸ θηρίον 
ἐκόμισεν ἔμπνουν εἰς Μυκήνας. 

Τέταρτον ἄθλον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τὸν ᾿Ερυμάν- 
θιον κάπρον ζῶντα κομίζειν' τοῦτο δὲ τὸ θηρίον 
ἠδίκει τὴν Ψωφῖδα, ὁ ὁρμώμενον ἐξ ὄρους ὃ καλοῦ- 
σιν Ἐρύμανθον. διερχόμενος οὖν Φολόην ἐπι- 
ξενοῦται Κενταύρῳ Φόλῳ, Σειληνοῦ καὶ νύμφης 


1 Κερυνῖτιν Heyne: κερνῆτιν E: κερνήτην A. 
2 xrelvovra Wagner: κτείναντα KA. 


1 Compare Pindar, Olymp. iii. 28 (50) sqq.; Euripides, 
Hercules Furens, 375 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 1; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 265 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 30. Pindar 
says that in his quest of the hind with the golden horns 
Hercules had seen ‘“‘ the land at the back of the cold north 
wind.” Hence, as the reindeer is said to be the only species 
of deer of which the female has antlers, Sir William Ridgeway 
argues ingeniously that the hind with the golden horns was 
no other than the reindeer. See his Harly Age of Greece 
i. (Cambridge, 1901), pp. 360 sgg. Later Greek tradition, 1.8 
we see from Apollodorus, did not place the native land of the 


Igo 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 3-4 


As a third labour he ordered him to bring the 
Cerynitian hind alive to Mycenae.! Now the hind 
was at Oenoe; it had golden horns and was sacred to 
Artemis; so wishing neither to kill nor wound it, 
Hercules hunted it a whole year. But when, weary 
with the chase, the beast took refuge on the moun- 
tain called Artemisius, and thence passed to the 
river Ladon, Hercules shot it just as it was about to 
cross the stream, and catching it put it on his shoul- 
ders and hastened through Arcadia. But Artemis 
with Apollo met him, and would have wrested the 
hind from him, and rebuked him for attempting to 
kill her sacred animal.? Howbeit, by pleading ne- 
cessity and laying the blame on Eurystheus, he 
appeased the anger of the goddess and carried the 
beast alive to Mycenae. 

As a fourth labour he ordered him to bring the 
Erymanthian boar alive ;? now that animal ravaged 
Psophis, sallying from a mountain which they call 
Erymanthus. So passing through Pholoe he was en- 
tertained by the centaur Pholus, a son of Silenus by a 


hind so far away. QOenoe was a place in Argolis. Mount 
Artemisius is the range which divides Argolis from the plain 
of Mantinea. The Ladon is the most beautiful river of 
Arcadia, if not of Greece. The river Cerynites, from which 
the hind took its name, is a river which rises in Arcadia and 
flows through Achaia into the sea. The modern name of the 
river is Bouphousia. See Pausanias, vii. 25.5, with my note. 

2 The hind is said to have borne the inscription, ‘‘ Taygete 
dedicated (me) to Artemis.” See Pindar, Olymp. iii. 29 (53) 
sq., with the Scholiast. 

? As to the Erymanthian boar and the centaurs, see 
Sophocles, T'rachintae, 1095 sqqg.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12 ; 
J. Tzetzes, Ohiliades, ii. 268 8qq.; Hyginus, Fab. 30. The 
boar’s tusks were said to be preserved in asanctuary of Apollo 
at Cumae in Campania (Pausanias, viii. 24. 5). 


ΙΟΙ 


APOLLODORUS 


μελίας παιδί. οὗτος Ἡρακλεῖ μὲν ὀπτὰ παρεῖχε 
τὰ κρέα, αὐτὸς δὲ ὠμοῖς ἐχρῆτό. αἰτοῦντος δὲ οἶνον 
Ἡρακλέους, ἔφη δεδοικέναι τὸν κοινὸν τῶν Kev- 
ταύρων ἀνοῖξαι πίθον: θαρρεῖν δὲ παρακελευσά- 
μενος Ἡρακλῆς αὐτὸν ἤνοιξε, καὶ μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ 
τῆς ὀσμῆς αἰσθόμενοι παρῆσαν οἱ Κένταυροι, 
πέτραις ὡπλισμένοι καὶ ἐλάταις, ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ 
Φόλου σπήλαιον. τοὺς μὲν οὖν πρώτους τολμή- 
σαντας εἴσω παρελθεῖν "Αγχίον καὶ Αγριον 
Ἡρακλῆς ἐτρέψατο βάλλων δαλοῖς, τοὺς δὲ 
λοιποὺς ἐτόξευσε διώκων ἄχρι τῆς Μαλέας. ἐκεῖ- 
θεν δὲ πρὸς Χείρωνα συνέφυγον, ὃς ἐξελαθεὶς ὑπὸ 
Λαπιθῶν ὄρους Πηλίου παρὰ Μαλέαν κατῴκησε. 
τούτῳ περιπεπτωκότας τοὺς Κενταύρους τοξεύων 
ἵησι βέλος ὁ Ἡρακλῆς, τὸ δὲ ἐνεχθὲν ᾿Ελάτου 
διὰ τοῦ βραχίονος τῷ yovate τοῦ Χείρωνος ἐμπή- 
γνυται. ἀνιαθεὶς δὲ Ηρακλῆς προσδραμὼν τό τε 
βέλος ἐξεΐλκυσε, καὶ δόντος Χείρωνος φάρμακον 
ἐπέθηκεν. ἀνίατον δὲ ἔχων τὸ ἕλκος εἰς τὸ σπή- 
λαιον ἀπαλλάσσεται.Σ κἀκεῖ τελευτῆσαι βουλό- 
μενος, καὶ μὴ δυνάμενος ἐπείπερ ἀθάνατος ἦν, 
ἀντιδόντος Aut Προμηθέως αὑτὸν 5 ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ 
γενησόμενον ἀθάνατον, οὕτως ἀπέθανεν. οἱ λοι- 
ποὶ δὲ τῶν Κενταύρων φεύγουσιν ἄλλος ἀλλαχῇ, 
καὶ τινὲς μὲν παρεγένοντο εἰς ὄρος Μαλέαν, Ev- 
ρυτίων δὲ εἰς Φολόην, Νέσσος δὲ ἐπὶ ποταμὸν 
Εὔηνον. τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς ὑποδεξάμενος ἸΠοσει- 


1 τῆς ὀσμῆς BE: διὰ τῆς ὀσμῆς A. 

2 ἀπαλλάσσεται Scaliger: ἀλλάσσεται EA. 

8 αὑτὸν Wagner: τὸν EA; Προμηθέα τὸν Hemsterhuis on 
Lucian, Dialog. Mort. 26. ) 


192 








THE LIBRARY, Il. v. 4 


Melian nymph.! He set roast meat before Hercules, 
while he himself ate-his meat raw. When Hercules 
called for wine, he said he feared to open the jar 
which belonged to the centaurs in common.” But 
Hercules, bidding him be of good courage, opened 
it, and not long afterwards, scenting the smell, the 
centaurs arrived at the cave of Pholus, armed with 
rocks and firs. The first who dared to enter, Anchius 
and Agrius, were repelled by Hercules with a shower 
of brands, and the rest of them he shot and pursued 
as far as Malea. Thence they took refuge with 
Chiron, who, driven by the Lapiths from Mount 
Pelion, took up his abode at Malea. As the centaurs 
cowered about Chiron, Hercules shot an arrow at 
them, which, passing through the arm of Elatus, 
stuck in the knee of Chiron. Distressed at this, 
Hercules ran up to him, drew out the shaft, and 
applied a medicine which Chiron gave him. But the 
hurt proving incurable, Chiron retired to the cave 
and there he wished to die, but he could not, for he 
was immortal. However, Prometheus offered him- 
self to Zeus to be immortal in his stead, and so Chiron 
died. The rest of the centaurs fled in different 
directions, and some came to Mount Malea, and 
Eurytion to Pholoe, and Nessus to the river Evenus. 
The rest of them Poseidon received at Eleusis and 


1 As to these nymphs, see Hesiod, Theog. 187. The name 
perhaps means ap ash-tree nymph (from μελία, an ash- 
tree), as Dryad means an oak-tree nymph (from δρῦς, an 
oak-tree). 

2 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 271; Theocritus, vii. 
149 sg. The jar had been presented by Dionysus to a 
centaur with orders not to open it till Hercules came 
(Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12. 3). 


193 


VOL. I. O 


APOLLODORUS 


δῶν eis ᾿Ελευσῖνα ὄρει κατεκάλυψεν. Poros δὲ 
ἑλκύσας ἐκ νεκροῦ τὸ βέλος ἐθαύμαζεν, εἰ τοὺς 
τηλικούτους τὸ μικρὸν διέφθειρε: τὸ δὲ τῆς χειρὸς 
ὀλισθῆσαν ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τὸν πόδα καὶ παραχρῆμα 
ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν. ἐπανελθὼν δὲ εἰς Φολόην 
Ἡρακλῆς καὶ Φόλον τελευτήσαντα θεασάμενος, 
θάψας αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ κάπρου θήραν παραγί- 
νεται, καὶ διώξας αὐτὸν Ex τινος λόχμης μετὰ 
κραυγῆς, εἰς χιόνα πολλὴν παρειμένον εἰσωθήσας * 
ἐμβροχίσας τε ἐκόμισεν εἰς Μυκήνας. 

Πέμπτον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ ἄθλον τῶν Αὐγείου 
βοσκημάτων ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ μόνον ἐκφορῆσαι τὴν 
ὄνθον. ἦν δὲ ὁ Αὐγείας βασιλεὺς "Ἤλιδος, ὡς 

, 4 a_¢ / e , 
μέν τινες εἶπον, παῖς Ἡλίου, ὡς δέ τινες, Ποσει- 
δῶνος, ὡς δὲ ὄνιοι, Φόρβαντος, πολλὰς δὲ εἶχε 
βοσκημάτων ποίμνας. τούτῳ προσελθὼν ‘Hpa- 
κλῆς, οὐ δηλώσας τὴν Εὐρυσθέως ἐπιταγήν, 
ἔφασκε μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ τὴν ὄνθον ἐκφορήσειν, εἰ δώσει 
τὴν δεκάτην αὐτῷ τῶν βοσκημάτων. Αὐγείας δὲ 
ἀπιστῶν ὑπισχνεῖται. μαρτυράμενος ὃ δὲ Ἥρα- 
κλῆς τὸν Αὐγείου παῖδα Φυλέα, τῆς τε αὐλῆς τὸν 
θεμέλιον διεῖλε καὶ τὸν ᾿Αλφειὸν καὶ τὸν Πηνειὸν 


1 Φόλος Se. . . θάψας αὐτὸν. This passage has been 
emended by Wagner from the Vatican Epitome (E). In 
the MSS. of Apollodorus (A) it runs as follows : ἐπανελθὼν 
δὲ εἰς Φολόην Ἡρακλῆς καὶ Φόλον τελευτῶντα θεασάμενος μετὰ 
καὶ ἄλλων πολλῶν, ἑλκύσας ἐκ νεκροῦ τὸ βέλος ἐθαύμαζεν, εἰ 
τοὺς τηλικούτους τὸ μικρὸν διέφθειρε" τὸ δὲ τῆς χειρὸς ὀλισθῆσαν 
ἦλθον ἐπὶ τὸν παῖδα καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν. θάψας δὲ 
Φόλον Ἡρακλῆς. 

3 εἰσωθήσας E: omitted in A. Compare Wagner, Epitome 
Vaticana, Pp. 100 sq.; and for the late form of the aorist 
(εἰσωθήσας for εἰσώσας), see Veitch, Greek Verbs (Oxford, 
1879), p. 715. 


194 


THE LIBRARY, 11. v. 4-5 


hid them in a mountain. But Pholus, drawing the 
arrow from a corpse, wondered that so litttle a 
thing could kill such big fellows; howbeit, it slipped 
from his hand and lighting on his foot killed him on 
the spot.! So when Hercules returned to Pholoe, he 
beheld Pholus dead; and he buried him and pro- 
ceeded to the boar-hunt. And when he had chased 
the boar with shouts from a certain thicket, he drove 
the exhausted animal into deep snow, trapped it, and 
brought it to Mycenae. 

The fifth labour he laid on him was to carry out 
the dung of the cattle of Augeas in a single day.” 
Now Augeas was king of Elis; some say that he was 
a son of the Sun, others that he was a son of Posei- 
don, and others that he was a son of Phorbas; and 
he had many herds of cattle. Hercules accosted him, 
and without revealing the command of Eurystheus, 
said that he would carry out the dung in one day, 
if Augeas would give him the tithe of the cattle. 
Augeas was incredulous, but promised. Having taken 
Augeas's son Phyleus to witness, Hercules made a 
breach in the foundations of the cattle-yard, and then, 
diverting the courses of the Alpheus and Peneus, 


1 Compare Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 294. 

2 As to Augeas and his cattle-stalls, see Theocritus, xxv. 
7 8qq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 3; Pausanias, v. 1. 9 sq.; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 278 sqq. (who seems to follow Apollo- 
dorus); Scholiast on Homer, Jl. ii. 629, xi. 700; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 172; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 
According to the rationalistic Pausanias, the name of the 
father of Augeas was Eleus (Hletos), which was popularly 
corrupted into Helios, ‘‘Sun ” ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 


3 paprupduevos E, Pediasmus, De Herculis laboribus, 5: 
μαρτυρούμενος A. 
195 
o 2 


[2] 


APOLLODORUS 


σύνεγγυς ῥέοντας παροχετεύσας ἐπήγαγεν, ἔκρουν 
δι’ ἄλλης ἐξόδου ποιήσας. μαθὼν δὲ Αὐγείας ὅτι 
κατ᾽ ἐπιταγὴν Εὐρυσθέως τοῦτο ἐπιτετέλεσται, 
τὸν μισθὸν οὐκ ἀπεδίδου, προσέτι δ᾽ ἠρνεῖτο καὶ 
μισθὸν ὑποσχέσθαι δώσειν, καὶ κρίνεσθαι περὶ 
τούτον ἕτοιμος ἔλεγεν εἶναι. καθεζομένων δὲ τῶν 
δικαστῶν κληθεὶς ὁ Φυλεὺς ὑπὸ Ἡρακλέους τοῦ 
πατρὸς κατεμαρτύρησεν, εἰπὼν ὁμολογῆσαι μισ- 
θὸν δώσειν αὐτῷ. ὀργισθεὶς δὲ Αὐγείας, πρὶν 
τὴν ψῆφον ἐνεχθῆναι, τόν τε Φυλέα καὶ τὸν 
Ἡρακλέα βαδίζειν ἐξ "Ἤλιδος ἐκέλευσε. Φυλεὺς 
μὲν οὖν εἰς Δουλίχιον ἦλθε κἀκεῖ κατῴκει, ‘Hpa- 
κλῆς δὲ εἰς "Ὥλενον πρὸς Δεξαμενὸν ἧκε, καὶ 
κατέλαβε τοῦτον μέλλοντα δι ἀνάγκην μνηστεύ- 
ey Ἐὐρυτίωνι Κενταύρῳ Μνησιμάχην τὴν θυγα- 
τέρα: ὑφ᾽ οὗ παρακληθεὶς βοηθεῖν ἐλθόντα ἐπὶ 
τὴν νύμφην Εὐρυτίωνα ἀπέκτεινεν. Εὐρυσθεὺς 
δὲ οὐδὲ τοῦτον ἐν τοῖς δέκα προσεδέξατο τὸν 
ἄθλον, λέγων ἐπὶ μισθῷ πεπρᾶχθαι. 

"Extov ἐπέταξεν ἦθλον αὐτῷ τὰς Στυμφαλίδας 
ὄρνιθας ἐκδιῶξαι. ἦν δὲ ἐν Στυμφάλῳ πόλει τῆς 
᾿Αρκαδίας Στυμφαλὶς λεγομένη λίμνη, πολλῇ 
συνηρεφὴς ὕλῃ" εἰς ταύτην ὄρνεις συνέφυγον 


1 δέκα Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: δώδεκα EA, Pediasmus, 
De Herculis laboribus, 5. 
3 πεπρᾶχθαι KE, Wagner. The MSS. appear to read πεπρα- 


xévat, and so Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker and 
Hercher. 


1 Compare Homer, 1). ii. 629, with the Scholiast ; Pausa- 
nias, v. 1. 10, v. 3. 1 and 3. 

3 Compare Bacchylides, referred to by the Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 295; Bacchylides, ed. R. C. Jebb, p. 430; 
anette Siculus, iv. 33. 1; Pausanias, vii. 18. 1; Hyginus, 


196 











THE LIBRARY, II. v. 5-6 


which flowed near each other, he turned them into 
the yard, having first made an outlet for the water 
through another opening. When Augeas learned 
that this had been accomplished at the command of 
Eurystheus, he would not pay the reward ; nay more, 
he denied that he had promised to pay it, and on 
that point he professed himself ready to submit to 
arbitration. The arbitrators having taken their seats, 
Phyleus was called by Hercules and bore witness 
against his father, affirming that he had agreed to 
give him a reward. In a rage Augeas, before the 
voting took place, ordered both Phyleus and Hercules 
to pack out of Elis. So Phyleus went to Dulichium 
and dwelt there,' and Hercules repaired to Dexa- 
menus at Olenus.?, He found Dexamenus on the 
point of betrothing perforce his daughter Mnesimache 
to the centaur Eurytion, and, being called upon by 
him for help, he slew Eurytion when that centaur 
came to fetch his bride. But Eurystheus would not 
admit this labour either among the ten, alleging 
that it had been performed for hire. 

The sixth labour he enjoined on him was to chase 
away the Stymphalian birds.2 Now at the city of 
Stymphalus in Arcadia was the lake called Stympha- 
lian, embosomed in a deep wood. To it countless 


? As to the Stymphalian birds, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. ii. 1052-1057, with the Scholiast on 1054; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 13. 2; Strabo, viii. 6. 8, p. 371 ; Pausaniag, viii. 
22. 4; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 227 8qq.; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, ii. 291 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 20 and 30; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300. These fabulous birds were 
said to shoot their feathers like arrows. Compare D’Arcy 
Wentworth Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds, p. 162. 
From the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i.c.) we learn 
that the use of a brazen rattle to frighten the birds was 
mentioned both by Pherecydes and Hellanicus. 


197 





APOLLODORUS 


ἄπλετοι, THY ἀπὸ τῶν λύκων ἁρπαγὴν δεδοικυῖαι. 

A e a A 
ἀμηχανοῦντος οὖν Ἡρακλέους πῶς ἐκ τῆς ὕλης 
τὰς ὄρνιθας ἐκβάλῃ, χάλκεα κρόταλα δίδωσιν 
αὐτῷ ᾿Αθηνᾶ παρὰ Ηφαίστου λαβοῦσα. ταῦτα 
κρούων ἐπί τινος ὄρους τῇ λίμνῃ παρακειμένου 
τὰς ὄρνιθας ἐφόβει: αἱ δὲ τὸν δοῦπον οὐχ ὗπο- 
μένουσαι μετὰ δέους ἀνίπταντο, καὶ τοῦτον τὸν 
τρόπον Ἡρακλῆς ἐτόξευσεν αὐτάς. 

ὝἝβδομον ἐπέταξεν ἄθλον τὸν Κρῆτα ἀγαγεῖν 
ταῦρον. τοῦτον ᾿Ακουσίλαος μὲν εἰναί φησι τὸν 
διαπορθμεύσαντα Εὐρώπην Διί, τινὲς δὲ τὸν ὑπὸ 
Ποσειδῶνος ἀναδοθέντα ἐκ θαλάσσης, ὅτε κατα- 
θύσειν Ποσειδῶνι Μίνως εἶπε τὸ φανὲν ἐκ τῆς 
θαλάσσης. καί φασι θεασάμενον αὐτὸν τοῦ 

4 N 4 a \ 3 ’ 
ταύρου τὸ κάλλος τοῦτον μὲν εἰς τὰ βουκόλια 
ἀποπέμψαι, θῦσαι δὲ ἄλλον Ποσειδῶνε' ἐφ᾽ οἷς 
ὀργισθέντα τὸν θεὸν ἀγριῶσαι τὸν ταῦρον. ἐπὶ 
τοῦτον παραγενόμενος εἰς Κρήτην Ἡρακλῆς, 
ἐπειδὴ συλλαβεῖν ’ ἀξιοῦντι Μίνως εἶπεν αὐτῷ 
λαμβάνειν διαγωνισαμένῳ, λαβὼν καὶ δ πρὸς Ev- 
ρυσθέα διακομίσας ἔδειξε, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν εἴασεν 
ΝΜ e \ 3 6 4 A 
ἄνετον: ὁ δὲ πλανηθεὶς eis® Σπάρτην τε καὶ 
᾿Αρκαδίαν ἅπασαν, καὶ διαβὰς τὸν ᾿Ισθμόν, εἰς 

1 ἐπί E, Pediasmus, De Herculis laboribus, 6: ὑπό A. 

2 παρακειμένου E, Pediasmus, De Hercults laboribus, 6: 
περικειμένον A. 

3 ἀποπέμψαι I: ἀποπέμπειν A. + συλλαβεῖν E: λαβεῖν A. 

5 λαβὼν καὶ KE: καὶ λαβὼν A. 

δ εἰς E, but apparently absent in A: ἀνὰ Heyne, who, 


however, would prefer to omit Σπάρτην re καὶ ᾿Αρκαδίαν 
ἅπασαν as an interpolation. 





1 In no other ancient account of the Stymphalian birds, 
so far as I know, are wolves mentioned. There is perhaps 


198 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 6-7 


birds had flocked for refuge, fearing to be preyed 
upon by the wolves.! So when Hercules was at 
a loss how to drive the birds from the wood, Athena 
gave him brazen castanets, which she had received 
from Hephaestus. By clashing these on a certain 
mountain that overhung the lake, he scared the 
birds. They could not abide the sound, but fluttered 
up in a fright, and in that way Hercules shot 
them. 

The seventh labour he enjoined on him was to 
bring the Cretan Bull.? Acusilaus says that this was 
the bull that ferried across Europa for Zeus; but some 
say it was the bull that Poseidon sent up from the sea 
when Minos promised to sacrifice to Poseidon what 
should appear out of the sea. And they say that 
when he saw the beauty of the bull he sent it away 
to the herds and sacrificed another to Poseidon; at 
which the god was angry and made the bull savage. 
To attack this bull Hercules came to Crete, and 
when, in reply to his request for aid, Minos told him 
to fight and catch the bull for himself, he caught it 
and brought it to Eurystheus, and having shown it 
to him he let it afterwards go free. But the bull 
roamed to Sparta and all Arcadia, and traversing the 


a reminiscence of an ancient legend in the name of the 
Wolf's Ravine, which is still given to the deep glen, between 
immense pine-covered slopes, through which the road runs 
south-westward from Styinphalus to Orchomenus. The glen 
forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape to anyone 
seated on the site of the ancient city and looking across the 
clear shallow water of the lake to the high mountains that 
bound the valley on the south. See my commentary on 
Pausanias, vol. iv. p. 269. 

2 As to the Cretan bull see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 4; 
Pausanias, i. 27. 9 sq., v.10.9; J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, ii. 298-- 
298 (who seems to follow Apollodorus) ; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 


199 


APOLLODORUS 


Μαραθῶνα τῆς ᾿Αττικῆς ἀφικόμενος τοὺς ἐγχω- 
ρίους διελυμαίνετο. 

"Oydoov ἄθλον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τὰς Διομήδους 
τοῦ Θρᾳκὸς ἵππους εἰς Μυκήνας κομίζειν" ἦν δὲ 


οὗτος “Apeos καὶ Κυρήνης, βασιλεὺς Βιστόνων. 


Ν ld Ἁ 4 A > 
ἔθνους Θρᾳκίου καὶ μαχιμωτάτου, εἶχε δὲ ἀνθρω- 
ποφάγους ἵππους. πλεύσας οὖν μετὰ τῶν ἑκου- 
σίως συνεπομένων καὶ βιασάμενος τοὺς ἐπὶ ταῖς 
φάτναις τῶν ἵππων ὑπάρχοντας ἤγαγεν ἐπὶ τὴν 
θάλασσαν. τῶν δὲ Βιστόνων σὺν ὅπλοις ἐπι- 
βοηθούντων τὰς μὲν ἵππους παρέδωκεν Αβδήρῳ' 
φυλάσσειν: οὗτος δὲ ἦν Ἑρμοῦ παῖς, Λοκρὸς ἐξ 
Ὀποῦντος, Ἣρακλέους ἐρώμενος, ὃν αἱ ἵπποι 
διέφθειραν ἐπισπασάμεναιΣ" πρὸς δὲ τοὺς Bi- 
στονας διαγωνισάμενος καὶ Διομήδην ἀποκτείνας 
τοὺς λοιποὺς ἠνάγκασεϑ φεύγειν, καὶ κτίσας 
πόλιν “ABSnpa*t παρὰ τὸν τάφον τοῦ διαφθα- 

1 ᾿Αβδήρῳ, E: αὐδήρῳ or ἀνδήρῳ A, Pediasmus, De Herciuis 
laborihua, 8 

3 For ἐπισπασάμεναι we should perhaps read διασπασάμεναι, 
‘‘by tearing him in pieces.” The mares were man-eating. 

ς ἠνάγκασε KEK, Pediasmus, De Herculss luboribus, 8: ἡνάγ- 
καζε A, 

4 ἄβδηρα E, Wagner: ἄνδηρον A: “ABSnpoyv Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miller, Bekker, Hercher. 


1 As to the man-eating mares of Diomedes, see Diodorus 
. Siculus, iv. 15. 3 8ᾳ.; Philostratus, Imagines, ii. 25 ; Quintus 
Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 245 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii. 299-308 (who seems to follow Apollodorus, except that he 
speaks of the animals in the masculine as horses, not mares); 
Strabo, vii. p. 331, frags. 44 and 47, ed. A. Meineke; Stepha- 
nus Byzantius, 8.0. “ASdnpa ; Hyginus, Fab. 30 (who gives 
the names of four horses, not mares). According to Diodorus 
Siculus (l.c.), Hercules killed the Thracian king Diomedes 
himself by exposing him to his own mares, which devoured 


200 











THE LIBRARY, II. v. 7-8 


Isthmus arrived at Marathon in Attica and harried 
the inhabitants. 

The eighth labour he enjoined on him was to bring 
the mares of Diomedes the Thracian to Mycenae.! 
Now this Diomedes was a son of Ares and Cyrene, 
and he was king of the Bistones, a very war-like 
Thracian people, and he owned man-eating mares. So 
Hercules sailed with a band of volunteers, and having 
overpowered the grooms who were in charge of the 
mangers, he drove the mares to the sea. When the 
Bistones in arms came to the rescue, he committed 
the mares to the guardianship of Abderus, who was 
a son of Hermes, a native of Opus in Locris, and a 
minion of Hercules; but the mares killed him by 
dragging him after them. But Hercules fought against 
the Bistones, slew Diomedes and compelled the rest 
to flee. And he founded a city Abdera beside the 
grave of Abderus who had been done to death,’ 


him. Further, the historian tells us that when Hercules 
brought the mares to Eurystheus, the king dedicated them 
to Hera, and that their descendants existed down to the time 
of Alexander the Great. 

2 Compare Strabo, vii. p. 531, frags. 44 and 47, ed. A. 
Meineke; Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. “ABdnpa; Philostratus, 
Imagines, ii.25. From Philostratus we learn that athletic 
games were celebrated in honour of Abderus. They com- 
prised boxing, wrestling, the pancratium, and all the other 
usual contests, with the exception of horse-racing—no 
doubt because Abderus was said to have been killed by 
horses. We may compare the rule which excluded horses 
from the Arician grove, because horses were said to have 
killed Hippolytus, with whom Virbius, the traditionary 
founder of the sanctuary, was identified. See Virgil, Aen. 
vii. 761-780 ; Ovid, Fastt, iii. 265 sg. When we remember 
that the Thracian king Lycurgus is said to have been killed 
by horses in order to restore the fertility of the land (see 
Apollodorus, iii. 5. 1), we may conjecture that the tradition 


201 


APOLLODORUS 


pévros ᾿Αβδήρου, τὰς ἵππους κομίσας Evpucbet 

δωκε. μεθέντος δὲ αὐτὰς Evpvabéws, εἰς τὸ 
λεγόμενον ὄρος ᾽λυμπον ἐλθοῦσαι πρὸς τῶν 
θηρίων ἀπώλοντο. 

Ἔνατον ἄθλον ἫἩ ρακλεῖ ἐπέταξε ζωστῆ 
κομίζειν τὸν ἽἹππολύτης. αὕτη δὲ ἐβασίλευεν 
᾿Αμαζόνων, al κατῴκουν περὶ τὸν Θερμώδοντα 
ποταμόν, ἔθνος μέγα τὰ κατὰ πόλεμον ἤσκουν 
γὰρ ἀνδρίαν, καὶ εἴ ποτε μιγεῖσαι γεννήσειαν, τὰ 
θήλεα ἔτρεφον, καὶ τοὺς μὲν δεξιοὺς μαστοὺς 
ἐξέθλιβον, ἵνα μὴ κωλύωνται ἀκοντίζειν, τοὺς δὲ 
ἀριστεροὺς εἴων, iva τρέφοιεν. εἶχε δὲ ἱππολύτη 
tov "Apeos ζωστῆρα, σύμβολον τοῦ πρωτεύειν 
ἁπασῶν. ἐπὶ τοῦτον τὸν ζωστῆρα Ἡρακλῆς 
ἐπέμπετο, λαβεῖν αὐτὸν ἐπιθυμούσης τῆς Ἐύρυσ- 
θέως θυγατρὸς ᾿Αδμήτης. παραλαβὼν οὖν ἐθε- 
λοντὰς συμμάχους ἐν μιᾷ νηὶ ἔπλει,5 καὶ προσί- 
σχει νήσῳ Πάρῳ, ἣν ὃ κατῴκουν οἱ Μίνωος υἱοὶ 
Εὐρυμέδων Χρύσης Νηφαλίων Φιλόλαος. ἀπο- 
βάντων“ δὲ δύο τῶν ἐν «τῇ; ὃ νηὶ συνέβη τελευ- 
τῆσαι ὑπὸ τῶν Μίνωος υἱῶν: ὑπὲρ ὧν ἀγανακτῶν 
1 sas ER: τοὺς A. 2 πλεῖ E. 3 fy Faber: καὶ A. 

4 ἀποβάντων Heyne: ἀπὸ πάντων A. δὃ τῇ added by Bekker. 


of the man-eating mares of Diomedes, another Thracian king 
who is said to have been killed by horses, points to a custom 
of human sacrifice performed by means of horses, whether 
the victim was trampled to death by their hoofs or tied to 
their tails and rent asunder. If the sacrifice was offered, as 
the legend of Lycurgus suggests, for the sake of fertilizing 
the ground, the reason for thus cal the victim to pieces 
may have been to scatter the precious ife giving fragments 
as widely and as quickly as possible over the barren earth. 
Compare Adonis, Attis, Osiris*, ii. 97 sqq. The games at 


202 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 8-9 


and bringing the mares he gave them to Eurystheus. 
But Eurystheus let them go, and they came to Mount 
Olympus, as it is called, and there they were de- 
stroyed by the wild beasts. 

The ninth labour he enjoined on Hercules was to 
bring the belt of Hippolyte.1_ She was queen of the 
Amazons, who dwelt about the river Thermodon, a 
people great in war; for they cultivated the manly 
virtues, and if ever they gave birth to children 
through intercourse with the other sex, they reared 
the females ; and they pinched off the right breasts 
that they might not be trammelled by them in throw- 
ing the javelin, but they kept the left breasts, that they 
might suckle. Now Hippolyte had the belt of Ares 
in token of her superiority to all the rest. Hercules 
was sent to fetch this belt because Admete, daughter 
of Eurystheus, desired to get it. So taking with hima 
band of volunteer comrades in a single ship he set 
sail and put in to the island of Paros, which was in- 
habited by the sons of Minos,? to wit, Eurymedon, 
Chryses, Nephalion, and Philolaus. But it chanced 
that two of those in the ship landed and were killed 
by the sons of Minos. Indignant at this, Hercules 
Abdera are alluded to by the poet Machon, quoted by 
Athenaeus, viii. 41, p. 349 B. 

1 As to the expedition of Hercules to fetch the belt of the 
Amazon, see Euripides, Hercules Furens, 408 sqq.; Apollonius 
rena Argon. ii. 777 8qq., 966 sqq., with the Scholia on 

778, 780; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 16; Pausanias, v. 10. 9 ; 
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 240 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, 


Chiliades, ii. 309 sqq.; td. Schol. on Lycophron, 1327 (who 
follows Apollodorus and cites him by name); Hyginus, 
Fab. 30. 


3 According to Diodorus Siculus (v. 79. 2), Rhadamanthys 
bestowed the island of Paros on his son Alcaeus. Combined 
with the evidence of Apollodorus, the tradition points to a 
Cretan colony in Paros.; 


203 


APOLLODORUS 


Ἡρακλῆς τούτους μὲν παραχρῆμα ἀπέκτεινε, 
τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς κατακλείσας ἐπολιόρκει, ἕως 
ἐπιπρεσβευσάμενοι παρεκάλουν ἀντὶ τῶν ἀναερε- 
θέντων δύο λαβεῖν, ods ἂν αὐτὸς θελήσειεν. ὁ 
δὲ λύσας τὴν πολιορκίαν, καὶ τοὺς ᾿Ανδρόγεω τοῦ 
Μίνωος υἱοὺς ἀνελόμενος ᾿Αλκαῖον καὶ Σθένελον, 
ἧκεν εἰς Μυσίαν πρὸς Λύκον τὸν Δασκύλου, καὶ 
ξενισθεὶς ὑπὸϊ ... τοῦ Βεβρύκων βασιλέως 
συμβαλόντων, βοηθῶν Λύκῳ πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινε, 
μεθ᾽ ὧν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα Μύγδονα, ἀδελφὸν 
᾿Αμύκου. καὶ τῆς " Βεβρύκων πολλὴν ὃ ἀποτεμό- 
μενος γῆν ἔδωκε Λύκῳ" ὁ δὲ πᾶσαν ἐκείνην ἐκά- 
λεσεν Ἢ ράκλειαν. 

,Καταπλεύσαντος δὲ εἰς τὸν ἐν Θεμισκύρᾳ λι- 
μένα, παραγενομένης eis* αὐτὸν Ἱππολύτης καὶ 
τίνος ἧκοι χάριν πυθομένης, καὶ δώσειν τὸν 
ζωστῆρα t ὑποσχομένης," Ἥρα μιᾷ τῶν ᾿Αμαζόνων 
εἰκασθεῖσα τὸ πλῆθος ἐπεφοίτα, λέγουσα ὅτιδ 
τὴν βασιλίδα ἀφαρπάζουσινἶ οἱ προσελθόντες 
ξένοι. αἱ δὲ μεθ᾽ ὅπλων ἐπὶ τὴν ναῦν κατέθεον 
σὺν ἵπποις .ὃ8 ὡς δὲ εἶδεν αὐτὰς καθωπλισμένας 
‘H Ιρακλῆς, νομίσας ἐκ δόλου τοῦτο γενέσθαι, τὴν 
μὲν “ἹἽππολύτην κτείνας τὸν ζωστῆρα ἀφαιρεῖται, 
πρὸς δὲ τὰς λοιπὰς ἀγωνισάμενος ἀποπλεῖ, καὶ 
προσίσχει Τροίᾳ. 

Συνεβεβήκει δὲ τότε κατὰ μῆνιν ᾿Απόλλωνος 
καὶ Ποσειδῶνος ἀτυχεῖν τὴν πόλιν. ᾿Απόλλων 


1 The passage is corrupt and defective. Heyne proposed 
to correct and supp! y it as follows: καὶ ξενισθεὶς ὑπ᾽ «-- αὐτοῦ,» 
τοῦ Βεβρύκων βασιλέως εἰσβαλόντος «εἰς τὴν γῆν,» βοηθῶν. 
Sommer conjectured ὑπ᾽ - αὐτοῦ, τούτου δὲ καὶ; τοῦ Βεβρύκων 
βασιλέως συμβαλόντων. 

2 τῆς Wagner: τὴν A. 3 πολλὴν Heyne: πόλιν A. 


204 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 9 


killed the sons of Minos on the spot and besieged 
the rest closely, till they sent envoys to request that 
in the room of the murdered men he would take 
two, whom he pleased. So he raised the siege, and 
taking on board the sons of Androgeus, son of Minos, 
to wit, Alcaeus and Sthenelus, he came to Mysia, to 
the court of Lycus, son of Dascylus, and was enter- 
tained by him; and in a battle between him and 
the king of the Bebryces Hercules sided with 
Lycus and slew many, amongst others King Mygdon, 
brother of Amycus. And he took much land from 
the Bebryces and gave it to Lycus, who called it all 
Heraclea. 

Having put in at the harbour of Themiscyra, he 
received a visit from Hippolyte, who inquired why he 
was come, and promised to give him the belt. But 
Hera in the likeness of an Amazon went up and 
down the multitude saying that the strangers who had 
arrived were carrying off the queen. So the Amazons 
in arms charged on horseback down on the ship. 
But when Hercules saw them in arms, he suspected 
treachery, and killing Hippolyte stripped her of her 
belt. And after fighting the rest he sailed away and 
touched at Troy. 

But it chanced that the city was then in distress con- 
sequently on the wrath of Apollo and Poseidon. For 


4 eis K, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 1327: ὡς A. 

5 ὑποσχομένης Pediasmus (De Herculis laboribus, 9), Her- 
cher, Wagner : ὑπισχνουμένης EA. | 

ὁ ὅτι Εἰ, absent apparently in A. 

7 ἀφαρπάζουσιν ER: ἁρπάζουσιν A. 

8 σὺν ἵπποις omitted by Hercher, 


205 


APOLLODORUS 


yap καὶ Ποσειδῶν τὴν Λαομέδοντος ὕβρεν πειρά- 
σαι θέλοντες, εἰκασθέντες ἀνθρώποις ὑπέσχοντο 
ἐπὶ μισθῷ τειχιεῖν τὸ Πέργαμον. τοῖς δὲ τει- 


’᾽ ‘ 


χίσασι τὸν μισθὸν οὐκ ἀπεδίδου. διὰ τοῦτο 
Απόλλων μὲν λοιμὸν ἔπεμψε, Ποσειδῶν δὲ κῆτος 
ἀναφερόμενον ὑπὸ πλημμυρίδος, ὃ τοὺς ἐν τῷ 
πεδίῳ συνήρπαζεν ἀνθρώπους. χρησμῶν δὲ λε- 
γόντων ἀπαλλαγὴν ἔσεσθαι τῶν συμφορῶν, ἐὰν 
προθῇ! Λαομέδων “Horovny τὴν θνγατέρα αὐτοῦ 
τῷ κήτει βοράν, οὗτος" προύθηκε ταῖς πλησίον 
τῆς θαλάσσης πέτραις προσαρτήσας. ταύτην 


1 προθῇ Εἰ : προσθῇ A. 
2 τῷ κήτει βοράν, οὗτος Εἰ : βορὰν κήτει, 6 δὲ A. 


1 Compare Homer, Il. vii. 452 8ᾳ., xxi. 441-457. According 
to the former of these passages, the walls of Troy were built 
by Poseidon and Apollo jointly for king Laomedon. But 
according to the latter passage the walls were built by 
Poseidon alone, and while he thus toiled as a mason, Apollo 
served as a herdsman, tending the king’s cattle in the wooded 
glens of Ida. Their period of service lasted for a year, and 
at the end of it the faithless king not only dismissed the two 
deities without the stipulated wages which they had honestly 
earned, but threatened that, if they did not take themselves 
off, he would tie Apollo hand and foot and sell him for a slave 
in the islands, not however before he had lopped off the ears 
of both of them with a knife. Thus insulted as well as robbed, 
the two gods retired with wrath and indignation at their 
hearts. This strange tale, told by Homer, is alluded to by 
Pindar (Olymp. viii. 30 (40) sgq.), who adds to it the detail 
that the two gods took the hero Aeacus with them to aid 
them in the work of fortification; and the Scholiast on 
Pindar (pp. 194 sg. ed. Boeckh) explains that, as Troy was 
fated to be captured, it was necessary that in building the 
walls the immortals should be assisted by a mortal, else the 
city would have been impregnable. The sarcastic Lucian 
tells us (De sacrificiis, 4) that both Apollo and Poseidon 
laboured as bricklayers at the walls of Troy, and that the 
sum of which the king cheated them was more than thirty 


206 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 9 


desiring to put the wantonness of Laomedon to the 
proof, Apollo and Poseidon assumed the likeness ot 
men and undertook to fortify Pergamum for wages. 
But when they had fortified it, he would not pay 
them their wages.1 Therefore Apollo sent a pest- 
ilence, and Poseidon a sea monster, which, carried 
up by a flood, snatched away the people of the 
plain. But as oracles foretold deliverance from these 
calamities if Laomedon would expose his daughter 
Hesione to be devoured by the sea monster, he ex- 
posed her by fastening her to the rocks near the sea.” 


Trojan drachmas. The fraud is alluded to by Virgil (Georg. 
i. 502) and Horace (Odes, iii. 3. 21 sq.). Compare Hyginus, 
Fab. 89; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 194 sqq.; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 157; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. PP. 43 eq., 138 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 136; Second Vatican Mythographer, 193). Homer 

oes not explain why Apollo and Poseidon took service with 
Laomedon, but his Scholiast (on Jl. xxi. 444), in agreement 
with Tzetzes (Schol. on Lycophron, 34), says that their 
service was a punishment inflicted on them by Zeus for a 
conspiracy into which some of the gods had entered for the 
purpose of putting him, the supreme god, in bonds. The 
conspiracy 15 mentioned by Homer (Jl. i. 399 eqq.), who 
names Poseidon, Hera, and Athena, but not Apollo, among 
the conspirators ; their nefarious design was defeated by the 
intervention of Thetis and the hundred-handed giant Bri- 
areus. We have already heard of Apollo serving a man in 
the capacity of neatherd as a punishment for murder per- 
petrated by the deity (see above, i. 9. 15, with the note). 
These backstair chronicles of Olympus shed a curious light 
on the early Greek conception of divinity. 

2 For the story of the rescue of Hesione by Hercules, see 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 42; Scholiast on Homer, JI. xx. 146; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 34; Ovid, Metamorph. 
xi. 211 sgq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon. ii. 451 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 89; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 157; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 44 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 136). A curious variant 


207 





APOLLODORUS 


ἰδὼν ἐκκειμένην Ἡρακλῆς ὑπέσχετο σώσειν, εἰ 
τὰς ἵππους παρὰ Λαομέδοντος λήψεται ἃς Ζεὺς 
ποινὴν τῆς Γανυμήδους ἁρπαγῆς ἔδωκε. δώσειν 
δὲ Λαομέδοντος εἰπόντος, κτείνας τὸ κῆτος ‘Hoto- 
νην ἔσωσε. μὴ βουλομένου δὲ τὸν μισθὸν ἀπο- 
δοῦναι, πολεμήσειν Τροίᾳ" ἀπειλήσας ἀνήχθη. 
Καὶ προσίσχει Αἴνῳ, ἔνθα ξενίζεται ὑπὸ Πόλ- 
Tuos. ἀποπλέων δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς ἠιόνος τῆς Αἰνίας 
Σαρπηδόνα, Ποσειδῶνος μὲν υἱὸν ἀδελφὸν δὲ 
Πόλτυος, ὑβριστὴν ὄντα τοξεύσας ἀπέκτεινε. 
καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Θάσον καὶ χειρωσάμενος 
τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας Θρᾷκας ἔδωκε τοῖς ᾿Ανδρόγεω 
παισὶ κατοικεῖν. ἐκ Θάσου δὲ ὁρμηθεὶς ἐπὶ Το- 
ρώνην Πολύγονον καὶ Τηλέγονον, τοὺς Πρωτέως 
τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος υἱούς, παλαίειν προκαλουμένους 
κατὰ τὴν πάλην ἀπέκτεινε. κομίσας δὲ τὸν 
ζωστῆρα εἰς Μυκήνας ἔδωκεν ἙΕϊὐρυσθεῖ. 


1 σώσειν E: σώσειν αὐτὴν A. 3 Τροίᾳ E: Τροίαν A. 


of the story is told, without mention of Hesione, by the 
Second Vatican Mythographer (Fab. 193, vol. i. p. 138, 
ed. G. H. Bode). Tzetzes says that Hercules, in full armour, 
lea into the jaws of the sea-monster, and was in its 
belly for three days hewing and hacking it, and that at 
the end of the three days he came forth without any hair 
on his head. The Scholiast on Homer (l.c.) tells the tale 
similarly, and refers to Hellanicus as his authority. The 
story of Hercules and Hesione corresponds closely to that of. 
Perseus and Andromeda (see Apollodorus, ii. 4. 3). Both 
tales may have originated in a custom of sacrificing maidens 
to be the brides of theSea. Compare The Magtc Art and the 
Evolution of Kings, ii. 150 qq. 

1 The horses were given by Zeus to Tros, the father of 
Ganymede. See Homer, Jl. v. 265 sqq.; Homeric Hymn to 
Aphrodite, 210 sq.; Pausanias, v. 24. 5. According to 


208 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. 9 


Seeing her exposed, Hercules promised to save 
her on condition of receiving from Laomedon the 
mares which Zeus had given in compensation for the 
rape of Ganymede.! On Laomedon’s saying that 
he would give them, Hercules killed the monster 
and saved Hesione. But when Laomedon would not 
give the stipulated reward,? Hercules put to sea 
after threatening to make war on Troy.? 

And he touched at Aenus, where he was entertained 
by Poltys. And as he was sailing away he shot and 
killed on the Aenian beach a lewd fellow, Sarpedon, 
son of Poseidon and brother of Poltys. And having 
come to Thasos and subjugated the Thracians who 
dwelt in the island, he gave it to the sons of Andro- 
geus to dwell in. From Thasos he proceeded to 
Torone, and there, being challenged to wrestle by 
Polygonus and Telegonus, sons of Proteus, son of 
Poseidon, he killed them in the wrestling match.‘ 
And having brought the belt to Mycenae he gave it 
to Eurystheus. 


another account, which had the mee a of a Cyclic poet, the 
compensation given to the bereaved father took the shape, 
not of horses, but of a golden vine wrought by Hephaestus. 
See Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes. 1391. As the duty of 
Ganymede was to pour the red nectar from a gulden bowl in 
heaven (Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, 206), there would be 
a certain suitability in the bestowal of a golden vine to replace 
him in his earthly home. : 

2 As to the refusal of Laomedon to give the horses to 
Hercules, see Homer, 11. v. 638-651, xxi. 441-457; Ovid, 
Metamorph. xi. 213 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 69. Laomedon twice 
broke his word, first to Poseidon and Apollo and afterwards 
to Hercules. Hence Ovid speaks of ‘‘the twice-perjured 
walls of Troy ” (Metamorph. xi. 215). 

8 As to the siege and capture of Troy by Hercules, see 
below, ii. 6. 4. 

4 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 320 aq. 


20y 
VOL. I. P 


10 


APOLLODORUS 


Δέκατον éretdyn! ἄθλον τὰς Γηρυόνου Boas’ 
ἐξ ᾿Ερυθείας κομίζειν. ᾿Ερύθεια δὲ ἣν ᾽Ωκεανοῦ 
πλησίον κειμένη νῆσος, ἣ νῦν Γάδειρα καλεῖται. 
ταύτην κατῴκει Γηρυόνης Χρυσάορος καὶ ΚΚαλ- 
λιρρόης τῆς ᾿Ωκεανοῦ, τριῶν ἔχων ἀνδρῶν συμ- 
hues σῶμα, συνηγμένον εἰς ἕν κατὰ τὴν γαστέρα, 
ἐσχισμένον δὲ" εἰς τρεῖς ἀπὸ λαγόνων τε καὶ 
μηρῶν. εἶχε δὲ φοινικᾶς Boas, ὧν ἦν βουκόλος 
Εὐρυτίων, φύλαξ δὲ "Ορθοςδ ὁ κύων δικέφαλος ἐξ 
᾿Εχίδνης καὶ Τυφῶνος γεγεννημένος.5 πορευύ- 
μενος οὖν ἐπὶ τὰς Γηρυόνου Boas διὰ τῆς Εἰὐρώ- 
πης, ἄγρια πολλὰ «ξῷῴῷα; ἀνελὼν! Λιβύης ἐπέ- 
βαινε, καὶ παρελθὼν Ταρτησσὸν ἔστησε σημεῖα 
τῆς πορείας ἐπὶ τῶν ὅρων Εὐρώπης καὶ Λιβύης 


1 éwerdyn E: δὲ ἐτάγη A. 2 βόας Εἰ : βοῦς A. 

3 συνηγμένον μὲν Bekker. 4 δὲ Heyne: re A. 

5 Ὄρθος Pediasmus, De Herculis laboribus, 10: "Ὄρθρος A. 
See exegetical note on this passage. 

6 γεγενημένος BC. 

7 πόλλα <(ga> ἀνελὼν Wagner (comparing Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 17. 3): πόλλα παρελθὼν A. 

8 ἐπέβη Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 24 8, Hercher. 


1 As to Hercules and the cattle of Geryon, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 287-294, 979-983 ; Pindar, Frag. 169 (151), ed. Sandys ; 
Herodotus, iv. 8; Plato, Gorgtas, 39, p. 4848; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 17 sq.; Pausanias, iii. 18. 13, iv. 36. 3; Quintus 
Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 249 eqq.; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii. 322-352 (who seems to follow ἘΡΟΠΡΟ ΤΕ ; Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeus, p. 248; Pliny, Nat. Hist. iv. 120 ; Solinus, 
xxiii. 12; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300. 

2 Compare Herodotus, iv. 8; Strabo, iii. 2. 11, p. 148, 
iii. 5 4, p. 169; Pliny, Nat. Hist. iv. 120; Solinus, xxiii. 12. 
Gadira is Cadiz. According to Pliny (l.c.), the name is de- 
rived from a Punic word gadtr, meaning ‘‘ hedge.” Compare 
Dionysius, Perieg. 453 sqqg. The same word agadér is still 


210 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. to 


As a tenth labour he was ordered to fetch the kine 
of Geryon from Erythia.1 Now Erythia was an 
island near the ocean; it is now called Gadira.? 
This island was inhabited by Geryon, son of Chrysaor 
by Callirrhoe, daughter of Ocean. He had the body 
of three men grown together and joined in one at 
the waist, but parted in three from the flanks and 
thighs.= He owned red kine, of which Eurytion 
was the herdsman and Orthus,‘ the two-headed hound, 
begotten by Typhon on Echidna, was the watch-dog. 
So journeying through Europe to fetch the kine of 
Geryon he destroyed many wild beasts and set foot 
in Libya,® and proceeding to Tartessus he erected as 
tokens of his journey two pillars over against each 


used in the south of Morocco in the sense of ‘‘fortified house,” 
and many places in that country bear the name. Amongst 
them the port of Agadir is the best known. See E. Doutté, 
En tribu (Paris, 1914), pp. 50 sg. The other name of the 
island is given by Solinus (/.c.) in the form Erythrea, and by 
Mela (iii. 47) in the form Eythria. 

3 As to the triple form of Geryon, compare Hesiod, Theoy. 
287; Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 870; Euripides, Hercules 
Furens, 423 sq.; Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 245; 
Pausanias, v. 19. 1: Lucian, Toxaris, 62; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 652; Lucretius, v. 28; Horace, Odes, ii. 14. 
7 8q.; Virgil, Aen. vi. 289; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 184 sq.; 
Hyginus, fab. 30 and 151. 

4 The Messe name is variously given as Orthus (Orthos) 
and Orthrus ( ros). See Hesiod, . 293 (where Orthos 
seems to be the better reading); Quintus Smyrnaeus, Post- 
homertca, vi. 253 (Orthros) ; Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. i. 
13 (15) (Orthos) ; Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 248 (Orthros, 
go Stallbaum); J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 333 (Orthros) ; 
Pediasmus, De Herculis laboribus, 10 (Orthos); Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen. viii. 300 (Orthrus). 

5 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 17. 3 sg., who says that 
Hercules completely cleared Crete of wild beasts, and that he 
subdued many of the wild beasts in the deserts of Libya and 
rendered the land fertile and prosperous. 

aii 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀντιστοίχους δύο στήλας. Oepopevos! δὲ ὑπὸ 
Ἡλίου κατὰ τὴν πορείαν, τὸ τόξον ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν 
ἐνέτεινεν' ὁ δὲ τὴν ἀνδρείαν αὐτοῦ θαυμάσας 
χρύσεον ἔδωκε δέπας, ἐν ᾧ τὸν ᾿Ωκεανὸν διεπέ- 
pace. καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς ᾿Ερύθειαν ἐν ὄρει 
"ABavtt αὐλίζεται. αἰσθόμενος δὲ ὁ κύων ἐπ᾽ 
αὐτὸν ὥρμα' ὁ δὲ καὶ τοῦτον τῷ ῥοπάλῳ παΐει, 


1 θερόμενος R, Pediasmus, De Hercilis laboribus, 10: θερ- 
μαινόμενος A. 


1 The opinions of the ancients were much divided on the 
subject of the Pillars of Hercules. See Strabo, iii. 5. 5, 
pp. 169-172. The usual opinion apparently identified them 
with the rock of Calpe (Gibraltar) and the rock of Abyla, 
Abila, or Abylica (Ceuta) on the northern and southern sides 
of the straits. See Strabo, iii. 5. 5, p- 170; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 649; Pliny, Nat. Hist. iii. 4; Mela, i. 
27, ii. 95; Martianus Capella, vi. 624. Further, it seems to 
have been commonly supposed that before the time of Her- 
cules the two continents were here joined by an isthmus, and 
that the hero cut through the isthmus and so created the 
straits. See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 18. 5; Seneca, Hercules 
furens, 235 sqq.; 1d. Hercules Oetacus, 1240; Pliny, f.c.; Mela, 
i. 27; Martianus Capella, vi. 625. Some people, however, on the 
contrary, thought that the straits were formerly wider, and 
that Hercules narrowed them to prevent the monsters of the 
Atlantic ocean from bursting into the Mediterranean (Diodorus 
Siculus, l.c.). An entirely different opinion identified the 
Pillars of Hercules with two brazen pillars in the sanctuary 
of Hercules at Gadira (Cadiz), on which was engraved an 
inscription recording the cost of pune {Ὁ temple. See 
Strabo, iii. 5. 5, p. 170; compare Pliny, Nat. Η ἰδὲ. ii. 242, 
who speaks of ‘‘the columns of Hercules consecrated at 
Gadira.” For other references to the Pillars of Hercules, see 
Pindar, Olymp. iii. 43 sq., Nem. iii. 21, Isthm. iv. 11 8q.; 
Athenaeus, vii. 98, p. 315cp; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 339 
(who here calls the pillars Alybe and Abinna); Scholiast on 
Plato, Tumaeus, Ὁ. 248; Dionysius, Orbte Descriptio, 64-68, 
with the commentary of Eustathius (Geographt Graect 


212 



































THE LIBRARY, II. v. 10 


other at the boundaries of Europe and Libya.! But 
being heated by the Sun on his journey, he bent 
his bow at the god, who in admiration of his hardi- 
hood, gave him a golden goblet in which he crossed 
the ocean.?. And having reached Erythia he lodged 
on Mount Abas. However the dog, perceiving him, 
rushed at him; but he smote it with his club, and 


Minores, ed. C. Miiller, ii. pp. 107, 228). According to Eusta- 
thius (l.c.), Calpe was the name given to the rock of Gibraltar 
by the barbarians, but its Greek name was Alybe; and the 
rock of Ceuta was called Abenna by the barbarians but by 
the Greeks Cynegetica, that is, the Hunter’s Rock. He tells 
us further that the pillars were formerly named the Pillars 
of Cronus, and afterwards the Pillars of Briareus. 
? Apollodorus seems to be here following Pherecydes, as 
we learn from a passage which Athenaeus (xi. 39, p. 470 0D) 
uotes from the third book of Pherecydes as follows: ‘‘ And 
ercules drew his bow at him as if he would shoot, and the 
Sun bade him give over; so Hercules feared and gave over. 
And in return the Sun bestowed on him the golden goblet 
which carried him with his horses, when he set, through the 
Ocean all night to the east, where the Sun rises. Then 
Hercules journeyed in that goblet to Erythia. And when he 
was on the open sea, Ocean, to make trial of him, caused the 
goblet to heave wildly on the waves. Hercules was about to 
shoot him with an arrow; and the Ocean was afraid, and 
bade him give over.” Stesichorus described the Sun embark- 
ing in a golden goblet that he might cross the ocean in the 
darkness of night and come to his mother, his wedded wife, 
and children dear. See Athenaeus, xi. 38, p. 468 E; compare 
td. xi. 16, p. 781». The voyage of Hercules in the golden 
goblet was also related by the early poets Pisander and Pan- — 
yasis in the poems, both called Heraclia, which they devoted 
to the exploits of the great hero. See Athenaeus, xi. 38, 
p. 469 D; compare Macrobius, Saturn., v. 21. 16 and 19. 
Another poet, Mimnermus, supposed that at night the weary 
Sun slept in a golden bed, which floated across the sea to 
Ethiopia, where a chariot with fresh horses stood ready for 
him to mount and resume his daily journey across the sky. 
See Athenaeus, xi. 39, p. 470 a. 


213 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ τὸν βουκόλον Evputiwva τῷ κυνὶ βοηθοῦντα 
4 ,ὕ 4 a Υ i 
ἀπέκτεινε. Μενοίτης δὲ ἐκεῖ tas “Atdov Boas 
φ 
θόσκων Γηρυόνῃ τὸ γεγονὸς ἀπήγγειλεν. ὁ δὲ 
καταλαβὼν Ἡρακλέα παρὰ ποταμὸν ᾿Ανθεμοῦντα 
τὰς βόας ἀπάγοντα, συστησάμενος μάχην τοξευ- 
θεὶς ἀπέθανεν. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ἐνθέμενος τὰς Boas 
εἰς τὸ δέπας καὶ διαπλεύσας εἰς Ταρτησσὸν 
e ’ὔ ’ [4 ‘ ‘4 
Ηλίῳ πάλιν ἀπέδωκε τὸ δέπας. 

Διελθὼν δὲ ’ABSnpiav! εἰς Λιγυστίνην" ἦλθεν, 
ἐν ἡ τὰς Boas ἀφῃροῦντο ᾿Ιαλεβίωνδ τε καὶ Δέρ- 
κυνος οἱ Ποσειδῶνος υἱοί, obs κτείνας διὰ Τυρρη- 
vias wet. ἀπὸ Ῥηγίου δὲ εἷς ἀπορρήγνυσι ταῦρος, 


1 "AB3nplay Heyne: αὐδηρίαν or ἀνδηρίαν A: Ἰ᾿Ιβηρίαν Gale. 

3 Λυγιστίνην Gale (compare Diodorus Siculus iv. 19. 4, 
ἐποίησατο τὴν πορείαν διὰ τῆς Λιγυστικῇ5) :- Λιγύην Heyne, con- 
jecturing Λίγνας : Λιβύην A, J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 340. 

3 jareBlow R: ἀλεβίων A. 


1 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 652, who 
probably follows Apollodorus. 

* Abderia, the territory of Abdera, a Phoenician city of 
southern Spain, not to be confused with the better known 
Abdera in Thrace. See Strabo, iii. 4. 3, p. 157 ; Stephanus 
Byzantius, 8.v. “AS8dnpa. 

52 Apollodorus has much abridged a famous adventure of 
Harccles in Liguria. Passing through the country with the 
herds of Geryon, he was attacked by a great multitude of the 
warlike natives, who tried to rob him of the cattle. Fora 
time he repelled them with his bow, but his supply of arrows 
running short he was reduced to great straits; for the 
ground, being soft earth, afforded no stones to be used as 
missiles. So he prayed to his father Zeus, and the god in 
pity rained down stones from the sky ; and by picking them 
up and hurling them at his foes, the hero was able to turn 
the tables on them. The place where this adventure took 

lace was said to be a plain between Marseilles and the 

hone, which was called the Stony Plain on account of the 
vast quantity of stones, about as large as a man’s hand, 


214 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. το 


when the herdsman Eurytion came to the help of the 
dog, Hercules killed him also. But Menoetes, who 
was there pasturing the kine of Hades, reported to 
Geryon what had occurred, and he, coming up with 
Hercules beside the river Anthemus,! as he was 
driving away the kine, joined battle with him and 
was shot dead. And Hercules, embarking the kine 
in the goblet and sailing across to Tartessus, gave 
back the goblet to the Sun. 

And passing through Abderia® he came to 
Liguria,> where Ialebion and Dercynus, sons of 
Poseidon, attempted to rob him of the kine, but 
he killed them‘ and went on his way through 
Tyrrhenia. But at Rhegium a bull broke away 5 


which were scattered thickly over it. In his play Prometheus 
Unbound, Aeschylus introduced this story in the form of a 
prediction put in the mouth of Prometheus and addressed 
to his deliverer Hercules. See Strabo, iv. 1. 7, ΒΡ. 182 84.; 
Dionysius Halicarnasensis, Antig. Rom. i. 41; Eustathius, 
Commentary on Dionysius Periegetes, 76 (Geographi Graect 
Minores, ed. C. Miiller, ii. 231); Hyginns, Astronom. ii. 6; 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 66 sq. 
The Stony Plain is now called the Plaine de la Gren. It 
‘* attracts the attention of all travellers between Arles and 
Marseilles, since it is intersected by the railway that joins 
those two cities. It forms a wide level area, extending for 
many square miles, which is covered with round rolled stones 
from the size of a θύοι to that of a man’s head. These are 
supposed to have been brought down from the Alps by the 
Durance at some early period, when this plain was submerged 
and formed the bed of what was then a bay of the Mediterra- 
nean at the mouth of that river and the Rhone” (H.F. Tozer, 
Selections from Strabo, p. 117). . 

4 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 340 sqq., who calls the 
victims Dercynus and Alebiun. 

5 The author clearly derives the name of Rhegium from 
this incident (Ρήγιον from ἀπορρήγνυσι).. The story of the 
eacape of the bull, or heifer, and the pursuit of it by Hercules 
was told by Hellanicus. See Divunysius Halicarnasensis, 


215 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ ταχέως εἰς THY θάλασσαν ἐμπεσὼν καὶ διανη- 
ξάμενος <eis> Σικελίαν, καὶ τὴν πλησίον χώραν 
διελθὼν [τὴν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου κληθεῖσαν ᾿Ιταλίαν 
(Τυρρηνοὶ γὰρ ἰταλὸν τὸν ταῦρον ἐκάλεσαν),} } 
λθεν εἰς πεδίον "Ἔρυκος, ὃς ἐβασίλευεν ᾿Ελύμων. 
ἜΡρυξ δὲ ἦν Ποσειδῶνος παῖς, ὃς τὸν ταῦρον ταῖς 
ἰδίαις συγκατέμιξεν ἀγέλαις. παραθέμενος οὖν 
τὰς βόας Ἡρακλῆς Ἡφαίστῳ ἐπὶ τὴν αὐτοῦ 
ξήτησιν ἠπείγετο" εὑρὼν δὲ ἐν ταῖς τοῦ "Ερυκος 
ἀγέλαις, λέγοντος οὐ δώσειν ἂν μὴ παλαίσας 
αὐτοῦ περιγένηται, τρὶς περιγενόμενος κατὰ τὴν 
πάλην ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ τὸν ταῦρον λαβὼν μετὰ τῶν 
Ν N Ν 4“«17’ # / e \ 
ἄλλων ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿Ιόνιον ἤλαυνε πόντον. ὡς δὲ 
ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τοὺς μυχοὺς τοῦ πόντου, ταῖς βουσὶν 
οἶστρον ἐνέβαλεν ἡ “ρα, καὶ σχίξονται κατὰ 
τὰς τῆς Θράκης ὑπωρείας" ὁ δὲ διώξας τὰς μὲν 
συλλαβὼν ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿Ελλήσποντον ἤγαγεν, αἱ δὲ 
ἀπολειφθεῖσαι τὸ λοιπὸν ἦσαν ἄγριαι. μόλις δὲ 
τῶν βοῶν συνελθουσῶν Στρυμόνα μεμψάμενος 
τὸν ποταμόν, πάλαι τὸ ῥεῖθρον πλωτὸν ὃν ἐμ- 
πλήσας πέτραις ἄπλωτον ἐποίησε, καὶ τὰς βόας 

1 χὴν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου. .. ἐκάλεσαν omitted by Wagner. Heyne 


proposed to omit these words, together with the preceding 
καὶ thy πλησίον χώραν διελθὼν, and he is followed by Hercher. 


Antiq. Rom. i. 35.2. It is somewhat singular that Apollo- 
dorus passes so lightly over the exploits of Hercules in Italy, 
and in particular that he says nothing about those adventures 
of his at Rome, to which the Romans attached much signifi- 
cance. For the Italian adventures of the hero, and his 
sojourn in Rome, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 20-22; Dionysius 
Halicarnasensis, Antig. Rom. i. 34 8q., 38-44; Propertius, 
iv.9; Virgil, Aen. viii. 201 egq.; Ovid, Fasts, i. 543 sqq. On 
the popularity of the worship of Hercules in Italy, see 


216 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 10 


and hastily plunging into the sea swam across to 
Sicily, and having passed through the neighbouring 
country since called Italy after it, for the Tyrrhenians 
called the bull talus} came to the plain of Eryx, 
who reigned over the Elymi.2, Now Eryx was a son 
of Poseidon, and he mingled the bull with his own 
herds. So Hercules entrusted the kine to Hephaes- 
tus and hurried away in search of the bull. He 
found it in the herds of Eryx, and when the king 
refused to surrender it unless Hercules should beat 
him in a wrestling bout, Hercules beat him thrice, 
killed him in the wrestling, and taking the bull 
drove it with the rest of the herd to the Ionian Sea. 
But when he came to the creeks of the sea, Hera 
afflicted the cows with a gadfly, and they dispersed 
among the skirts of the mountains of Thrace. 
Hercules went in pursuit, and having caught some, 
drove them to the Hellespont; but the remainder 
were thenceforth wild. Having with difficulty 
collected the cows, Hercules blamed the river Stry- 
mon, and whereas it had been navigable before, he 
made it unnavigable by filling it with rocks; and he 


Dionysius Halicarnasensis, Antig. Rom. i. 40. 6, who says: 
‘* And in many other parts of Italy (besides Rome) precincts 
are consecrated to the god. and altars are set up both in cities 
and beside roads ; and hardly will you find a place in Italy 
where the god is not honoured ” 

1 Some of the ancients supposed that the name of Italy 
was derived from the Latin vitulus, ‘‘a calf.” See Varro, 
Rerum Rusticarum, ii. 1. 9; Dionysius Halicarnasensis, 
Antiq. Rom. i. 35.2; compare Aulus Gellius, xi. 1. 2. 

2 As to Herculus and Eryx, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 23. 2 ; 
Pausanias, iii. 16. 4 8q., iv. 36.4; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 
346 8qq.; 1d. Schol. on Lycophron, 866; Virgil, Aen. v. 410 
egg. ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. i. 570. 

8 The story was apparently told to account for the origin 
of wild cattle in Thrace. 

217 


1] 


APOLLODORUS 


Εὐρυσθεῖ κομίσας δέδωκεν. ὁ δὲ αὐτὰς κατέ- 
θυσεν "Hoa. 

Τελεσθέντων δὲ τῶν ἄθλων ἐν μηνὶ καὶ ἔτεσιν 
ὀκτώ, μὴ προσδεξάμενος Εὐρυσθεὺς τόν τε τῶν 
τοῦ Αὐγέου βοσκημάτων καὶ τὸν τῆς ὕδρας, ἑνδέ- 


1 This period fur the completion of the labours of Hercules 
is mentioned also by the dcholiast on Homer (Jl. viii. 368) 
and Tzetzes (Chiltades, ii. 353 sq.), both of whom, however, 
may have had the present passage of Apollodorus before 
them. It is possible that the period refers to the eight years’ 
cle, which figured prominently in the religious calendar of 
ite ancient Greeks; for pe Ὁ δ the Pythian games were 
originally held at intervals of eight years. See Geminus, 
Element. Astron. viii. 25 sqq. ed. C. Manitius ; Censorinus, 
De die natali, 18. It is to be remembered that the period of 
service performed by Hercules for Eurystheus was an expia- 
tion for the murder of his children (see Apollodorus, ii. 4. 12). 
Now Cadmus is said to have served Ares for eight years as 
an expiation for the slaughter of the dragon, the offspring of 
Ares (see Apollodorus, iii. 4.2). But in those days, we are 
told, the ‘‘eternal year” comprised eight common years 
(Apollodorus, Z.c.). Now Apollo served Admetus for a year 
as an expiation for the slaughter of the Cyclopes (Apollodorus, 
iii. 10. 4); but according to Servius (on Virgil, Aen. vii. 761), 
the period of Apollo’s service was not one but nine years. In 
making this statement Servius, or his authority, probably 
had before him a Greek author, who mentioned an évvearnpls 
as the period of Apollo’s service. But though évvearnpls 
means literally ‘‘nine years,” the period, in consequence of 
the Greek mode of reckoning, was actually equivalent to eight 
years (compare Celsus, De dte natali, 18. 4, ‘‘ Octaeteris facta, 
quae tunc enneateris vocitata, quia primus ejus annus nono 
anno redibat”). These legends about the servitude 

of Cadmus, Apollo, and Hercules for eight years, render it 
robable that in ancient times Greek homicides were banished 
or eight years, and had during that time to do penance by 
serving a foreigner. Now this period of eight years was 
called a ‘‘ great year” (Censorinus, De dte natali, 18. 5), and 
the period of banishment for a homicide was regularly a 


218 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. 10-11 


conveyed the kine and gave them to Eurystheus, who 
sacrificed them to Hera. 

When the labours had been performed in eight 
years and a month,! Eurystheus ordered Hercules, as 
an eleventh labour, to fetch golden apples from the 


year. See Apollodorus, ii. 8.3; Euripides, Hippolytus, 34-37, 
td. Orestes, 1643-1645; Nicolaus Damascenus, Frag 20 
_ (Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 369) ; 
Hesychius, 8.v. ἀπενιαυτισμός ; Suidas, 8ιῦ. ἀπεναυτίσαι. Hence 
it seems probable that, though in later times the period of a 
homicide’s banishment was a single ordinary year, it may 
formerly have been a ‘‘ great year,’ or period of eight 
ordinary years. It deserves to be noted that any god who 
had forsworn himself by the alg had to expiate his fault by 
silence and fasting for a full year, after which he was 
banished the company of the gods for nine years (Hesiod, 
Theog. 793-804) ; and further that any man who partook of 
human flesh in the rites of Lycaean Zeus was supposed to 
be turned into a wolf for nine years. See Pausanias, viii. 2; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 81; Augustine, De civitate Dei, xviii. 
17. These notions point to a nine years’ period of expiation, 
which may have been observed in some places ins of the 
eight years’ period. In the present passage of Apollodorus, 
the addition of a month to the eight years’ period creates a 
difficulty which I am unable to explain. Ancient mathemat- 
icians ‘defined a ‘‘great year” as the period at the end of 
which the sun, moon, and planets again occupy the same 
itions relatively to each other which they occupied at the 
ginning ; but on the length of the period opinions were much 
divided. See Cicero, De natura deorum, ii. 20. 51 sq. Differ- 
ent, apparently, from the ‘‘ great year” was the ‘‘revolving” 
(vertens) or ‘‘mundane” (mundanus) year, which was the 
period at the end of which, not only the sun, moon, and 
planets, but also the so-called fixed stars again occupy the 
itions relatively to each other which they occupied at the 
ginning; for the ancients recognized that the so-called fixed 
stars do move, though their motion is imperceptible to our 
senses. The length of a ‘‘revolving” or ‘‘mundane” year 
was calculated by ancient physicists at fifteen thousand years. 
See Cicero, Somnium Scipionts, 7, with the commentary of 
Macrobius, ii. 11. 


219 





APOLLODORUS 


κατον ἐπέταξεν ἄθλον παρ᾽ ᾿Εσπερίδων χρύσεα 
μῆλα κομίζειν. ταῦτα δὲ ἦν, οὐχ ὥς τινες εἶπον 
ἐν Λιβύη, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῦ ΓΑτλαντος ἐν Ὕπερ- 
βορέοις: ἃ Διὶ «Γῇ» γήμαντι “ραν ἐδωρήσατο. 


ἐφύλασσε δὲ αὐτὰ δράκων ἀθάνατος, Τυφῶνος. 


καὶ ᾿Εχίδνης, κεφαλὰς ἔχων ἑκατόν" ἐχρῆτο δὲ 
φωναῖς παντοίαις καὶ ποικίλαις. μετὰ τούτου δὲ 
'Εσπερίδες ἐφύλαττον, Αἴγλη ᾿Ερύθεια ‘Eorepia 
᾿Αρέθουσα.8 πορευόμενος οὖν ἐπὶ ποταμὸν ᾿Εχέ: 
Swpov ἧκε. Κύκνος δὲ “Apeos καὶ Πυρήνης εἰς 
μονομαχίαν αὐτὸν προεκαλεῖτο. “Apeos δὲ τοῦ- 
tov ἐκδικοῦντος καὶ συνιστάντος μονομαχίαν, 
βληθεὶς κεραυνὸς μέσος ἀμφοτέρων διαλύει τὴν 

1 κομίζειν Aegius: κομίσων RA. 

2 Ad «Γῆ; γήμαντι Ἥραν Valckenar (comparing Scholiast 


on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1396): Aad γήμαντι Ἥρα A. 
3 ‘Eowepla ᾿Αρέθουσα Gale, Aegius: ἑστία ἐρέθουσα A. 


1 As to the ape of the Hesperides, see Hesiod, T'heog. 
215 seq.; Euripides, Hercules Furens, 394 sqq.; Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1396 sqq., with the Scholiast on 1396; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 26; Pausanias. v. 1]. 6, v. 18. 4, 
vi. 19. 8; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 3; J. Tzetzes, Chtliades, 
ii. 355 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 637 sqq., ix. 190; 
Hyginus, Fab. 30; id. Astronom. ii. 3; Scholta in Caesaris 
Germanict Aratea, pp. 382 δ8ᾳ., in Martianus Capella, 
ed. Fr. Eyssenhardt; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latim, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. PR. 13 sq., 130 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 38; Second Vatican Mythographer, 161). 
From the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (é.c.) we learn 
that the story of Hercules and the apples of the Hesper- 
ides was told by Pherecydes in the second book of his 
work on the marriage of Hera. The close resemblance which 
the Scholiast’s narrative bears to that of Apollodorus seems 
to show that here, as in many other places, our author 
followed Pherecydes. The account given by Pherecydes of 
the origin of the golden ape is as follows. When Zeus 
married Hera, the gods ey t presents to the bride. Among 
the rest, Earth μάνα τὸν golden apples, which Hera so much 
admired that she ordered them to be planted in the garden 


220 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11 


Hesperides,! for he did not acknowledge the labour 
of the cattle of Augeas nor that of the hydra. These 
apples were not, as some have said, in Libya, but on 
Atlas among the Hyperboreans.?, They were pre- 
sented by Earth to Zeus after his marriage with Hera, 
and guarded by an immortal dragon with a hundred 
heads, offspring of Typhon and Echidna, which spoke 
with many and divers sorts of voices. With it the 
Hesperides also were on guard, to wit, Aegle, Ery- 
thia, Hesperia, and Arethusa. So journeying he 
came to the river Echedorus. And Cycnus, son of 
Ares and Pyrene, challenged him to single combat. 
Ares championed the cause of Cycnus and marshalled 
the combat, but a thunderbolt was hurled between 
the two and parted the combatants. And going on 


of the gods beside Mount Atlas. But, as the daughters of 
Atlas used to pilfer the golden fruit, she set a huge serpent 
to guard the tree. Such is the story told, on the authority 
of Pherecydes, by Eratosthenes, Hyginus (Astronom. ii. 3), 
and the Scholiast on the Aratea of Germanicus. 

2 Here Apollodorus departs from the usual version, which 
placed the gardens of the Hesperides in the far west, not the 
far north. We have seen that Hercules is said to have gone 
to the far north to fetch the hind with the golden horns (see 
above, li. 5. 3 note); also he is reported to have brought 
from the land of the Hyperboreans the olive spray which was 
to form the victor’s crown at the Olympic games. See Pindar, 
Olymp. iii. 11 (20) sqg.; Pausanias, v. 7. 7, compare @d. v. 15.3. 

8 Compare Hyginus, Fab. 31, who describes the interven- 
tion of Mars (Ares) on the side of his son Cycnus, and the fall 
of the thunderbolt which parted the combatants ; yet he says 
that Hercules killed Cycnus. This combat, which, according 
to Apollodorus, ended indecisively, was supposed to have 
been fought in Macedonia, for the Echedorus was a Mace- 
donian river (Herodotus, vii. 124, 127). Accordingly we 
must distinguish this contest from another and more famous 
fight which Hercules fought with another son of Ares, also 
called Cycnus, near Pagasae in Thessaly. See Apollodorus, 
ii. 7. 7, with the note. Apparently Hyginus confused the 
two combats. 


221 


APOLLODORUS 


μάχην. βαδίξων δὲ δι᾿’ Ἰλλυριῶν, καὶ σπεύδων. 
ἐπὶ ποταμὸν ᾿Ηριδανόν, ἧκε πρὸς νύμφας Διὸς 
καὶ Θέμιδος. αὗται μηνύουσιν αὐτῷ Νηρέα. 
συλλαβὼν δὲ αὐτὸν κοιμώμενον καὶ παντοίας 
3 Ul \ Ν \ 3 + 6 4 
ἐναλλάσσοντα μορφὰς ἔδησε, καὶ οὐκ ἔλυσε πρὶν 
ἢ μαθεῖν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ ποῦ τυγχάνοιεν τὰ μῆλα 
καὶ αἱ “Eorepides. μαθὼν δὲ Λιβύην διεξῇει. 

’ 4 ᾽ n~ a 9 na Δ 
ταύτης ἐβασίλευε παῖς Ποσειδῶνος ᾿Ανταῖος, ὃς 
τοὺς ξένους ἀναγκάζων παλαίειν ἀνήρει. τούτῳ 
παλαίειν ἀναγκαζόμενος Ἡρακλῆς ἀράμενος ἅμ- 
μασι μετέωρον κλάσας ἀπέκτεινε: Ψψαύοντα yap 
γῆς ἰσχυρότερον συνέβαινε" γίνεσθαι, δεὸ καὶ 
Γῆς τινες ἔφασαν τοῦτον εἶναι παῖδα. 

Μετὰ Λιβύην δὲ Αἴγυπτον διεξήει.5 ταύτης 


1 σπεύδων ἂν πὶ φεύγων A. 
2 ἅμμασι R, Scholiast on Plato, Laws, vii. p. 796 a: ὄὕμ- 


μασι A. 

3 ἰσχυρότερον R: ἰσχυρότατον A. 

4 guvéBave R, Scholiast on Plato, Laws, vii. p. 796 a: 
συνέβη A. 

5 διεξήει Fuber : ἐξῃει A. 


1 The meeting of Hercules with the nymphs, and his 
struggle with Nereus, are related also by the Scholiast on 
A flonins Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1396, citing as his authority 
Pherecydes, whom Apollodorus also probably follows. The 
transformations of the reluctant sea-god Nereus in his en- 
counter with Hercules are like those of the reluctant sea-god 
Proteus in his encounter with Menelaus (Homer, Od. iv. 354— 
570), and those of the reluctant sea-goddess Thetis with her 
lover Peleus (see below, iii. 13. 5). 

2 As to Hercules and Antaeus, see Pindar, Jsthm. iv. 52 (87) 
sqq.. with the Scholiast on 52 (87) and δά (92); Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 17. 4; Pausanias, ix. 11. 6; Philostratus, 
Imagines, ii. 21; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 
285 8qq.; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 363 8gq.; Scholiast on 
Plato, Laws, vii. p. 796 A (whose account agrees almost 
verbally with that of Apollodorus); Ovid, Ibts, 393-395, 


222 








THE LIBRARY, IT. v. 11 


foot through Illyria and hastening to the river 
Eridanus he came to the nymphs, the daughters of 
Zeus and Themis. They revealed Nereus to him, 
and Hercules seized him while he slept, and though 
the god turned himself into all kinds of shapes, the 
hero bound him and did not release him till he had 
learned from him where were the apples and the 
Hesperides.1_ Being informed, he traversed Libya. 
That country was then ruled by Antaeus, son of 
Poseidon,? who used to kill strangers by forcing 

them to wrestle. Being forced to wrestle with him, 

Hercules hugged him, lifted him aloft,? broke and 

killed him; for when he touched earth so it was that 

he waxed stronger, wherefore some said that he was 

a son of Earth.. 
After Libya he traversed Egypt. That country 


with the Scholia; Hyginus, Fab. 31; Lucan, Pharsal. iv. 
588-655 ; Juvenal, Sat. iii. 89; Statius, Theb. vi. 893 
sqq.; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. vi. 869 (894) ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latins, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 19, 131 (First Vatican Mythographer, 55; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 164). According to Pindar, 
the truculent giant used to roof the temple of his sire 
Poseidon with the skulls of his victims. The fable of his 
regaining strength through contact with his mother Earth 
is dwelt on by Lucan with his usual tedious prolixity. It is 
briefly alluded to by Ovid, Juvenal, and Statius. Antaeus 
is said to have reigned in western Morocco, on the Atlantic 
coast. Here a hillock was pointed out as his tomb, and the 
natives believed that the removal of soil from the hillock 
would be immediately followed by rain, which would not 
cease till the earth was replaced. See Mela, iii. 106. Ser- 
torius is said to have excavated the supposed tomb and to 
have found a skeleton sixty cubits long. See Plutarch, 
Sertorius, 9; Strabo, xvii. 3. 8, p. 829. 

3 More literally, ‘‘ lifted him aloft with hugs.” For this 
technical term (ἅμμα) applied toa wrestler’s hug, see Plutarch, 
Fabius Maximus, 23, and Alcibiades, 2. 


223 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐβασίλευε Βούσιρις Ποσειδῶνος παῖς καὶ Λυσια- 
’ a 3 4 φ \ 4 ΝΜ) 
νάσσης τῆς Επάφου. οὗτος τοὺς ξένους ἔθυεν 
ἐπὶ βωμῷ Διὸς κατά τι λόγιον: ἐννέα γὰρ ἔτη 
’ 4 A Ν , ’ 1 δὲ 
ἀφορία τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατέλαβε, Φρασίος  ὃὲ 
ἐλθὼν ἐκ Κύπρου, μάντις τὴν ἐπιστήμην, ἔφη 


1 φράσιος A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller: φράγιος E: 
Θράσιος Aegius, Bekker, Hercher. Compare Ovid, Ars 
Amat. i. 649 8g. (Thrasius); Hyginus, Fab. 56 (Thasius). 


1 For Hercules and Busiris, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
18. 1, iv. 27. 28q.; Plutarch, Parallela, 38; Scholiast on 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 1396; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, ii. 367 8q.; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 182 aq.; id., 
Ars Amat. i. 647-652; Scholia on Ovid, Jb18, 397 (p. 72, 
ed. R. Ellis); Hyginus, Fab. 31 and 56; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 300 and Georg. iii. 5; Philargyrius, on Virgil, 
Georg. iii. δ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. xii. 
155. Ovid, with his Scholiasts, Hyginus and Philargyrius, 
like Apollodorus, allege a nine or eight years’ dearth or 
drought as the cause of the human sacrifices instituted by 
Busiris. Their account may be derived from Pherecydes, 
who is the authority cited by the Scholiast on Apollo- 
nius Rhodius (i.c.). Hyginus (Fab. 56) adds that the 
seer Phrasius, who advised the sacrifice, was a brother of 
Pygmalion. Herodotus, without mentioning Busiris, scouts 
the story on the ground that human sacrifices were utterly 
alien to the spirit of Egyptian religion (Herodotus, ii. 45). 
Isocrates also discredited the tradition, in so far as it relates 
to Hercules, because Hercules was four generations younger, 
and Busiris more than two hundred years older, than Perseus. 
See Isocrates, Busiris, 15. Yet there are grounds for think- 
ing that the Greek tradition was substantially correct. For 
Manetho, our highest ancient authority, definitely affirmed 
that in the city of Ilithyia it was customary to burn alive 
‘“‘Typhonian men” and to scatter their ashes by means of 
winnowing fans (Plutarch, Jsts et Ostrts, 73). These ‘‘ Ty- 
phonian men” were red-haired, because Typhon, the Egyptian 
embodiment of evil, was also red-haired (Plutarch, Jsvs et 
Osirs, 30 and 33). But red-haired men would commonly be 
foreigners, in contrast to the black-haired natives of Egypt ; 
and it was just foreigners who, according to Greek tradition, 


224 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11 


was then ruled by Busiris,! a son of Poseidon by 
Lysianassa, daughter of Epaphus. This Busiris used 
to sacrifice strangers on an altar of Zeus in accordance 
with a certain oracle. For Egypt was visited with 
dearth for nine years, and Phrasius, a learned seer 
who had come from Cyprus, said that the dearth 


were chosen as victims. Diodorus Siculus points this out 
(i. 88. 5) in confirmation of the Greek tradition, and he tells 
us that the red-haired men were sacrificed at the grave of 
Osiris, though this statement may be an inference from his 
etymology of the name Busiris, which he explains to mean 
‘* grave of Osiris.” The etymology is correct, Busiris being 
a Greek rendering of the Egyptian bu-As-tri, ‘‘place of 
Osiris.” See A.Wiedemann, Herodots Zweites Buch (Leipsic, 
1890), p. 213. Porphyry informs us, on the authority of 
Manetho, that the Egyptian custom of sacrificing human 
beings at the City of the Sun was suppressed by Amosis 
(Amasis), who ordered waxen effigies to be substituted for 
the victims. He adds that the human victims used to be 
᾿ examined just like calves for the sacrifice, and that they were 
sealed in token of their fitness for the altar. See Porphyry, 
De abstinentia, iii. 35. Sextus Empiricus even speaks of 
human sacrifices in Egypt as if they were practised down to 
his own time, which was about 200 a.p. See Sextus Empiri- 
cus, p. 173, ed. Bekker. Seleucus wrote a special treatise on 
human sacrifices in Egypt (Athenaeus, iv. 72, p.172p). In 
view of these facts, the Greek tradition that the sacrifices 
were offered in order to restore the fertility of the land or to 
procure rain after a long drought, and that on one occasion 
the king himself was the victim, may be not without signifi- 
cance. For kings or chiefs have been often sacrificed under 
similar circumstances (see Apollodorus, iii. 5.1; Adonis, Attis, 
Osiris, 3rd ed. ii. 97 sqq.; The Magic Art and the Evolu- 
tion of Kings, i. 344 sqq., 352 844.) ; and in ancient Egypt the 
rulers are definitely said to have been held responsible for the 
failure of the crops (Ammianus Marcellinus, xxviii. 5. 14) ; 
hence it would not be surprising if in extreme cases they 
were put to death. Busiris was the theme of a Satyric pla 
by Euripides. See Zragicorum Graecorum Fragmenia, ed. 
A. Nauck?2, pp. 452 aq. 


225-- 
VOL. 1. Q 


APOLLODORUS: 


‘ ᾽ ’᾽ 1 lA oN A ww a \ 
τὴν ἀφορίαν. παύσασθαι ἐὰν ξένον ἄνδρα τῷ Au 
σφάξωσι κατ᾽ ἔτος. Βούσιρις δὲ ἐκεῖνον πρῶτον 
σφάξας τὸν μάντιν τοὺς κατιόντας ξένους ἔσφαζε. 
συλληφθεὶς οὖν καὶ Ηρακλῆς τοῖς βωμοῖς προσ- 
εφέρετο τὰ δὲ δεσμὰ διαρρήξας τόν τε Βούσιριν 
καὶ τὸν ἐκείνου παῖδα ᾿Αμφιδάμαντα ἀπέκτεινε. 

Διεξιὼν δὲ "Aciav? Θερμυδραῖς, Λινδίωνϑ λι- 
μένι, προσίσχει. καὶ βοηλάτου τινὸς λύσας τὸν 
ἕτερον τῶν ταύρων ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμάξης εὐωχεῖτο 
θύσας. ὁ δὲ βοηλάτης βοηθεῖν ἑαυτῷ μὴ δυνά- 
μενος στὰς ἐπί τινος ὄρους κατηρᾶτο. διὸ καὶ 
νῦν, ἐπειδὰν θύωσιν Ἡρακλεῖ, μετὰ καταρῶν 
τοῦτο πράττουσι. 


! We should perhaps read τὴν ἀφορίαν ἂν παύσασθαι. 
3 ἀσίαν ER: dolas A. 
3 λινδίων ER: λωδίων A. 


1 The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (Argon. iv. 1396) 
calls him Iphidamas, and adds ‘‘the herald Chalbes and the 
attendants” to the list of those slain by Hercules. 

2 Thermydra is the form of the name given by Stephanus 
Byzantius (8.v.). In his account of this incident Tzetzes calls 
the harbour Thermydron (Chthades, ii, 385). Lindus was one 
of the chief cities of Rhodes. 

8 Compare Conon, Narrat. 11; Philostratus, Imagines, il. 
24; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 385 sqq.; Lactantius, Divin. 
Inst, i. 21. According to all these writers except Tzetzes 
(who clearly follows Apollodorus), Hercules’s victim in this 
affair was not a waggoner, but a ploughman engaged in the 
act of ploughing; Philostratus names him Thiodamus, and 
adds: ‘‘ Hence a ploughing ox is sacrificed to Hercules, and 
they begin the sacrifice with curses such as, I suppose, the 
hus andes then made use of; and Hercules is pleased and 
blesses the Lindians in return for their curses.” Accordin 
to Lactantius, it was a pair of oxen that was sacrificed, an 
the altar at which the sacrifice took place bore the name of 
bouzygos, that is, ‘‘ yoke of oxen.” Hence it seems probable 


226 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11 


would cease if they slaughtered a stranger man in 
honour of Zeus every year. Busiris began by 
slaughtering the seer himself and continued to 
slaughter the strangers who landed. So Hercules 
also was seized and haled to the altars, but he burst 
his bonds and slew both Busiris and his son Amphi- 
damas.! 

And traversing Asia he put in to Thermydrae, the 
harbour of the Lindians.2, And having loosed one of 
the bullocks from the cart of a cowherd, he sacrificed 
it and feasted. But the cowherd, unable to protect 
himself, stood on a certain mountain and cursed. 
Wherefore to this day, when they sacrifice to Hercu- 
les, they do it with curses.® 


that the sacrifice which the story purported to explain was . 
offered at the time of ploughing in order to ensure a blessing 
on the ploughman’s labours. This is confirmed by the ritual 
of the sacred ploughing observed at Eleusis, where members 
of the old priestly family of the Bouzygat or Ox-yokers 
uttered many curses as they guided the plough down the 
furrows of the Rarian Plain. See Hiymologicum Magnum, 
8.v. Βου(ζυγία, p. 206, lines 47 sqq.; Anecdota Graeca, ed. Im. 
Bekker, i. 221; Hesychius, 8.0. Βουζύγης ; Paroemtographt 
Graeci, ed. E. L. Leutsch und F. G. Schneidewin, i. 388; 
Scholiast on Sophocles, Antigone, 255; Plutarch, Praecepta 
Conjugalia, 42. Compare J. Toepffer, Attische Genealoyie 
(Berlin, 1889), pp. 136 sq.; The Spirits of the Corn and of the 
Wild, i. 108 sg. The Greeks seem to have deemed curses of 
special efficacy to promote the fertility of the ground ; for we 
are told that when a Greek sowed cummin he was expected to 
utter imprecations or the crop would not turn out well. See 
Theophrastus, Historia plantarum, vii. 3.3, ix. 8.8; Plutarch, 
Quaest, Conviv., vii. 2.3; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xix. 120. Roman 
writers mention a like custom observed by the sowers of rue 
and basil. See Palladius, De re rustica, iv.9; Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. xix. 120. As to the beneficent effect of curses, when 
properly directed, see further The Magic Art and the Evolu- 
tion of Kings, i. 278 sqq. 

227 


APOLLODORUS 


Παριὼν δὲ ᾿Αραβίαν ᾿Ημαθίωνα κτείνει παῖδα 
Τιθωνοῦ. καὶ διὰ τῆς Λιβύης πορευθεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν 
ἔξω θάλασσαν παρ᾽ Ἡλίου" τὸ δέπας παραλαμ- 
βάνει. καὶ περαιωθεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν ἤπειρον τὴν 
ἀντικρὺ κατετόξευσεν ἐπὶ τοῦ Καυκάσου τὸν 
ἐσθίοντα τὸ τοῦ Προμηθέως ἧπαρ ἀετόν, ὄντα 
᾿Ἐχίδνης καὶ Τυφῶνος: καὶ τὸν Προμηθέα ἔλυσε, 
δεσμὸν ἑλόμενος τὸν τῆς ἐλαίας, καὶ παρέσχε 


1 gap’ Ἡλίου C. Robert, De Avpollodors Bibliotheca, pp. 
47 sq. (comparing Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
iv. 1396): καταπλεῖ ob A. 

2 παραλαμβάνει Frazer: καταλαμβάνει MSS., Heyne, Wes- 
termann, Miller, Bekker, Wagner: λαμβάνει Hercher. The 
verb καταλαμβάνειν means to seize or catch, generally with 
the implication of force or violence. It cannot mean to 
receive peaceably as a favour, which is the sense required in 
the present passage. Thus the scribes have twice blundered 
over the preposition παρὰ in this sentence (καταπλεῖ, κατα- 
λαμβάνει). 


1 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 369 sg., who as usual 
follows Apollodorus. According to Diodorus Siculus (iv. 27.3), 
after Hercules had slain Busiris, he ascended the Nile to 
Ethiopia and there slew Emathion, king of Ethiopia. 

2 As to Hercules and Prometheus, see Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 15.2; Pausanias, v. 11.6; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 370 sq.; 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 1248, iv. 1396 ; 
Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 15; td. Fab. 31, 54, and 144; Servius, 
on Virgil, Hcl. vi. 42. The Scholiast on Apollonius (ii. 1248) 
agrees with Apollodorus as to the parentage of the eagle 
which preyed on Prometheus, and he cites as his authority 
Pherecydes; hence we may surmise that Apollodorus is 
following the same author in the present passage. The time 
during which Prometheus suffered on the Caucasus was said 
by Aeschylus to be thirty thousand years (Hyginus, Astron. 
ii. 15); but Hyginus, though he reports this in one passage, 
elsewhere reduces the term of suffering to thirty years (Fab. 54 
and 144), 

3 The reference seems to be to the crown of olive which 
Hercules brought from the land of the Hyperboreans and 


228 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11 


And passing by Arabia he slew Emathion, son 
of Tithonus,! and journeying through Libya to the 
outer sea he received the goblet from the Sun. 
And having crossed to the opposite mainland he shot 
on the Caucasus the eagle, offspring of Echidna and 
Typhon, that was devouring the liver of Prometheus, 
and he released Prometheus,? after choosing for him- 
self the bond of olive,? and to Zeus he presented 


instituted as the badge of victory in the Olympic games. 
See Pindar, Olymp. iii. 11 (20) #7q¢.; Pausanias, v. 7.7. The 
ancients had a curious notion that the custom of wearing 
crowns or garlands on the head and rings on the fingers was 
a memorial of the shackles once worn for their sake by their 
great benefactor Prometheus among the rocks and snows of 
the Caucasus. In order that the will of Zeus, who had 
sworn never to release Prometheus, might not be frustrated 
by the entire liberation of his prisoner from his chains, 
Prometheus on obtaining his freedom was ordered to wear on 
his finger a ring made out of his iron fetters and of the rock 
to which he had been chained ; hence, in memory of their 
saviour’s sufferings, men have worn rings ever since. The 
practice of wearing crowns or garlands was explained by 
some people in the same way. See Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 15; 
Servius, on Virgil, Hel. vi. 42; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxvii. 2 ; 
Isidore, Origines, xix. 32. 1. According to one version of the 
legend, the crown which the sufferer on regaining his liberty 
was doomed to wear was a crown of willow ; and the Carians, 
who used to crown their brows with branches of willow, 
explained that they did so in imitation of Prometheus. See 
Athenaeus, xv. 11-13, pp. 671 E-673 B. In the present passage 
of Apollodorus, if the text is correct, Hercules, as the 
deliverer of Prometheus, is obliged to bind himself vicariously 
for the prisoner whom he has released ; and he chooses to do 
so with his favourite olive. Similarly he has to find a sub- 
stitute to die instead of Prometheus, and he discovers the 
substitute in Chiron. As to the substitution of Chiron for 
Prometheus, see Apollodorus, ii. 5. 4. It is remarkable that, 
though Prometheus was supposed to have attained to immor- 
tality and to be the great benefactor, and even the creator, of 
mankind, he appears not to have been a ἐν τς by the 
Greeks; Lucian says that nowhere were temples of Prometheus 
to be seen (Prometheus, 14). 

229 


APOLLODORUS 


τῷ Au Χείρωνα θνήσκειν ἀθάνατον ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ 
θέλοντα. - | 

Ὡς δὲ ἧκεν εἰς “TrrepBopéovs πρὸς ἴΑτλαντα, 
εἰπόντος Προμηθέως τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰ 
μῆλα μὴ πορεύεσθαι, διαδεξάμενον δὲ ΓἼΑτλαντος 
τὸν πόλον ἀποστέλλειν ἐκεῖνον, πεισθεὶς διεδέ- 
ξατο. Ατλας δὲ δρεψάμενος 5 παρ᾽ Ἑσπερίδων 
τρία μῆλα ἧκε πρὸς Ἡρακλέα. καὶ μὴ βουλό- 
μενος τὸν πόλον ἔχειν... καὶ σπεῖραν ἐπὶ τῆς 
κεφαλῆς θέλειν ποιήσασθαι. τοῦτο ἀκούσας 
"Arras, ἐπὶ γῆς καταθεὶς τὰ μῆλα τὸν πόλον 
διεδέξατο. καὶ οὕτως ἀνελόμενος αὐτὰ Ἡρακλῆς 
ἀπηλλάττετο. ἔνιοι δέ φασιν οὐ παρὰ ΑΛτλαντος 
αὐτὰ λαβεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτὸν δρέψασθαι τὰ μῆλα, 
κτείναντα τὸν φρουροῦντα ὄφιν. κομίσας δὲ τὰ 
μῆλα Evpucbei ἔδωκεν. ὁ δὲ λαβὼν Ἡρακλεῖ 


1 ἀθάνατον A, but wanting in Εἰ and omitted by Wagner. 
Gale proposed to read Xelpwva ἀθάνατον <bvra> θνήσκειν ἀντ᾽ 
αὐτοῦ θέλοντα. Retaining the MS. order of the words we 
might read θνήσκειν ἀθάνατον -- ὄντα: dvr’ αὐτοῦ θέλοντα. 
The accumulation of participles (ὄντα--- θέλοντα) is awkward 
but quite in the manner of Apollodorus. 

2 For δρεψάμενος we should perhaps read δεξάμενος. For 
δρέπτεσθαι means ‘‘to pluck from a tree,” not ‘‘ to receive from 
a person.” The verb is used correctly by Apollodorus a few 
lines below. 

3 Gale pointed out that there is here a gap in the text 
of Apollodorus, which can be supplied from the following 
passage of a scholium on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 
1396 : τὰ μὲν μῆλα αὐτός φησιν ἀποίσειν Εὐρυσθεῖ, τὸν δ᾽ οὐρανὸν 
ἐκέλευσεν ἐκεῖνον ἀνέχειν ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ Ἡρακλῇς ὑπο- 
σχόμενος, δόλῳ ἀντεπέθηκεν αὐτὸν τῷ ἴΑτλαντι. - ἦν γὰρ εἰπὼν 
αὐτῷ ὁ Προμηθεὺς ὑποθέμενος, κελεύειν δέξασθαι τὸν οὐρανόν, 


230 





THE LIBRARY, 11. v. 11 


Chiron, who, though immortal, consented to die in 
his stead. 

Now Prometheus had told Hercules not to go him- 
selfafter the apples but to send Atlas, first relieving 
him of the burden of the sphere; so when he was 
come to Atlas in the land of the Hyperboreans, he took 
the advice and relieved Atlas. But when Atlas had 
received three apples from the Hesperides, he came 
to Hercules, and not wishing to support the sphere 
<he said that he would himself carry the apples to 
Eurystheus, and bade Hercules hold up the sky in 
his stead. Hercules promised to do so, but succeeded 
by craft in putting it on Atlas instead. For at the 
advice of Prometheus he begged Atlas to hold up 
the sky till he should>! put a pad on his head. 
When Atlas heard that, he laid the apples down on 
the ground and took the sphere from Hercules. And 
so Hercules picked up the apples and departed. But 
some say that he did not get them from Atlas, but 
that he plucked the apples himself after killing the 
guardian snake. And having brought the apples he 
gave them to Eurystheus. But he, on receiving 


1 The passage in angular brackets is wanting in the 
manuscripts of Apollodorus, but is restored from the Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius (Argon. iv. 1396), who quotes as his 
authority Pherecydes, the writer here seemingly followed by 
Apollodorus. See the Critical Note. The story of the 
contest of wits between Hercules and Atlas is represented in 
one of the extant metopes of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, 
which were seen and described by Pausanias (v. 10.9). See 
my note on Pausanias (vol. iii. pp. 524 sq.). 


ἕως ov σπεῖραν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ποιήσεται. In this passage I 
read ἀνέχειν and σπεῖραν for ἔχειν and πήραν, which appear 
to be the readings of the MSS. In the parallel passage of 
Pausanias (v. 11. 5) we read of οὐρανὸν καὶ γῆν “AtAas ἀνέχων. 


231 


12 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐδωρήσατο" παρ᾽ ov λαβοῦσα ᾿Αθηνᾶ πάλιν αὐτὰ 
ἀπεκόμισεν' ὅσιον γὰρ οὐκ ἦν αὐτὰ τεθῆναί που. 

Δωδέκατον ἄθλον ἐπετάγη Κέρβερον ἐξ Αεδου 
κομίζειν. εἶχε δὲ οὗτος τρεῖς μὲν κυνῶν κεφαλάς, 
τὴν δὲ οὐρὰν δράκοντος, κατὰ δὲ τοῦ νώτου 
παντοίων εἶχεν ὄφεων κεφαλάς. μέλλων οὖν ἐπὶ 
τοῦτον ἀπιέναι ἦλθε πρὸς Εὔμολπον εἰς Ἐλευσῖνα, 
βουλόμενος μνηθῆναι [ἣν δὲ οὐκ ἐξὸν ξένοις τότε 
μυεῖσθαι, ἐπειδήπερ θετὸς ' Πυλίου παῖς γενό- 
μενος ἐμνεῖτο]. μὴ δυνάμενος δὲ ἰδεῖν τὰ μυστήρια 
ἐπείπερ οὐκ HY ἡγνισμένος τὸν Κενταύρων ὃ φόνον, 
ἁγνισθεὶς ὑπὸ Εὐμόλπου τότε ἐμυήθη. καὶ 
παραγενόμενος ἐπὶ Ταίναρον τῆς Λακωνικῆς, οὗ 


1 θετὸς R: θέστιος A. 
2 κενταύρων E, Scholiast on Homer, Jl. viii. 368: κενταύ- 
pov A, 


1 Ags to Hercules and Cerberus, see Homer, Jl. viii. 366 sqq., 
Od. xi. 623 sqq.; Bacchylides, Hpinic. v. 56 8ηᾳ.; Kuripides, 
Hercules furens, 23 sqq., 1277 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 1, 
iv. 26. 1; Pausanias, ii. 31. 6, ii. 35. 10, iii. 18. 13, iii. 25. ὅ 9ᾳ., 
v. 26.7, ix. 34.5; J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, ii. 388-405 (who 
seems to follow Apollodorus) ; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. viii. 
368; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 410 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 31; 
Seneca, Agamemnon, 859 sqq., Hercules furens, 50 sqq.; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 20 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 57). Ancient writers differ as 
to the number of Cerberus’s heads. Hesiod assigned him fifty 
(Theog. 311 8ᾳ.}; Pindar raised the number to a hundred 
(Scholiast on Homer, Jl. viii. 368), a liberal estimate which 
was accepted by Tzetzes in one place (Schol. on Lycophron, 
699) and by Horace in another (Odes, ii. 13. 34). Others 
reduced the number to three. See Sophocles, T'rachinias, 
1098 ; Euripides, Hercules furens, 24 and 1277; Pausanias, 
iii. 25.6 ; Horace, Odes, ii. 19. 29 aqq., iii. 11. 17 eqg.; Virgil, 
Georg. iv. 483, Aen. vi. 417 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 451 
sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 151; Seneca, Agamemnon, 62, Hercules 
furens, 78339. Apollodorus apparently seeks to reconcile 


232 





THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11-12 


them, bestowed them on Hercules, from whom Athena 
got them and conveyed them back again; for it was 
not lawful that they should be laid down anywhere. 
A twelfth labour imposed on Hercules was to bring 
Cerberus from Hades.! Now this Cerberus had three 
heads of dogs, the tail of a dragon, and on his back 
the heads of all sorts of snakes. When Hercules 
was about to depart to fetch him, he went to Eumol- 
pus at Eleusis, wishing to be initiated. However it 
was not then lawful for foreigners to be initiated : 
since he proposed to be initiated as the adoptive son 
of Pylius. But not being able to see the mysteries 
because he had not been cleansed of the slaughter of 
the centaurs, he was cleansed by Eumolpus and then 
initiated.2, And having come to Taenarum in Laconia, 


these contradictions, and he is followed as usual by Tzetzes 
(Chiltades, ii. 390 sqqg.), who, however, at the same time 
speaks of Cerberus as fifty-headed. The whole of the 
present passage of Apollodorus, from the description of 
Cerberus down to Hercules’s slaughter of one of the kine 
of Hades, is quoted, with a few small variations, by a 
Scholiast on Homer, Jl. viii. 368. See Dindorf’s edition of 
the Scholia, vol. i. p. 287. The quotation is omitted by Bekker 
in his edition of the Scholia (p. 233). 

2 As to the initiation of Hercules at Eleusis, compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 1; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 394. 
According to Diodorus, the rites were performed on this 
occasion by Musaeus, son of Orpheus. Elsewhere (iv. 14. 3) 
the same writer says that Demeter instituted the lesser 
Eleusinian mysteries in honour of Hercules for the purpose 
of purifying him after his slaughter of the centaurs. The 
statement that Pylius acted as adoptive father to Hercules 
at his initiation is repeated by Plutarch (Theseus, 33), who 
mentions that before Castor and Pollux were initiated at 
Athens they were in like manner adopted by Aphidnus. 
Herodotus says (viii. 65) that any Greek who pleased might ᾿ 
be initiated at Eleusis. The initiation of Hercules is repre- 
sented in ancient reliefs. See A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 425 sqq. 


233 


APOLLODORUS 


a “A ὃ 1 ’ Ν 7 3 
τῆς ἰδου 1 καταβάσεως τὸ στόμιον ἐστι, 
διὰ τούτου κατήει.32 ὁπηνίκα δὲ εἶδον αὐτὸν αἱ 

’ A Ἁ 4 ~ 
ψυχαί, χωρὶς Μελεάγρου καὶ Μεδούσης τῆς 
Γοργόνος ἔφυγον. ἐπὶ δὲ τὴν Γοργόνα τὸ ξίφος 
ὡς ζῶσαν ἕλκει, καὶ παρὰ ‘Eppod μανθάνει ὅτι 

\ wv 7 9 , \ [ον ef 
κενὸν εἴδωλόν ἐστι. πλησίον δὲ τῶν “Atdou 
πυλῶν γενόμενος Θησέα εὗρε καὶ Πειρίθουν τὸν 
Περσεφόνης μνηστευόμενον γάμον καὶ διὰ τοῦτο 
δεθέντα. θεασάμενοι δὲ Ἡρακλέα τὰς χεῖρας 
@peyov ὡς ἀναστησόμενοι διὰ τῆς ἐκείνου βίας. 
ὁ δὲ Θησέα μὲν λαβόμενος τῆς χειρὸς ἤγειρε, 
Πειρίθουν δὲ ἀναστῆσαι βουλόμενος τῆς γῆς 


1 τῆς “Αιδου καταβάσεως EA, Scholiast on Homer, Jl. viii. 
368 : τῆς εἰς ἽΑιδου καταβάσεως Heyne (conjecture), Wester- 
mann, Hercher, Wagner. 

2 κατήει Scholiast on Homer, viii. 368, Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miller, Bekker, Hercher : ἀπήει A: ἐπήει E, Wagner. 


1 Compare Euripides, Hercules furens, 23 sqq.; Pausanias, 
xxv. 5; Seneca, Hercules furens, 807 sqqg. Sophocles seems 
to have written a Satyric drama on the descent of Hercules 
into the infernal regions at Taenarum. See The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. O. Pearson, vol, i. pp. 167 sg. According 
to another account, Hercules descended, not at Taenarum 
but at the Acherusian Chersonese, near Heraclea Pontica on 
the Black Sea. The marks of the descent were there pointed 
out toa great depth. See Xenophon, Anabasts, vi. 2. 2. 

2 So Bacchylides (Hpinic. v. 71 sqq.) represents Hercules 
in Hades drawing his bow against the ghost of Meleager in 
shining armour, who reminds the hero that there is nothing 
to fear from the souls of the dead ; s0, too, Virgil (Aen. vi. 
290 sqq.) describes Aeneas in Hades drawing his sword on the 
Gorgons and Harpies, till the Sibyl tells him that they are 
mere flitting empty shades. Apollodorus more correctly 
speaks of the ghost of only one Gorgon (Medusa), because of 
the three Gorgons she alone was mortal. See Apollodorus, 
ii. 4.2. Compare Homer, Od. xi. 634 sq. ᾿ 

8 On Theseus and Pirithous in hell, see Apollodorus, 


234 


THE LIBRARY, 11. v. 12 


where is the mouth of the descent to Hades, he 
descended through it.!_ But when the souls saw him, 
they fled, save Meleager and the Gorgon Medusa. 
And Hercules drew his sword against the Gorgon, as 
if she were alive, but he learned from Hermes that 
she was an empty phantom.* And being come near 
to the gates of Hades he found Theseus and Piri- 
thous,? him who wooed Persephone in wedlock 
and was therefore bound fast. And when they 
beheld Hercules, they stretched out their hands 
as if they should be raised from the dead by his 
might. And Theseus, indeed, he took by the hand 
and raised up, but when he would have brought up 


Epitome, i. 23 sq.; Homer, Od. xi. 631 ; Euripides, Hercules 
furens, 619; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 101 sqq., with the 
Scholiast on 101; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 26. 1, iv. 63. 4 54.; 
Pausanias, i. 17. 4, ix. 31. 5, x. 29.9; Apostolius, Cent. iii. 
36 ; Suidas, 8.v. Alowe: ; Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights, 
1368 ; Virgil, Aen. vi. 392 sqq., 617 sq.; Horace, Odes, iii. 4. 
79 84ᾳ.. iv. 7. 27 8ᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 79; Aulus Gellius, x. 16. 
13; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. vi. 617 ; Scriptores rerum mythi- 
carum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 18 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 48). The general opinion seems to have been 
that Hercules rescued Theseus, but that he could not save 
Pirithous. Others, however, alleged that he brought up both 
from the dead (Hyginus, l.c.); others again affirmed that he 
brought up neither (Diodorus Siculus, iv. 63. 5). A dull 
rationalistic version of the romantic story converted Hades 
into a king of the Molossians or Thesprotians, named 
Aidoneus, who had a wife Persephone, a daughter Cora, and 
a dog Cerberus, which he set to worry his daughter’s suitors, 
promising to give her in marriage to him who could master 
the ferocious animal. Discovering that Theseus and Pirithous 
were come not to woo but to steal his daughter, he arrested 
them. The dog made short work of Pirithous, but Theseus 
was kept in durance till the king consented to release him at 
the intercession of Hercules. See Plutarch, Z'heseus, 31. 4 
and 35. 1 8ᾳ.; Aelian, Var. Htst. iv. 5; Pausanias, i. 17. 4, 
i. 18. 4, ii. 22. 6, iii. 18.5; J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, ii. 406 sqq. 


235 


APOLLODORUS 


κινουμένης ἀφῆκεν. ἀπεκύλισε δὲ καὶ τὸν ’AcKa- 
λάφου πέτρον. βουλόμενος δὲ αἷμα ταῖς ψυχαῖς 
παρασχέσθαι, μίαν τῶν “Αἰδου βοῶν ἀπέσφαξεν. 
ὁ δὲ νέμων αὐτὰς Μενοίτης ὁ Κευθωνύμου 1 προ- 
καλεσάμενος © εἰς πάλην Ἡρακλέα, ληφθεὶς 
μέσος ὃ καὶ τὰς πλευρὰς κατεαγεὶς * ὑπὸ Περσε- 
φόνης παρῃτήθη. αἰτοῦντος δὲ αὐτοῦ Πλούτωνα 
τὸν Κέρβερον, ἐπέταξεν ὁ Πλούτων ἄγειν χωρὶς 
ὧν εἶχεν ὅπλων κρατοῦντα. ὁ δὲ εὑρὼν αὐτὸν 
ἐπὶ ταῖς πύλαις τοῦ ᾿Αχέροντος, τῷ τε θώρακι 
συμπεφραγμένος καὶ τῇ λεοντῇ συσκεπασθείς, 
περιβαλὼν τῇ κεφαλῇ τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἀνῆκε" 
κρατῶν καὶ ἄγχων τὸ θηρίον, ἕ ἕως ἔπεισε, καΐπερ 
δακνόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ κατὰ τὴν οὐρὰν δράκοντος. 
συλλαβὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ἧκε διὰ Τροιζῆνος ποιησά- 
μενος τὴν ἀνάβασιν. ᾿Ασκάλαφον μὲν οὖν 
Δημήτηρ ἐποίησεν ὦτον, δ Ἡρακλῆς δὲ Εὐρυσθεῖ 
δείξας τὸν Κέρβερον πάλιν ἐκόμισεν εἰς “ Atdou. 
VI. Mera δὲ τοὺς ἄθλους Ἡρακλῆς ἀφικόμενος 
4 ’ Ἁ Μ 9 4 b) ἃ Ἁ 
εἰς Θήβας Μεγάραν μὲν ἔδωκεν "lord, αὐτὸς δὲ 
[ο] 4 b 4 Ww 
γῆμαι θέλων ἐπυνθάνετο Εὔρυτον Οἰχαλίας 
δυνάστην ἄθλον προτεθεικέναι | τὸν Ἰόλης τῆς 
θυγατρὸς γάμον τῷ νικήσαντι τοξικῇ ὃ αὐτόν τε 
1 Κευθωνύμου Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 897, Aegius: κυθωνύμου 
K. 3 προκαλεσάμενος Faber : προσκαλεσάμενοι ΒΑ. 
᾿ μέσος Faber: μέσον EA. 4 κατεαγεὶς E: κατεάξας A. 
5 οὐκ ἀνῆκε. . « δράκοντος E: οὐκ ἀνῆκε, καίπερ δακνόμενος 
ὑπὸ τοῦ κατὰ oh οὐρὰν δράκοντος, κρατῶν ἐκ τοῦ τραχήλου καὶ 
ἄγχων τὸ θηρίον ἔπεισε Α. 6. ὦτον Aegius: ὄνον ΕΑ. 


7 προτεθεικέναι KE: προτεθῆναι RR®B: προτεθεῖναι C. 
8 τοξικῇ EK: τοξικὴν A. - 


1 See Apollodorus, i. 5. ὃ. 
2 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 396 sqq., who calls the 
herdsman Menoetius. 


236 








THE LIBRARY, II. v. 12-v1. 1 


Pirithous, the earth quaked and he let go. And he 
rolled away also the stone of Ascalaphus.! And 
wishing to provide the souls with blood, he 
slaughtered one of the kine of Hades. But 
Menoetes, son of Ceuthonymus, who tended the kine, 
challenged Hercules to wrestle, and, being seized 
round the middle, had his ribs broken ;2 howbeit, he 
was let off at the request of Persephone. When 
Hercules asked Pluto for Cerberus, Pluto ordered 
him to take the animal provided he mastered him 
without the use of the weapons which he carried. 
Hercules found him at the gates of Acheron, and, 
cased in his cuirass and covered by the lion’s skin, he 
flung his arms round the head of the brute, and 
though the dragon in its tail bit him, he never 
relaxed his grip and pressure till it yielded. So he 
carried it off and ascended through Troezen.* But 
Demeter turned Ascalaphus into a short-eared ον], 
and Hercules, after showing Cerberus to Eurystheus, 
carried him back to Hades. 

VI. After his labours Hercules went to Thebes 
and gave Megara to Iolaus,® and, wishing himself to 
wed, he ascertained that Eurytus, prince of Oechalia, 
had proposed the hand of his daughter Iole as a 
prize to him who should vanquish himself and his 

8. Literally, ‘‘ till he persuaded (it).” 

4 Compare Pausanias, ii. 31.2. According to others, the 
ascent of Hercules with Cerberus took place at Hermione 
(Pausanias, ii. 35. 10) or on Mount Laphystius in Boeotia 
(Pausanias, ix. 34. 5). 

δ Compare Ovid, Metamorph. v. 538 sqq. As to the short- 
eared owl (ὦτοΞς), see D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary 

of Greek Birds, pp. 200 sq. 

6 With this and what follows down to the adventure with 
Syleus, compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31 (who seems to be 
following the same authority as Apollodorus) ; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 412-435. 

237 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ τοὺς παῖδας αὐτῷ ὑπάρχοντας. ἀφικόμενος 
~ “a 4 a 
οὖν εἰς Οἰχαλίαν καὶ τῇ τοξικῇ κρείττων αὐτῶν 
γενόμενος οὐκ ἔτυχε τοῦ γάμου, Ἰφίτου μὲν τοῦ 
πρεσβυτέρον τῶν παίδων λέγοντος διδόναι τῷ 
Ἡρακλεῖ τὴν “lornv, Εὐρύτου δὲ καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν 
, \ 
ἀπαγορευόντων καὶ δεδοικέναι λεγόντων μὴ 
τεκνοποιησάμενος τὰ γεννηθησόμεναϊ πάλιν 
9 ’ 4 9 \ \ nn 3 
2 ἀποκτείνῃς. pet οὐ πολὺ δὲ κλαπεισῶν ἐξ 
Εὐβοίας ὑπὸ Αὐτολύκου βοῶν, Εὔρυτος μὲν 
4 ἢ e > ¢ , 7 fe) v 
ἐνομιζεν up Ἡρακλέους γεγονέναι τοῦτο, Ideros 
δὲ ἀπιστῶν ἀφικνεῖται πρὸς Ἡρακλέα, καὶ συν- 
τυχὼν ἥκοντι ἐκ Φερῶν Σ αὐτῷ, σεσωκότι τὴν 
ἀποθανοῦσαν “Adxnotw ᾿Αδμήτῳ, παρακαλεῖ 
συζητῆσαι τὰς βόας. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ὑπισχνεῖται' 
καὶ ξενίξζξει μὲν αὐτόν, μανεὶς δὲ αὖθις ἀπὸ τῶν 
Va Μ > \ A n \ 
Τιρυνθίων ἔρριψεν αὐτὸν τειχῶν. καθαρθῆναι δὲ 
θέλων τὸν φόνον ἀφικνεῖται πρὸς Νηλέα" Πυλίων 
ἦν οὗτος δυνάστης. ἀπωσαμένον δὲ Νηλέως 
32 ON \ \ ‘ Μ 4 ? 3 ᾽ὔ 
αὐτὸν διὰ τὴν πρὸς Εὔρυτον φιλίαν, εἰς ᾿Αμύκλας 
’ Ἁ »Ὺ, ες 
παραγενόμενος ὑπὸ Δηιφόβου τοῦ ᾿Ἱππολύτου 
καθαίρεται. κατασχεθεὶς δὲ δεινῇ νόσῳ διὰ τὸν 
᾿Ιφίτου φόνον, εἰς Δελφοὺς παραγενόμενος ἀπαλ- 


1 γεννηθησόμενα Εἰ : γενησόμενα R: γεννησόμενα A. 
2 Φερῶν R: φορῶν A. 


1 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Jl. v. 392; Sophocles, 
Trachiniae, 260 sqq., with the Scholiast on 266 ; Scholiast on 
Euripides, Hippolytus, 545. 

? As he had killed the children he had by Megara. See 
Apollodorus, ii. 4. 12. 

8 The story is told somewhat differently by Homer (Od. 
xxi, 23-30). According to him, Iphitus had lost twelve 
mares (not oxen) and came in search of them to Hercules, 
who murdered him in his house and kept the mares. A 


238 





THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 1-2 


sons in archery.! So he came to Oechalia, and 
though he proved himself better than them at 
archery, yet he did not get the bride; for while 
Iphitus, the elder of Eurytus’s sons, said that Iole 
should be given to Hercules, Eurytus and the others 
refused, and said they feared that, if he got children, 
he would again kill his offspring.? Not long after, 
some cattle were stolen from Euboea by Autolycus, 
and Eurytus supposed that it was done by Her- 
cules; but Iphitus did not believe it and went to 
Hercules. And meeting him, as he came from 
Pherae after saving the dead Alcestis for Admetus, 
he invited him to seek the kine with him. Hercules 
promised to do so and entertained him; but going 
mad again he threw him from the walls of Tiryns.® 
Wishing to be purified of the murder he repaired to 
Neleus, who was prince of the Pylians. And when 
Neleus rejected his request on the score of his friend- 
ship with Eurytus, he went to Amyclae and was 
purified by Deiphobus, son of Hippolytus.* But 
being afflicted with a dire disease on account of the 
murder of Iphitus he went to Delphi and inquired 


Scholiast on Homer (Od. xxi. 22) says that the mares had 
been stolen by Autolycus and sold by him to Hercules. 
Another Scholiast on the same passage of Homer, who 
refers to Pherecydes as his authority, says that Hercules 
treacherously lured Iphitus to the top of the wall, then hurled 
him down. As to the quest of the mares and the murder of 
Iphitus, see also Sophocles, Trachiniae, 270-273 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 31. 2 sg. (who says that Hercules himself stole 
the mares out of spite at Eurytus) ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 
417-423 ; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. v. 392. Apollodorus seems 
to be the only writer who substitutes cattle for mares in this 
story. 

‘ Cornipate Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31. 4 sg.; Scholiast on 
Homer, J]. v. 392. 


239 


APOLLODORUS 


λαγὴν ἐπυνθάνετο τῆς νόσου. μὴ χρησμῳδούσης 
δὲ αὐτῷ τῆς Πυθίας τόν τε ναὸν συλᾶν ἤθελε, καὶ 
τὸν τρίποδα βαστάσας κατασκευάζειν μαντεῖον 
ἴδιον. μαχομένου δὲ αὐτῷ ᾿Απόλλωνος, ὁ Ζεὺς 
ἴησι μέσον αὐτῶν κεραυνόν. καὶ τοῦτον διαλυ- 
θέντων τὸν τρόπον, λαμβάνει χρησμὸν Ἡρακλῆς, 
ὃς ἔλεγεν ἀπαλλαγὴν αὐτῷ τῆς νόσου ἔσεσθαι 
πραθέντι καὶ τρία ἔτη λατρεύσαντι καὶ δόντι 
ποινὴν τοῦ φόνου τὴν τιμὴν Εὐρύτῳ. τοῦ δὲ 
χρησμοῦ δοθέντος Ἑρμῆς Ἡρακλέα mim packet’ 
καὶ αὐτὸν ὠνεῖται ᾿Ομφάλη ᾿ἸἸαρδάνου,Σ βασι- 
λεύουσα Λυδῶν, ἣ τὴν ἡγεμονίαν τελευτῶν ὁ 
γήμας Ἰμῶλος κατέλιπε. τὴν μὲν οὖν τιμὴν 
κομισθεῖσαν Εὔρυτος οὐ προσεδέξατο, Ἡρακλῆς 
δὲ ᾿Ομφάλῃ δουλεύων τοὺς μὲν περὶ τὴν Ἔφεσον 
Κέρκωπας συλλαβὼν ἔδησε, Συλέα δὲ ἐν 

1 κατασκευάζειν Εἰ : κατασκευάζει A. 

2 ἰαρδάνου R (second hand), Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 430: 
iopSdvov EA. The MSS. of Pausanias similarly vary between 
the forms ἰαρδάνου and ἰορδάνον as the name of a river in 


Elis. See Pausanias vi. 21. 6, with the critical notes of 
Schubart and Walz, of Hitzig and Bliimner. 





1 As to the attempt of Hercules to carry off the tripod, see 
Plutarch, De EI apud Delphos, 6; id. De sera numinis 
vindicta, 12 (who says that Hercules carried it off to Pheneus); 
Pausanias, iii. 21. 8, viii. 37. 1, x. 13. 7 8g.; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Olymp. ix. 29 (43); Cicero, De natura deorum, iii. 
16. 42; Hyginus, Fab. 32; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300. 
The subject was often represented in ancient art; for example, 
it was sculptured in the gable of the Treasury of the Siph- 
nians at Delphi; the principal pieces of the sculpture were 
discovered by the French in their excavation of the sanctuary. 
See E. Bourguet, Les ruines de Delphes (Paris, 1914), pp. 76 
8qq., and my commentary on Pausanias, vol. v. pp. 274 sq. 

2 As to Hercules and Omphale, see Sophocles, Trachiniae, 
247 eqg.; Diodorus Siculus,.iv. 31. 5-8; Lucian, Dialog. 


240 








THE LIBRARY, I], vr. 2-3 


how he might be rid of the disease. As the Pythian 
priestess answered him not by oracles, he was fain to 
plunder the temple, and, carrying off the tripod, to 
institute an oracle of his own. But Apollo fought 
him,! and Zeus threw a thunderbolt between them. 
When they had thus been parted, Hercules received 
an oracle, which declared that the remedy for his 
disease was for him to be sold, and to serve for three 
years, and to pay compensation for the murder to 
Eurytus. After the delivery of the oracle, Hermes 
sold Hercules, and he was bought by Omphale,? 
daughter of Iardanes, queen of Lydia, to whom 
at his death her husband Tmolus had bequeathed 
the government. Eurytus did not accept the compen- 
sation when it was presented to him, but Hercules 
served Omphale as a slave, and in the course of his 
servitude he seized and bound the Cercopes at 
Ephesus ; 8 and as for Syleus in Aulis, who compelled 


deorum. xiii.2; Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae, 45; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 425 sqq.; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xxi. 22; 
Joannes Lydus, De magistratibus, iii. 64 ; Ovid, Herotdes, 
ix. 55 sqq.; Hyyinus, Fab. 32; Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus, 371 
sqq.; Statius, Theb. x. 646-649. According to Pherecydes, 
cited by the Scholiast on Homer (l.c.), Hermes sold Hercules 
to Omphale for three talents. The sum obtained by his sale 
was to be paid as compensation to the sons of the murdered 
Iphitus, according to Diodorus (7.c.). The period of his ser- 
vitude, according to Sophocles (Trachiniae, 252 8q.), was 
only one year; but Herodorus, cited by the Scholiast on 
Sophocles (Trach. 253), says that it was three years, which 
agrees with the statement of Apollodorus. 

3 As to the Cercopes, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31. 7; 
Nonnus, in Mythographi Graeci, ed. A. Westermann, Appen- 
dix Narrationum, 39, Ὁ. 375; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 431, 
v. 73 8qq.; Zenobius, Cent, v. 10; Apostolius, Cent. xi. 19. 
These malefactors were two in number. Hercules is said to 
have carried them hanging with their heads downward from 


241 
VOL I. R 


APOLLODORUS 


Αὐλίδεϊ τοὺς παριόντας ξένους σκάπτειν ἀναγκά- 
ζοντα, σὺν ταῖς ῥίξαις τὰς ἀμπέλους καύσας 3 μετὰ 
τῆς θυγατρὸς ἘΞενοδόκης ὃ ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ προσ- 
σχὼν νήσῳ Δολίχῃ, τὸ ᾿Ικάρου σῶμα ἰδὼν τοῖς 
αἰγιαλοῖς προσφερόμενον ἔθαψε, καὶ τὴν νῆσον 
ἀντὶ Δολίχης ᾿Ικαρίαν ἐκάλεσεν. ἀντὶ τούτου Δαί- 
δαλος ἐν Πίσῃ εἰκόνα παραπλησίαν κατεσκεύασεν 
Ἡρακλεῖ: ἣν νυκτὸς ἀγνοήσας “Ἡρακλῆς λίθῳ 
βαλὼν ὡς ἔμπνουν ἔπληξε. καθ᾽ ὃν δὲ χρόνον 
ἐλάτρενε παρ᾽ ᾽᾿Ομφάλῃ, λέγεται τὸν ἐπὶ Κόλχους 
πλοῦν γενέσθαι καὶ τὴν τοῦ Καλυδωνίου κάπρου 


1 ἐν Αὐλίδι EA, Miiller, Bekker, Wagner: ἐν Λυδίᾳ Pierson, 
Westermann: τὸν Λύδιον Gale: ἐν αὐλῶνι or ἐν ἀμπελῶνι 
Heyne (conjecture): ἐν Φύλλιδι Hercher. But Heyne’s con- 
jecture ἐν ἀμπελῶνι may be right; for a place Aulis in Lydia 
is Otherwise unknown, and the mention of the vineyards 
seems essential to the sense. Compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 31. 7, Συλέα δὲ τοὺς παριόντας ξένους συναρπάζοντα καὶ τοὺς 
ἀμπελῶνας σκάπτειν ἀναγάζοντα ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 
432 8q., Συλέα καὶ τὸν Λύδιον, βιάζοντας τοὺς ξένους || τοὺς 
ἀμπελῶνας αὐτῶν σκάπτειν δουλείας τρόπῳ. Tzetzes appears 
to have made two men out of Syleus the Lydian: his version 
favours Gale’s conjecture in the present passage of Apollo- 
dorus. The passage should perhaps be rewritten as follows : 
Συλέα δὲ τὸν Λύδιον τοὺς παριόντας ξένους «--τοὺς &uweAGvas > 
σκάπτειν ἀναγκάζοντα, σὺν ταῖς ῥίζαις τὰς ἀμπέλους ἀνασπάσας 
κτλ. See the next note. 

2 καύσας Εἰ: σκάψας A: σπάσας Meineke. We should per- 
haps read ἀνασπάσας, comparing Tzetzes, Chiliadea, ii. 435, 
καὶ προθελύμνους ἀνασπᾶ καὶ τούτου τὰς ἀμπέλους. -The up- 
rooted vines are shown at the feet of Hercules and Syleus in 
a vase-painting. See W.H. Roscher, Lexikon d. griech. w. 
rom. Myth. iii. 1622. 

3 Ξενοδόκης EC: Ἐενοδίκης ΒΔ, Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 434. 


a pole. They are so represented in Greek art. See W. H. 
Roscher, Lexikon der griech. und rém. Mythologie, ii. 1166 sqq. 
The name Cercopes seems to mean ‘‘ tailed men,” (from κέρκος, 
‘*tail”). One story concerning them was that they were 


242 








THE LIBRARY, IL. νι. 3 


passing strangers to dig, Hercules killed him with his 
daughter Xenodice, after burning the vines with the 
roots.4 And having putin to the island of Doliche, he 
saw the body of Icarus washed ashore and buried it, 
and he called the island Icaria instead of Doliche. In 
return Daedalus made a portrait statue of Hercules 
at Pisa, which Hercules mistook at night for living 
and threw a stone and hit it. And during the time 
of his servitude with Omphale it is said that the 
voyage to Colchis? and the hunt of the Calydonian 


deceitful men whom Zeus punished by turning them into 
apes, and that the islands of Ischia and Procida, off the 
Bay of Naples, were called Pithecusae (‘‘ Ape Islands ”) after 
them. See Harpocration, s.v. Κέρκωψ ; Eustathius, on Homer, 
Od. xix. 247, p. 1864; Ovid, Metamorph, xiv. 88 sqg. Accord- 
aed to Pherecydes, the Cercopes were turned into stone. See 
Scholiast on Lucian, Alexander, 4, p. 181, ed. H. Rabe. The 
story of Hercules and the Cercopes has been interpreted as a 
reminiscence of Phoenician traders bringing apes to Greek 
markets. See O. Keller, Thiere des classischen Alterthums 
(Innsbruck, 1887), p. 1. The interpretation may perhaps be 
supported by an Assyrian bas-relief which represents a Hercu- 
lean male figure carrying an ape on his head and leading 
another ape by a leash, the animals being apparently brought 
as tribute to a king. See Ὁ. Keller, op. ctt., p. 11, fig. 2; 
i et Chipiez, Histoire de [Art dans? Antiquité, ii. 547, 
g. 254. 

1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31.7; J. Tzetzes, Chtliades, 
li. 432 sg.; Conon, Narrat. 17. Euripides wrote a satyric 
play on the subject. See 7'ragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck’, pp. 575 sgqg. The legend may be based on 
a custom practised by vine-dressers on passing strangers. See 
W. Mannhardt, Mythologische Forschungen, pp.12,538q.,who, 
for the rough jests of vine-dressers in antiquity, refers to 
Horace, Sat. i. 8. 28 sqq.; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xviii. 26. 66. (249). 

2 That is, the voyage of the Argo. See above, i. 9. 16 8qq. 
As to the hunt of the Calydonian boar, see above, i. 8. 2 844. 
As to the clearance of the Isthmus by Theseus, see below, 
ili. 16, and the Hpttome, i. 1 sqq. 

243 
R 2 





APOLLODORUS 


θήραν, καὶ Θησέα παραγενόμενον ἐκ Τροιζῆνος 
τὸν ᾿Ισθμὸν καθᾶραι. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν λατρείαν ἀπαλλαγεὶς τῆς νόσου 
ἐπὶ Ἵλιον ἔπλει πεντηκοντόροις ὀκτωκαίδεκα, 
συναθροίσας στρατὸν ἀνδρῶν ἀρίστων ἑκουσίως 
θελόντων στρατεύεσθαι. καταπλεύσας δὲ εἰς 
Ἴλιον τὴν μὲν τῶν νεῶν φυλακὴν ᾿Οικλεῖ κατέ- 
λίσεν, αὐτὸς δὲ μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἀριστέων ὥρμα 
ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν. παραγενόμενος δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς 

\ A , ’ 3 ’ 3 / 
σὺν τῷ πλήθει Λαομέδων ᾿Οικλέα μὲν ἀπέκτεινε 

’ ’ θ \ 1 δὲ e Ἁ ra \ Ἥ 
μαχόμενον, απελασθεῖὶς" ὃὲ ὑπὸ τῶν μετὰ Hpa- 
κλέους ἐπολιορκεῖτο. τῆς δὲ πολιορκίας ἐνε- 
στώσης ῥήξας τὸ τεῖχος Τελαμὼν πρῶτος εἰσῆλθεν 

a [4 Aa 
εἰς τὴν πόλιν, καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Ἡρακλῆς. ὡς δὲ 
3 4 κι A , ἢ 
ἐθεάσατο Τελαμῶνα πρῶτον εἰσεληλυθότα, σπα- 
σάμενος τὸ ξίφος ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ὥρμα,Σ μηδένα θέλων 
ἑαυτοῦ «ρείττονα νομίζεσθαι. συνιδὼν δὲ τοῦτο 
Γ 4 (θ ’ ’ 0 
εἐλαμὼν λίθους πλησίον κειμένους συνήθροιζε, 

“ N e 
τοῦ δὲ ἐρομένου τί πράττοι βωμὸν εἶπεν ‘Hpax- 
λέους κατασκευάζειν καλλινίκου. ὁ δὲ ἐπαινέσας, 

a 
ὡς εἷλε τὴν πόλιν, κατατοξεύσας Λαομέδοντα καὶ 
τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ χωρὶς Ποδάρκου, Τελαμῶνι 
ἀριστεῖον Ἡσιόνην τὴν Λαομέδοντος θυγατέρα 


1 ἀπελασθεὶς A: ἀπελαθεὶς 8, Heyne, Westermann, Miil- 
ler, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. On the form of the aorist 
ἐλασθείς, see Veitch, Greek Verbs (Oxford, 1879), p. 240. 

2 ὥρμα EB: ει A, Wagner. 


1 As to the siege and capture of Troy by Hercules, see 
Homer, Jl. v. 640-643, 648-651; Pindar, Jsthm. vi. 26 (38) 
8qq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 32; J. Tzetzes, Chiltadea, ii. 443 
8q.; id. Schol. on Lycophron, 34; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 213- 
217, xiii. 22 sqg.; Hyginus, Fab. 89. The account given by 
Diodorus agrees so closely in matter, though not in words, 


244 


THE LIBRARY, II. νι. 3-4 


boar took place, and that Theseus on his way from 
Troezen cleared the Isthmus of malefactors. 

After his servitude, being rid of his disease he 
mustered an army of noble volunteers and sailed for 
Ilium with eighteen ships of fifty oars each.1 And 
having come to port at Ilium, he left the guard of 
the ships to Oicles 5 and himself with the rest of the 
champions set out to attack the city. Howbeit Lao- 
medon marched against the ships with the multitude 
and slew Oicles in battle, but being repulsed by the 
troops of Hercules, he was besieged. The siege 
once laid, Telamon was the first to breach the wall 
and enter the city, and after him Hercules. But 
when he saw that Telamon had entered it first, he 
drew his sword and rushed at him, loath that anybody 
should be reputed a better man than himself. Per- 
ceiving that, Telamon collected stones that lay to hand, 
and when Hercules asked him what he did, he said he 
was building an altar to Hercules the Glorious Vic- 
tor.2 Hercules thanked him, and when he had taken 
the city and shot down Laomedon and his sons, except 
Podarces, he assigned Laomedon’s daughter Hesione 


with that of Apollodorus that both authors probably drew on 
the same source. Homer, with whom Tzetzes agrees, says 
that Hercules went to Troy with only six ships. Diodorus 
notices the Homeric statement, but mentions that according 
to some the fleet of Hercules numbered “ eighteen long ships.” 

2. As to Oicles at Troy, compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 32. 3 ; 
Pausanias, viii. 36. 6, who says that his tomb was shown 
near Megalopolis in Arcadia. Sophocles seems to have 
written a play called Ovcles, though there is some doubt as 
to the spelling of the name. See The Fragments of Sophocles, 
ed. A.C. Pearson, vol. ii. p. 119. 

3 This incident is recorded also by Tzetzes (Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 469) ; but according to him the title which Telamon 
applied to Hercules at the altar was Averter of Ills (Alea- 
bake), not Glorious Victor (Kallinikos). 


245 


APOLLODORUS 


δίδωσι, καὶ ταύτῃ συγχωρεῖ τῶν αἰχμαλώτων ὃ ὃν 
ἤθελεν ἄγεσθαι. τῆς δὲ αἱρουμένης τὸν ἀδελφὸν 
Ποδάρκην, ἔφη δεῖν πρῶτον αὐτὸν δοῦλον 
γενέσθαι, καὶ τότε τί ποτε δοῦσαν ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ" 
λαβεῖν αὐτόν. ἡ δὲ πιπρασκομένου τὴν καλύπτ- 
ραν ἀφελομένη τῆς κεφαλῆς ἀντέδωκεν: ὅθεν 
Ποδάρκης Πρίαμος ἐκλήθη. 

VII. Πλέοντος δὲ ἀπὸ Tpotas ᾿Ηρακλέους 
Ηρα χαλεποὺς ἔπεμψε" χειμῶνας" ἐφ᾽ οἷς 
ἀγανακτήσας Ζεὺς ἐ ἐκρέμασεν αὐτὴν ἐξ Ὀλύμπου. 
προσέπλει δὲ Ἡρακλῆς τῇ Ko: καὶ νομίσαντες 
αὐτὸν οἱ Κῷοι λῃστρικὸν ἄγειν στόλον, βάλ- 
λοντες λίθοις προσπλεῖν ἐκώλυον. ὁ δὲ βιασά- 
μενος αὐτὴν νυκτὸς εἷλε, καὶ τὸν βασιλέα 
Εὐρύπυλον, ᾿Αστυπαλαίας παῖδα καὶ Ποσειδῶνος, 
ἔκτεινεν. ἐτρώθη δὲ κατὰ τὴν μάχην Ἡρακλῆς 
ὑπὸ Χαλκώδοντος, καὶ Διὸς ἐξαρπάσαντος αὐτὸν 
οὐδὲν ἔπαθε. πορθήσας δὲ Κῶ ἧκε δι᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς * 
εἰς Φλέγραν, καὶ μετὰ θεῶν κατεπολέμησε 
Γίγαντας. 


| δοῦσαν ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ E: δοῦσ᾽ ἀντ᾽ αὐτῶν A. 

" ἔπεμψε KA: ἐπέπεμψε conjectured by Heyne, who rightly 
observed that ἐπιπέμπειν is the usual word in this connexion. 
Compare i i. 9. 24, Hpttome, iil. 4, vi. 5. 

3 αὐτὴν νυκτὸς Wagner : τὴν νύκτα A. 

4 ᾿Αθηνᾶς Gale, Heyne (comparing i. 6. 1): ᾿Αθηνᾶν Wes- 
termann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner, apparently 
following the MSS. 


1 Compare Sophocles, Ajax, 1299-1303; Scholiast on 
Homer, £1. viii. 284; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 216 8q.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 89. 

2 This derivation of the name Priam from the verb priamat, 
‘*to buy,” is repeated, somewhat more clearly, by Tzetzes, 


246 








THE LIBRARY, IT. νι. 4-vir. 1 


as a prize to Telamon?! and allowed her to take with 
her whomsoever of the captives she would. When 
she chose her brother Podarces, Hercules said that 
he must first be a slave and then be ransomed by her. 
So when he was being sold she took the veil from her 
head and gave it as a ransom; hence Podarces was 
called Priam.? 

VII. When Hercules was sailing from Troy, Hera 
sent grievous storms,’ which so vexed Zeus that he 
hung her from Olympus.‘ Hercules sailed to Cos,5 
and the Coans, thinking he was leading a piratica] 
squadron, endeavoured to prevent his approach by a 
shower of stones. But he forced his way in and 
took the city by night, and slew the king, Eurypylus, 
son of Poseidon by Astypalaea. And Hercules was 
wounded in the battle by Chalcedon; but Zeus 
snatched him away, so that he took no harm. And 
having laid waste Cos, he came through Athena's 
agency to Phlegra, and sided with the gods in their 
victorious war on the giants.® 


Schol. on Lycophron, 34, Ποδάρκην ἐπρίατυ, ὅθεν καὶ ἐκλήθη 
Πρίαμος. Compare Hyginus, Fab. 89, Podarct, filio evus ἱπαρπίϊ, 
regnum dedit, qui postea Priamus est appellatus, ἀπὸ τοῦ 
πρίασθαι. For the bestowal by Hercules of the kingdom on the 
youthful Priam, compare Seneca, TJ’roades, 718 sqq. 

3 See Homer, Jl. xiv. 249 sqq., xv. 24 sqq. 

4 See Apollodorus, i. 3. 5. 

5 With the following account of Hercules’s adventures in 
Cos, compare the Scholiasts on Homer, Jl. i. 590, xiv. 255 ; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 445; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 363 sq. 
The Scholiast on Homer (II. xiv. 255) tells us that the story 
was found in Pherecydes, whom Apollodorus probably follows 
in the present passage. 

6 See Apollodorus, i. 6. 1 sq. 


247 


2 


APOLLODORUS 


Μετ’ ov πολὺ δὲ ἐπ᾽ Αὐγείαν ἐστρατεύετο, 
/ 3 Ν Ἁ \ \ 
συναθροίσας ᾿Αρκαδικὸν στρατὸν καὶ παραλαβὼν 
2 \ a 1 3 \ a "EB do ’ 
ἐθελοντὰς τῶν' ἀπὸ τῆς λλάδος ἀριστέων. 
’ ’ 
Αὐγείας δὲ τὸν ad’ Ἡρακλέους πόλεμον ἀκούων 
κατέστησεν ᾿Ηλείων στρατηγοὺς Εὔρυτον καὶ 
aA ε ’Ὁ 
Κτέατον συμφυεῖς, οὗ δυνάμει τοὺς τότε ἀνθρώ- 
πους ὑπερέβαλλον, παῖδες δὲ ἦσαν Morovns καὶ 
Ακτορος, ἐλέγοντο δὲ Ποσειδῶνος: "Ακτωρ δὲ 
ἀδελφὸς ἦν Αὐγείον. συνέβη δὲ Ἡρακλεῖ κατὰ 
τὴν στρατείαν νοσῆσαι διὰ τοῦτο καὶ σπονδὰς 
πρὸς τοὺς Μολιονίδας ἐποιήσατο. οἱ δὲ ὕστερον 
ἐπιγνόντες αὐτὸν νοσοῦντα, ἐπιτίθενται τῷ στρα- 
τεύματι καὶ κτείνουσι πολλούς. τότε μὲν οὖν 
[4 a . a 4 
ἀνεχώρησεν Ἡρακλῆς: αὖθις δὲ τῆς τρίτης 
9 / / 3 , \ / 
ἰσθμιάδος τελουμένης, λείων τοὺς Modovidas 
πεμψάντων συνθύτας, ἐν λεωναῖς ἐνεδρεύσας 
“ 4 
τούτους Ἡρακλῆς ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ στρατευσάμενος 
> Nv \ . Ἁ / 4 Ἁ 
ἐπὶ τὴν Ἦλιν εἷλε τὴν πόλιν. καὶ κτείνας μετὰ 
τῶν παίδων Αὐγείαν κατήγαγε Φυλέα, καὶ τούτῳ 
\ / EO 20 δὲ \ ἃ Ὀλ 
τὴν βασιλείαν ἔδωκεν. ἔθηκε δὲ καὶ τὸν υμ- 
1 τῶν ἀστῶν A, Westermann, Miller. ἀστῶν is rightly 


omitted by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner, following Heyne. 
2 οὖν E: οὖν οὐκ A. 


1 For the expedition of Hercules against Augeas, see 


Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 1; Pausanias, v.i. 10 sq., v. 2. 1, 
vi. 20. 16; Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. x. 31 (40). 

? As to Eurytus and Cteatus, who were called Actoriones 
after their father Actor, and Moliones or Molionides, after 
their mother Molione, see Homer, JI. ii. 621, xi. 709 sq., 751 
δᾳ., xxiii. 6388; Pausanias, v. 1. 10 sq., v. 2. 1 84. and 5. 
According to some, they had two bodies joined in one 
(Scholiast on Homer, .1{. xxiii. 638, 639). According to others, 
they had each two heads, four hands, and four feet but only 
one body (Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xi. 709). Compare Eusta- 
thius, on Homer, Jl. xi. 749, p. 882. The poet Ibycus spoke 


248 








THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 2 


Not long afterwards he collected an Arcadian 
army, and being joined by volunteers from the first 
men in Greece he marched against Augeas.! But 
Augeas, hearing of the war that Hercules was levying, 
appointed Eurytus and Cteatus? generals of the 
Eleans. They were two men joined in one, who 
surpassed all of that generation in strength and were 
sons of Actor by Molione, though their father was 
said to be Poseidon; now Actor was a brother of 
Augeas. But it came to pass that on the expedition 
Hercules fell sick ; hence he concluded a truce with 
the Molionides. But afterwards, being apprized of 
his illness, they attacked the army and slew many. 
On that occasion, therefore, Hercules beat a retreat ; 
but afterwards at the celebration of the third Isth- 
mian festival, when the Eleans sent the, Molionides to 
take part in the sacrifices, Hercules waylaid and 
killed them at Cleonae,® and marching on Elis took 
the city. And having killed Augeas and his sons, he 
restored Phyleus and bestowed on him the kingdom.' 
He also celebrated the Olympian games® and 


of them as twins, born of a silver egg and ‘‘ with equal heads 
in one body ” (ἰσοκεφάλους évtyuiovs). See Athenaeus, ii. 50, 
pp: 57 8g. Their story was told by Pherecydes (Scholiast on 
mer, Jl, xi. 709), whom Apollodorus may have followed in 

the present passage. 

5. Compare Pindar, Olymp. x. 26 (32) eqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 33.3; Pausanias, ii. 15. 1, v. 2. 1. 

4 Compare Pindar, Olymp. x. 34 (43) 84ᾳ.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 33. 4; Pausanias, v.3. 1; Scholiast on Homer, JJ. xi. 700. 

5 Hercules is said to have marked out the sacred precinct 
at Olympia, instituted the quadriennial Olympic festival, and 
celebrated the Olympic games for the first time. See Pindar, 
Olymp. iii. 3 sq., vi. 67 8qq., x. 43 (51) 8qq.; Diodorus Siculus; 
iv. 14. 8η., v. 64.6; Pausanias, v. 7.9, v. 8.1 and 3 sq.; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 41; Scholiast on Homer, J1. 
xi. 700; Hyginus, Fab. 273. 


249 


APOLLODORUS 


πιακὸν ἀγῶνα, Ἰ]έλοπός τε βωμὸν ἱδρύσατο, καὶ 
θεῶν δώδεκα βωμοὺς ἕξ! ἐδείματο. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν τῆς "Ἢλιδος ἅλωσιν ἐστράτευσεν 
ἐπὶ Πύλον, καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἑλὼν Περικλύμενον 
κτείνει τὸν ἀλκιμώτατον τῶν Νηλέως παίδων, ὃς 
μεταβάλλων τὰς μορφὰς ἐμάχετο. τὸν δὲ Νηλέα 
καὶ τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ χωρὶς Νέστορος ἀπέ- 
κτεινεν' οὗτος δὲ νέος ὧν παρὰ Τερηνίοις ἐτρέ- 
φετο. κατὰ δὲ τὴν μάχην καὶ “Αἰδην ἔτρωσε 
Πυλίοις βοηθοῦντα. 

“Ἑλὼν δὲ τὴν Πύλον ἐστράτευεν ἐπὶ Λακεδαί- 
μονα, μετελθεῖν τοὺς “Ἱπποκόωντος παῖδας θέλων' 
ὠργίζετο μὲν γὰρ αὐτοῖς καὶ διότε Νηλεῖ συνεμά- 
χήσαν, μᾶλλον δὲ ὠργίσθη ὅτι τὸν Λικυμνίου 
παῖδα ἀπέκτειναν. θεωμένου γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὰ 
Ἱπποκόωντος βασίλεια, ἐκδραμὼν κύων τῶν 
Μολοττικῶν" ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐφέρετο’ ὁ δὲ βαλὼν 
λίθον ἐπέτυχε τοῦ κυνός, ἐκτροχάσαντες δὲ οἱ 


1 ἐξ Heyne (conjecture), Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ἑξῆς 
A, Westermann. 2 οὗτος γὰρ E. 
3 Μολοττικῶν Aegius: μολπικῶν A. 


1 Apollodorus is probably mistaken in speaking of an altar 
of Pelops at Olympia. The more accurate Pausanias describes 
(v. 13. 1 sg.) a precinct of Pelops founded by Hercules at 
Olympia and containing a pit, in which the magistrates 
annually sacrificed a black ram to the hero: he does not 
mention an altar. As a hero, that is, a worshipful dead man, 
Pelops was not entitled to an altar, he had only a right to a 
sacrificial pit. For sacrifices to the dead in pits, see Homer, 
Od. xi. 23 sqqg.; Philostratus, Heroica, xx. 27; Scholiast on 
Euripides, Phoenissae, 274; Pausanias, ix. 39. 6; Fr. Pfister, 
Der Reliquienkult im Altertum, pp. 474 sqq. 

.2 As to the six double altars, each dedicated to a pair 
of deities, see Pindar, Olymp. v. 4 (8) sqq., x. 24 (30) 8q.; 


250 





THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 2-3 


founded an altar of Pelops,! and built six altars of 
the twelve gods.? 

After the capture of Elis he marched against 
Pylus,? and having taken the city he slew Pericly- 
menus, the most valiant of the sons of Neleus, who 
used to change his shape in battle.‘ And he slew 
Neleus and his sons, except Nestor; for he was a 
youth and was being brought up among the Geren- 
ians. In the fight he also wounded Hades, who was 
siding with the Pylians.° 

Having taken Pylus he marched against Lacedae- 
mon, wishing to punish the sons of Hippocoon,® for 
he was angry with them, both because they fought 
for Neleus, and still angrier because they had killed 
the son of Licymnius. For when he was looking at 
the palace of Hippocoon, a hound of the Molossian 
breed ran out and rushed at him, and he threw a 
stone and hit the dog, whereupon the Hippocoéntids 


Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. v. 4 (8) and 5 (10), who cites 
Herodorus on the foundation of the altars by Hercules. 

* As to the war of Hercules on Pylus, see Homer, Ji. v. 
392 sqq., xi. 690 sqq.; Scholiast on Homer, 11. ii. 396 ; Pausa- 
nias, 1i. 18.7, 111. 26.8, v. 3. 1, vi. 22.5, vi. 25.2 8q.; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiltades, ii. 451 ; Ovid, Metamorph. xii. 549 sqq. 

4 See Apollodorus, i. 9. 9, with the note. 

δ See Homer, Jl. v. 395 sqq.; Pausanias, vi. 25. 2 sq. Inthe 
same battle Hercules is said to have wounded Hera with 
an arrow in the right breast. See Homer, 11. v. 392 sqq.; 
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. ii. 36, p. 31, ed. Potter, from 
whom we learn that Panyasis Gientioned the wounding of the 
goddess by the hero. Again, in the same fight at Pylus, we 
read that Hercules gashed the thigh of Ares with his spear 
and laid that doughty deity in the dust. See Hesiod, Shteld 
of Hercules, 359 sqq. 

6 As to the war of Hercules with Hippocoon and his 
sons, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 5 sq.; Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, 
iii.10. 6, iii. 15. 3-6, iii. 19. 7, viii. 53. 9. 


251 


4 


APOLLODORUS 


᾿ἽἹπποκοωντίδαι καὶ τύπτοντες αὐτὸν τοῖς σκυτά. 
λοις ἀπέκτειναν. τὸν δὲ τούτου θάνατον ἐκδικῶν 
στρατιὰν ἐπὶ Λακεδαιμονίους ἃ συνήθροιξε. καὶ 
παραγενόμενος εἰς ᾿Αρκαδίαν ἠξίου Κηφέα μετὰ 
τῶν παίδων ὦ ὧν εἶχεν εἴκοσι συμμαχεῖν. δεδιὼς δὲ 
Κηφεὺς μὴ καταλιπόντος αὐτοῦ Τεγέαν ᾿Αργεῖοι 
ἐπιστρατεύσωνται, τὴν στρατείαν ἠρνεῖτο. ‘Hpa- 
κλῆς δὲ παρ᾽ ᾿Αθηνᾶς λαβὼν ἐν ὑδρίᾳ χαλκῇ " 
βόστρυχον Topyovos Στερόπῃ τῇ Κηφέως θυγα- 
τρὶ δίδωσιν, εἰπών, ἐὰν ἐπίῃ στρατύς, τρὶς ἀνα- 
σχούσης <éx>* τῶν τειχῶν τὸν βόστρυχον καὶ μὴ 
προϊδούσης ° τροπὴν τῶν πολεμίων ἔσεσθαι. τού- 
του γενομένου Ἰζηφεὺς μετὰ τῶν παίδων ἐστρά- 
τευε. καὶ κατὰ τὴν μάχην αὐτός τε καὶ οἱ are 
αὐτοῦ τελευτῶσι, Kal πρὸς τούτοις "I ικλῆς © 
τοῦ Ἡρακλέους ἀδελφός. Ἡρακλῆς é κτείνας 
τὸν Ἱπποκόωντα καὶ τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ «καὶ; 
χειρωσάμενος τὴν πόλιν, Τυνδάρεων καταγαγὼν 
τὴν βασιλείαν παρέδωκε τούτῳ. 

Παριὼν δὲ Τεγέαν Ἡρακλῆς τὴν Αὔγην ᾿Αλεοῦ 
θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἀγνοῶν ἔφθειρεν. ἡ δὲ τεκοῦσα 


omé 


Λακεδαιμονίους E: Λακεδαιμονίαν A: Λακεδαίμονα Hercher. 
χαλκῇ E: χαλκοῦς Α. 

+ Στερόπῃ EA: ᾿Αερόπῃ Pausanias, vill. 44. 7, Hercher. 

ὁ ἐκ inserted by Aegius. 

προϊδούσης EA: προσιδούσης Heyne (conjecture). 
Ἰφικλῆς Εἰ : Ἴφικλος A. 

καὶ inserted by Hercher. 


ες 


xy ao ὦ. 


1 Compare Pausanias, viii. 47. 5 

2 As to the story of Hercules, "Auge, and Telephius, see 
Apollodorus, iii. 9.1 ; Diodorus Siculus, i iv. 33. 7-12; Strabo, 
xiii. 1. 69, p. 615 ; Pausanias, viii. 4. 9, viii. 47. 4, viii. 48. 7, 
viii. 54. 6, x. 28. 8; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 206 ; 
Hyginus, F Fab. 99 SY. The tale was told by Hecataeus (Pausa- 


252 


THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 3-4 


darted out and despatched him with blows of their 
cudgels. It was to avenge his death that Hercules 
mustered an army against the Lacedaemonians. And 
having come to Arcadia he begged Cepheus to join 
him with his sons, of whom he had twenty. But 
fearing lest, if he quitted Tegea, the Argives would 
march against it, Cepheus refused to join the expe- 
dition. But Hercules had received from Athena a 
lock of the Gorgon’s hair in a bronze jar and gave it 
to Sterope, daughter of Cepheus, saying thatif an army 
advanced against the city, she was to hold up the 
lock of hair thrice from the walls, and that, provided 
she did not look before her, the enemy would be 
turned to flight.!_ That being so, Cepheus and his sons 
took the field, and in the battle he and his sons 
perished, and besides them Iphicles, the brother of 
Hercules, Having killed Hippocoon and his sons 
and subjugated the city, Hercules restored Tyndareus 
and entrusted the kingdom to him. 

Passing by Tegea, Hercules debauched Auge, not 
knowing her to be a daughter of Aleus.2?— And she 


nias, viii. 4. 9, viii. 47. 4), and was the theme of tragedies by 
Sophocles and Euripides. See Tragicorum Graecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 146 sqq., 436 sqq.; The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 46 sqq., ii. 70 sqq. 
Different versions of the story were current among ancient 
writers and illustrated by ancient artists. See my note on 
Pausanias, i. 4. 6 (vol. ii. pp. 75 eq.). One of these versions, 
which I omitted to notice in that place, ran as follows. On 
a visit to Delphi, king Aleus of Tegea was warned by the 
oracle that his daughter would bear a son who would kill his 
maternal uncles, the sons of Aleus. To guard against this 
catastrophe, Aleus hurried home and appointed his daughter 
priestess of Athena, declaring that, should she prove unchaste, 
he would put her todeath. As chance would have it, Hercules 
arrived at Tegea on his way to Elis, where he purposed to 
make war on Augeas. The king entertained him hospitably 


253 





APOLLODORUS 


κρύφα to βρέφος κατέθετο ἐν τῷ τεμένει τῆς 

᾿Αθηνᾶς. λοιμῷ δὲ τῆς χώρας φθειρομένης, 

᾿Αλεὸς εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ τέμενος καὶ ἐρευνήσας τὰς 

τῆς θυγατρὸς ὠδῖνας εὗρε. τὸ μὲν οὖν βρέφος 

εἰς τὸ Παρθένιον ὄρος ἐξέθετο. καὶ τοῦτο κατὰ 

θεῶν τινα πρόνοιαν ἐσώθη" θηλὴν μὲν γὰρ ἀρτι- 
1 λοιμῷ. Wagner conjectures λιμῷ, comparing iii. 9. 1. 


in the sanctuary of Athena, and there the hero, flushed with 
wine, violated the maiden priestess. Learning that she was 
with child, her father Aleus sent for the experienced ferry- 
man Nauplius, father of Palamedes, and entrusted his daughter 
to him to take and drown her. On their way to the sea the 
girl (Auge) gave birth to Telephus on Mount Parthenius, and 
instead of drowning her and the infant the ferryman sold 
them both to king Teuthras in Mysia, who, being childless, 
married Auge and adopted Telephus. See Alcidamas, Odyss. 
14-16, PP. 179 sq., ed. Blass (appended to his edition of Anti- 
phon). This version, which represents mother and child as 
sold together to Teuthras, differs from the version adopted 
by Apollodorus, according to whom Auge alone was sold to 
Teuthras in Mysia, while her infant son Telephus was left 
behind in Arcadia and reared by herdsmen (iii. 9.1). The sons 
of Aleus and maternal uncles of Telephus were Cepheus 
and Lycurgus (Apollodorus, iii. 9. 1). Ancient writers do 
not tell us how Telephus fulfilled the oracle by killing 
them, though the murder is mentioned by Hyginus (Fab. 
244) and a Greek proverb-writer (Paroemiographs Graect, 
ed. Leutsch et Schneidewin, vol. i. p. 212). Sophocles 
appears to have told the story in his lost play, The 
Mysians; for in it he described how Telephus came, silent 
and speechless, from Tegea to Mysia (Aristotle, Poetts, 
24, p. 1460a, 32, ed. Bekker), and this silence of Telephus 
seems to have been proverbial. For the comic poet Alexis, 
speaking of a greedy parasite who used to gobble up his 
dinner without exchanging a word with anybody, says 
that, ‘he dines like speechless Telephus, answering all 
questions put to him only with nods” (Athenaeus, x. 18, Ρ. 
421). And another comic poet, Amphis, describing the 
high and mighty airs with which fishmongers treated their 


254 





THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 4 


‘brought forth her babe secretly and deposited it in 
the precinct of Athena. But the country being 
wasted by a pestilence, Aleus entered the precinct 
and on investigation discovered his daughter's 
motherhood. So he exposed the babe on Mount 
Parthenius, and by the providence of the gods it was 
preserved: for a doe that had just cast her fawn 


customers in the market, says that it was a thousand times 
easier to get speech of a general than of a fishmonger ; for if 
you addressed one of these gentry and, pointing to a fish, 
asked ‘‘ How much?” he would not at first deign to look at 
ou, much less speak to you, but would stoop down, silent as 
elephus, over his wares ; though in time, his desire of lucre 
overcoming his contempt of you, he would slap a bloated 
octopus and mutter meditatively, as if soliloquizing, ‘‘ Six- 
pence for him, and a bob for the hammer-fish.” This latter 
poet explains incidentally why Telephus was silent; he says 
it was very natural that fishmongers should hold their tongue, 
‘‘for all homicides are in the same case,” thus at once inform- 
ing us of a curious point in Greek law or custom and gratify- 
ing his spite at the ‘‘ cursed fislimongers,” whom he compares 
to the worst class of criminals. See Athenaeus, vi. 5, p. 224 Dx. 
As Greek homicides were supposed to be haanted by the 
ghosts of their victims until a ceremony of purification was 
performed which rid them of their invisible, but dangerous, 
ursuers, we may conjecture that the rule of silence had to 
observed by Gicai until the accomplishment of the purifica- 
tory rite released them from the restrictions under which 
they laboured during their uncleauness, and permitted them 
once more to associate freely with their fellows. As to the 
restrictions imposed on homicides in ancient Greece, see 
Psyche’s Task, 2nd ed. pp. 113 sqq.; Folk-Lore in the Old 
Testament, i. 80, 83 sq. The motive of the homicide’s silence 
may have been a fear lest by speaking he should attract the 
attention, and draw down on himself the vengeance, of his 
victim’s ghost. Similarly, among certain peoples, a widow is 
bound to observe silence for some time after her husband’s 
death, and the rule appears to be based on a like dread of 
exciting the angry or amorous passions of her departed 
spouse the sound of the familiar voice. See Folk-lore in 

e Old Testament, iii. 71 qq. 
255 


APOLLODORUS 


τόκος ἔλαφος ὑπέσχεν αὐτῷ, ποιμένες δὲ ἀνελό- 
Ν 2 4 3 »ὔ bd ͵ bd 

μενοι τὸ βρέφος Τήλεφον ἐκάλεσαν αὐτὸ. Αὔγην 
δὲ ἔδωκε Ναυπλίῳ τῷ Ποσειδῶνος ὑπερόριον ἀπεμ- 
πολῆσαι. ὁ δὲ Τεύθραντι τῷ Τευθρανίας ἔδωκεν 
αὐτὴν δυνάστῃ, κἀκεῖνος γυναῖκα ἐποιήσατο. 

Παραγενόμενος δὲ Ἡρακλῆς εἰς Καλυδῶνα τὴν 
Οἰνέως θυγατέρα Δηιάνειραν ἐμνηστεύετο, καὶ 
διαπαλαίσας ὑπὲρ τῶν γάμων αὐτῆς πρὸς ᾽Αχε- 
λῷον εἰκασμένον ταύρῳ περιέκλασε τὸ ἕτερον 
τῶν κεράτων. καὶ τὴν μὲν Δηιάνειραν γαμεῖ, τὸ 
δὲ κέρας ᾿Αχελῷος λαμβάνει, δοὺς ἀντὶ τούτον 
τὸ τῆς ᾿Αμαλθείας. ᾿Αμάλθεια δὲ ἦν Αἱμονίου * 
θυγάτηρ, ἣ κέρας εἶχε ταύρου. τοῦτο δέ, ὡς 
beacioys λέγει, δύναμιν εἶχε τοιαύτην ὥστε 
βρωτὸν ἢ ποτόν, ὅπερ «ἂν; εὔξαιτό τις, παρέ- 
xew ἄφθονον. 


1 ἐμνηστεύετο EA: ἐμνηστεύσατο, Argument of Sophocles, 
Trachiniae (ἐκ τῆς ᾿Απολλοδώρου βιβλιοθήκηΞ). : 

2 Aluoviou Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 50, Aegius: ἁρμενίον A, 

3 εἶχε Argument of Sophocles, T'rachiniae, Faber, Miiller, 
Hercher: ἔχει EA, Westermann, Bekker, Wagner. 

4 ὅπερ ἂν εὔξαιτο Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: ὅπερ 
εὔξαιτο ΕΑ. 


1 Apollodorus seems to derive the name Telephus from 
θηλή, “ἃ dug,” and ἔλαφος, ‘a doe.” 

3 When Hercules went down to hell to fetch up Cerberus, 
he met the ghost of Meleager, and conversing with him pro- 
posed to marry the dead hero’s sister, Deianira. The story 
of the match thus made, not in heaven but in hell, is told by 
Bacchylides (Hpinic. v. 165 sqq.), and seems to have been 
related by Pindar in a lost poem (Scholiast on Homer, Il. 
xxi. 194). As to the marriage of Hercules with Deianira at 
Calydon, the home of her father Oeneus, see also Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 34. 1. 

3 On the struggle of Hercules with the river Achelous, see 
Sophocles, T'rachiniae, 9-21 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 35. 3 89.5 


256 











THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 4-5 


gave it suck, and shepherds took up the babe and 
called it Telephus.1_ And her father gave Auge to 
Nauplius, son of Poseidon, to sell far away in a 
foreign land ; and Nauplius gave her to Teuthras, the 
prince of Teuthrania, who made her his wife. 

And having come to Calydon, Hercules wooed 
Deianira, daughter of Oeneus.? He wrestled for her 
hand with Achelous, who assumed the likeness of a 
bull; but Hercules broke off one of his horns.? So 
Hercules married Deianira, but Achelous recovered 
the horn by giving the horn of Amalthea in its stead. 
Now Amalthea was a daughter of Haemonius, and 
she had a bull’s horn, which, according to Pherecydes, 
had the power of supplying meat or drink in abun- 
dance, whatever one might wish.‘ 


Dio Chrysostom, Or. Ix.; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xxi. 194 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 1-88; Hyginus, Fab. 31 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 20, 131 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 58; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 165). According to Ovid, the river-god turned 
himself first into a serpent and then into a bull. The story 
was told by Archilochus, who represented the river Achelous 
in the form of a bull, as we learn from the Scholiast on Homer 
(Z.c.). Diodorus rationalized the legend in his dull manner 
by supposing that it referred to a canal which the eminent 
shilaathropist Hercules dug for the benefit of the people 
of Calydon. 

+ According to some, Amalthea was the goat on whose 
milk the infant Zeus was fed. From one of its horns flowed 
ambrosia, and from the other flowed nectar. See Calli- 
machus, Hymn to Zeus, 48 sq., with the Scholiast. Accord- 
ing to others, Amalthea was only the nymph who owned the 

oat which suckled the god. See Eratosthenes, Cataster. 13 ; 
yginus, Astronom. ii. 13; Ovid, Fastz, v. 115 sqqg. Some 
said that, in gratitude for having been nurtured on the animal's 
milk, Zeus made a constellation of the goat and bestowed 
one of its horns on the nymphs who had reared him, at the 
same time ordaining that the horn should produce whatever 
they asked for. See Zenobius, Cent. ii. 48. As to the horn, 

see A. Β. Cook, Zeus, i. 501 sq. 
257 


VOL, I. 


6 


APOLLODORUS 


Στρατεύει δὲ Ἡρακλῆς μετὰ Καλυδωνίων ἐπὶ 
Θεσπρωτούς, καὶ πόλιν ἑλὼν “ἕφυραν, ἧς ἐβασί- 
Neve Φύλας,: ᾿Αστυόχῃ τῇ τούτου θυγατρὶ 
συνελθὼν πατὴρ Τληπολέμου 3 γίνεται. διατελῶν 
δὲ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, πέμψας πρὸς Θέσπιον ἑπτὰ μὲν 
κατέχειν ἔλεγε παῖδας, τρεῖς δὲ εἰς Θήβας ἀπο- 
στέλλειν, τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς τεσσαράκοντα πέμπειν 
εἰς Σαρδὼ τὴν νῆσον ἐπ᾽ ἀποικίαν. γενομένων 
δὲ τούτων εὐωχούμενος παρ᾽ Οἰνεῖ κονδύλῳ 
πλήξας ' ἀπέκτεινεν ᾿Αρχιτέλους παῖδα Ἐὔνο- 
pov® κατὰ χειρῶν διδόντα: συγγενὴς δὲ Οἰνέως 
οὗτος. ἀλλ᾽ ὁ μὲν πατὴρ τοῦ παιδός, ἀκουσίως 


1 Φύλας Argument of Sophocles, Truchiniae: φύδας A: 
Φυλεύς Diodorus Siculus, iv. 36. 1. 

* Τληπολέμου Aryument of Sophocles, Trachiniae (compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 36. 1): τριπτολέμου A. 

3 παρὰ Οἰνεῖ Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: παρ᾽ oiveiny 
καὶ A. 4 παίσας Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 
_ 5 Εὔνομον Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniue. He is 
named “Evvouos by Tzetzes (Schol. on Lycophron, 50 ; 
Chiliades, ii. 456) and Εὐρύνομος by Diodorus Siculus (iv. 
36. 1). 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 36. 1, who gives Phyleus 
as the name of the king of Ephyra, but does not mention the 
name of his daughter. According to Pindar (Olymp. vii. 23 
(40) sq., with the Scholiast), the mother of Tlepolemus by 
Hercules was not Astyoche but Astydamia. 

2 The sons referred to are those whom Hercules had by the 
fifty daughters of Thespius. See Apollodorus, ii. 4. 10. 
Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 29, who says that two (not 
three) of these sons of Hercules remained in Thebes, and that 
their descendants were honoured down to the historian’s 
time. He informs us also that, on account of the youth of 
his sons, Hercules committed the leadership of the colony to 
his nephew Iolaus. As to the Sardinian colony see also 
Pausanias, i. 29. 5, vii. 2. 2, ix. 23. 1, x. 17. 5, who says 


258 





THE LIBRARY, ITI. vi. 6 


And Hercules marched with the Calydonians 
against the Thesprotians, and having taken the city 
of Ephyra, of which Phylas was king, he had inter- 
course with the king’s daughter Astyoche, and 
became the father of Tlepolemus.1_ While he stayed 
among them, he sent word to Thespius to keep 
seven of his sons, to send three to Thebes and to 
despatch the remaining forty to the island of Sardinia 
to plant a colony.? After these events, as he was 
feasting with Oeneus, he killed with a blow of his 
knuckles Eunomus, son of Architeles, when the lad 
was pouring water on his hands; now the lad was a 
kinsman of Oeneus.? Seeing that it was an accident, 


(x. 17.5) that there were still places called Iolaia in Sardinia, 
and that Iolaus was still worshipped by the inhabitants down 
to his own time. As the Peond -Aristotle (M¢trab. Auscult. 
100, p. 31, in Westermann’s Scriptores rerum mirabilium 
Graect) tells us that the works ascribed to Iolaus included 
round buildings finely built of masonry in the ancient Greek 
style, we can hardly doubt that the reference is to the 
remarkable prehistoric round towers which are still found in 
the island, and to which nothing exactly similar is known 
elsewhere. The natives call them nouraghes. They are built 
in the form of truncated cones, and their material consists of 
squared or rough blocks of stone, sometimes of enormous size, 
See Perrot et Chipiez, Histoire de VArt dans? Antiquité, iv. 
22.sqq. The Sardinian Iolaus was probably a native god or 
hero, whom the Greeks identified with their own Iolaus on 
account of the similarity of his name. It has been surmised 
that he was of Phoenician origin, bei nace) with Esmun. 
See W. W. Baudissin, Adonis und Esmun (Leipsic, 1911), 
Pp. 282 844. ; a 

8 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv 36. 2; Pausanias, ii. 13.8; 
Athenaeus, ix. 80, pp. 410 r-411 4; Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon. i. 1212; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
50-51; td. Chiliades, ii. 456 sg. From Athenaeus (/.c.) we 
learn that the story was told or alluded to by Hellanicus, 
Herodorus, and Nicander. The victim’s name is variously 
given as Kunomus, Ennomus, Eurynomus, Archias, Cherias, 


259 
s 2 


APOLLODORUS 


γεγενημένου τοῦ συμβεβηκότος, συνεγνωμόνει, 
€ aA A ‘ 4 \ \ e 
Ηρακλῆς δὲ κατὰ τὸν νόμον τὴν φυγὴν ὑπομένειν 
ἤθελε, καὶ διέγνω πρὸς Κήυκα εἰς Τραχῖνα 
ἀπιέναι. ἄγων δὲ Δηιάνειραν ἐπὶ ποταμὸν Εὔ- 
nvov ἧκεν, ἐν ᾧ καθεζόμενος Νέσσος ὁ Κένταυρος 
τοὺς παριόντας 2 διεπόρθμευε μισθοῦ, λέγων παρὰ 
θεῶν τὴν πορθμείαν εἰληφέναι διὰ δικαιοσύνην. 
αὐτὸς μὲν οὖν Ἡρακλῆς τὸν ποταμὸν διέβη," 
Δηιάνειραν δὲ μισθὸν αἰτηθεὶς ἐπέτρεψε Νέσσῳ ὃ 
διακομίζειν. ὁ δὲ διαπορθμεύων αὐτὴν ἐπεχείρει 
βιάζεσθαι. τῆς δὲ ἀνακραγούσης αἰσθόμενος 
¢€ “A 3 ’ ’ > ἢ > ἣ 
Ηρακλῆς ἐξελθόντα Νέσσον ἐτόξευσεν εἰς τὴν 
καρδίαν. ὁ δὲ μέλλων τελευτᾶν προσκαλεσάμενος 
Δηιάνειραν εἶπεν, εἰ θέλοι φίλτρον πρὸς Ἡρακλέα 
ἔχειν, τόν τε γόνον ὃν ἀφῆκε κατὰ τῆς γῆς καὶ τὸ 
ῥνὲν ἐκ τοῦ τραύματος τῆς ἀκίδος αἷμα συμμῖξαι. 
ἡ δὲ ποιήσασα τοῦτο ἐφύλαττε παρ᾽ ἑαντῇ. 

Διεξιὼν δὲ Ἡρακλῆς τὴν Δρυόπων χώραν, 
ἀπορῶν τροφῆς, ἀπαντήσαντος 1 Θειοδάμαντος 

1 διέγνω Commelinus; δὴ ἔγνω A, Argument of Sophocles, 
Trachiniae. 

2 παριόντας Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Aegius: 
παραπλέοντας A, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33. 

3 διὰ τὸ δίκαιος εἶναι Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

+ διέβη Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Heyne, Miiller : 
διήει EA, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33, Westermann, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner. 

ὃ ἐπέτρεψε Νέσσῳ E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae : 
ἐπέτρεψεν ἔσω R&B, 

8 καὶ τροφῆς ἀπορῶν Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

7 ὑπαντήσαντος Argument of Sophocles, Trachinicae. 


and Cyathus. He was cupbearer to Oeneus, the father-in-law 
of Hercules. The scene of the tragedy seems to have been 
tea laid at Calydon, of which Ganeus was king (Apollo- 

orus, i. 8. 1), but Pausanias transfers the scene to Phlius. 


260 


THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 6-7 


the lad’s father pardoned Hercules; but Hercules 
wished, in accordance with the law, to suffer the 
penalty of exile, and resolved to depart to Ceyx at 
Trachis. ᾿ And taking Deianira with him, he came to 
the river Evenus, at which the centaur Nessus sat 
and ferried passengers across for hire, alleging 
that he had received the ferry from the gods for 
his righteousness. So Hercules crossed the river by 
himself, but on being asked to pay the fare he en- 
trusted Deianira to Nessus to carry over. But he, in 
ferrying her across, attempted to violate her. She 
cried out, Hercules heard her, and shot Nessus to 
the heart when he emerged from the river. Being at 
the point of death, Nessus called Deianira to him 
and said that if she would have a love charm to 
operate on Hercules she should mix the seed he had 
dropped on the ground with the blood that flowed 
from the wound inflicted by the barb. She did so 
and kept it by her. 

Going through the country of the Dryopes and 
being in lack of food, Hercules met Thiodamas 


1 As to Hercules and Nessus, and the fatal affray at the 
ferry, see Sophocles, Trachiniae, 555 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 36. 3 sqq.; Strabo, x. 2. 5, p. 451; Dio Chrysostom, Or. 
lx.; Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelit, ii. 2. 15 sq.; Nonnus, 
in Westermann’s Mythographt Graeci, Appendix Narra- 
tionum, xxviii. 8. p. 371; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
50-51 ; wd. Chiliades, ii. 457 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 
101 δᾳᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 34; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 
300; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. xi. 235; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latins, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 
20 sq., 131 (Firat Vatican Mythographer, 58 ; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 165). The tale was told by Archilochus 
(Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1212). Apollo- 
dorus’s version of the story is copied, with a few verbal 
changes and omissions, by Zenobius (Cent. i. 33), but as usual 
without acknowledgment. 


261 


APOLLODORUS 


βοηλατοῦντος τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ταύρων λύσας καὶ 
σφάξας} εὐωχήσατο." ὡς δὲ ἦλθεν * εἰς Τραχῖνα 
πρὸς Κήυκα, ὑποδεχθεὶς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Δρύοπας 
κατεπολέμησεν. 

Αὖθις δὲ ἐκεῖθεν ὁρμηθεὶς Αὐγιμίῳ βασιλεῖ 
Δωριέων συνεμάχησε' Λαπίθαι γὰρ περὶ γῆς. 
ὅρων ἐπολέμουν αὐτῷ Κορώνου στρατηγοῦντος, ὁ 
δὲ πολιορκούμενος ἐπεκαλέσατο τὸν Ἡρακλέα 


βοηθὸν ἐπὶ μέρει τῆς γῆς. βοηθήσας δὲ Ἥρα- 
κλῆς ἀπέκτεινε Κόρωνον μετὰ καὶ ἄλλων, καὶ 
τὴν γῆν ἅπασαν παρέδωκεν ἐλευθέραν αὐτῷ. 
ἀπέκτεινε δὲ καὶ Λαογόραν * μετὰ τῶν τέκνων, 
βασιλέα Δρυόπων, ἐν ᾿Απόλλωνος τεμένει δαινύ- 
μένον, ὑβριστὴν ὄντα καὶ Λαπιθῶν σύμμαχον. 
παριόντα δὲ Ἵτωνον " εἰς μονομαχίαν mpoexane- 


1 λύσας καὶ σφάξας Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: 
λύσας EA, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker: θύσας 
Wagner (comparing Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i, 1212, θύσας εὐωχεῖτο). 

3 εὐωχήσατο E: εὐωχεῖτο Argument of Sophocles, Trachi- 
néae, Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1212. 

ὁ ἧκεν Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

+ Λαογόραν R, Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 466, Aegius: Aayd- 
ραν A. 

5 "Irwvov Miller, Wagner (comparing Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 37. 4; Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. “Irwv): ἴων A: ᾿Ἴτωνα 
Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Aegius, Commelinus, 
Gale, Heyne, Westermann, Bekker, Hercher. 


1 As to Hercules and Thiodamas, compare Callimachus, 
Hymn to Diana, 160 84.» with the Scholiast on 161 (who calls 
Thiodamas king of the Dryopians) ; ; Nonnus, in Westermann’s 
Mythographi Graect, Appendix Narrationum, XXVili. 6, pp. 
370 8ᾳ.; Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1212 ; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 464 sq. From the Scholiast on 
. Apollonius (/.c.), we learn that the tale was told by Phere- 
eydes, whom Apollodorus may here be following. The story 


262 


THE LIBRARY, II. vu. 7 


driving a pair of bullocks; so he unloosed and 
slaughtered one of the bullocks and feasted.1_ And 
when he came to Ceyx at Trachis he was received 
by him and conquered the Dryopes.? 

And afterwards setting out from there, he fought 
as an ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians.® For the 
Lapiths, commanded by Coronus, made war on him 
in a dispute about the boundaries of the country; and 
being besieged he called in the help of Hercules, 
offering him a share of the country. So Hercules 
came to his help and slew Coronus and others, and 
handed the whole country over to Aegimius free. 
He slew also Laogoras,! king of the Dryopes, with 
his children, as he was banqueting in a precinct of 
Apollo; for the king was a wanton fellow and an ally 
of the Lapiths. And as he passed by Itonus he was 


seems to be a doublet of the one told about Hercules at 
Lindus in Rhodes. See Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11, with the note. 
2 On the reception of Hercules by Ceyx, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 36. 5; Pausanias, i. 32.6, As to the conquest of 
the Dryopians by Hercules, see Herodotus, viii. 43, compare 
73 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1 δᾳ.; Strabo, viii. 6. 13, p. 373; 
Pausanias, iv. 34. 9 sq.; Nonnus, in Westermann’s Mytho: 
graphi Graeci, Appendix Narrationum, xxix. 6, p. 371; 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 1212,1218 From 
these accounts we gather that the Dryopians were a wild 
robber tribe, whose original home was in the fastnesses of 
Mount Parnassus. Driven from there by the advance of the 
Dorians, they dispersed and settled, some in Thessaly, some 
in Euboea, some in Peloponnese, and some ever in Cyprus. 
Down to the second century of our era the descendants of the 
Dryopians maintained their national or tribal traditions and 
ae of birth at Asine, on the coast of Messenia (Pausanias, 
6.). 


3 On the war which Hercules, in alliance with Aegimius, 
king of the Dorians, waged with the Lapiths, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 37. 3 84. 

4 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 466. 


263 


APOLLODORUS 


’ Ν A Ν ‘ , 

gato αὐτὸν Κύκνος Apeos καὶ Πελοπίας" συ- 
στὰς δὲ καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. ὡς δὲ εἰς ᾽Ορμέ- 
Ὶ φ ἾἌὍ ’ὔ’ > \ e \ θ᾽ 

νιονὶ ἧκεν, ᾿Αμύντωρ αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς με 
ὅπλων 3 οὐκ εἴα διέρχεσθαι" κωλυόμενος δὲ παρ- 

ἰέναι καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. 
n 3 
᾿Αφικόμενος δὲ εἰς Τραχῖνα στρατιὰν ἐπ᾽ Οὐ- 
rota συνήθροισεν) Εὔρυτον τιμωρήσασθαι 
΄-ὦ 3 

ἔλων. συμμαχούντων δὲ αὐτῷ ᾿Αρκάδων καὶ 
Μηλιέων. τῶν ἐκ Τραχῖνος καὶ Λοκρῶν τῶν 
᾿Επικνημιδίων, κτείνας μετὰ τῶν παίδων Εὔρυτον 


1 ᾽Ορμένιον Wesseling : ὀρχομενὸν A. 

2 μεθ᾽ ὅπλων R, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae : appa- 
rently omitted in other MSS. 

5. συνήθροισεν E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: συνή- 
θροιζεν A. 

ὁ Μηλιέων Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Aegius: 
μηνιέων A. 


1 On the combat of Hercules with Cycnus, see Hesiod, 
Shield of Hercules, 57 sqq.; Pindar, Olymp. ii. 82 (147), with 
the Scholium, x. 15 (19), with the Scholia; Euripides, Her- 
cules furens, 391 sqq.; Plutarch, Theseus, 11; Pausanias, i. 
27.6; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 467. It is said that Cycnus 
used to cut off the heads of passing strangers, intending 
with these gory trophies to build a temple to his father Ares. 
This we learn from the Scholiasts on Pindar (UW.cc.). The 
scene of his exploits was Thessaly. According to Pausanias 
(Z.c.), Hercules slew the ruffian on the banks of the Peneus 
river ; but Hesiod places the scene at Pagasse, and says that 
the grave of Cycnus was washed away by the river Anaurus, 
a small stream which flows into the Pagasaean gulf. See 
Shield of Hercules, 70 84ᾳ4., 472 sqq. The story of Cycnus was 
told in a poem of Stesichorus. See Scholiast on Pindar, 
Olymp. x. 15(19). For the combat of Hercules with another 
Cycnus, see Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11. 

2 It is said that the king refused to give his daughter 
Astydamia in marriage to Hercules. So Hercules killed him, 
took Astydamia by force, and had a son Ctesippus by her. 
See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 4. Ormenium was a small town 
at the foot of Mount Pelion. See Strabo, ix. 5. 18, p. 438. 


264 


THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 7 


challenged to single combat by Cycnus a son of 
Ares and Pelopia; and closing with him Hercules 
slew him also.! But when he was come to Ormenium, 
king Amyntor took arms and forbade him to march 
through; but when he would have hindered his 
passage, Hercules slew him also.? 

On his arrival at Trachis he mustered an army to 
attack Oechalia, wishing to punish Eurytus.* Being 
joined by Arcadians, Melians from Trachis, and 
Epicnemidian Locrians, he slew Eurytus and his sons 


3 EKurytus was the king of Oechalia. See Apollodorus, ii. 
6. 1 sq. As to the capture of Oechalia by Hercules, see 
Sophocles, Trachiniae, 351-365, 476-478 ; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 37.5; Zenobius, Cent. i. 33; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 469 
sq.; td. Schol. on Lycophron, 50-51; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. 
v. 392 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytus, 545; Hyyinus. 
Fab. 35 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 291 ; Scriptores rerum 
mythwarum Latin, ed.G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 129 sg., 131 sq. 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 159, 165). The situation of 
Oechalia, the city of Eurytus, was much debated. Homer 
seems to place it in Thessaly (Jl. ii. 730). But according to 
others it was in Euboea, or Arcadia, or Messenia. See Strabo, 
ix. 5. 17, p. 438; Pausanias, iv. 2. 2 sqg.; Scholiast on Apollo- 
nius Rhodius, Argon. i. 87; the Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 165. Apollodorus apparently placed it in Euboea. 
See above, ii. 6. 1 sg. There was an ancient epic called The 
Capture of Oechalia, which was commonly attributed to 
Creophilus of Samos, though some thought it was by Homer. 
See Strabo, xiv. 1, 18, pp. 638 sqg.; compare 1ά., ix. 5. 17, 
p. 438; Pausanias, iv. 2. 3 (who calls the poem Heraclea) ; 
Callimachus, Epigram. vi. (vii.); Epicorum Graecorum 
Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 60 sqq.; F. G. Welcker, Der 
eptsche Cyclus (Bonn, 1835), pp. 229 sgqg. As to the names 
of the sons of Eurytus, see the Scholiast on Sophocles, 
Trachiniae, 266. e quotes a passage from a lost poem of 
Hesiod in which the poet mentions Deion, Clytius, Toxeus, 
and Iphitus as the sons, and Iola (Iole) as the daughter of 
Eurytus. The Scholiast adds that supra to Creophylus 
and Aristocrates the names of the sons were Toxeus, Clytius, 
and Deion. Diodorus Siculus (iv. 37. 5) calls the sons 
Toxeus, Molion, and Clytius. 


265 


APOLLODORUS 


αἱρεῖ τὴν πόλιν. καὶ θάψας τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ στρα- 
Tevoapevwv! τοὺς ἀποθανόντας, “Ἱππασόν τε 
τὸν Κήυκος καὶ ᾿Αργεῖον καὶ Μέλανα τοὺς Λικυ- 
’ a \ ’ ‘ ’ 
pviov παῖδας, καὶ λαφυραγωγήσας τὴν πόλιν, 
ἦγεν Ἰόλην αἰχμάλωτον. καὶ προσορμισθεὶς ’ 
Κηναίῳ τῆς Εὐβοίας ἀκρωτηρίῳ ὃ Διὸς Κηναίου 
βωμὸν ἱδρύσατο. μέλλων δὲ ἱερουργεῖν εἰς Τρα- 
χῖνα «Λίχαν;» τὸν κήρυκα“ ἔπεμψε λαμπρὰν 


1 στρατευσαμένων Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, 
Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Hercher, Wagner: στρατευο- 
μένων A, Bekker. 

2 προσορμισθεὶς Εἰ, Argument of Sophocles, Trachintae : 
προσορμηθεὶς A. 

3 axpwrnply Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Bekker, 
Hercher, approved by Heyne: ἐπὶ ἀκρωτήριον A: ἐπ᾽ ἀκρω- 
τηρίῳψ Heyne (in the text), Westermann, Miiller: ἐπὶ dxpw- 
τηρίου Wagner: ἐπὶ ἀκροπολέως E. 

4 Λίχαν τὸν κήρυκα Sommer, Wagner: τὸν κήρυκα E: τὸν 
κήυκα A: κήρυκα Argument of Sophocles, Truchinwae: Alxay 
τὸν ὑπηρέτην Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 1: τὸν Aixay τὸν θερά- 
ποντα Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 473. 


1 Compare Sophocles, Trachiniae, 237 8ᾳ., 752 sqq., 993 
8qq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37.5; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 136 
8ᾳ.; Seneca, Hercules Octaeus, 102 sq., 782 sqqg. Cenaeum is 
the modern Cape Lithada, the extreme north-western point 
of Euboea. It is a low flat promontory, terminating a penin- 
sula which runs far out westward into the sea, as if to meet 
the opposite coast of Locris. But while the cape is low and 
flat, the greater part of the peninsula is occupied by steep, 
rugged, and barren mountains, overgrown generally with 
lentisk and other shrubs, and presenting in their bareness 
and aridity a strong contrast to the beautiful woods and 
rich vegetation which cluthe much of northern Euboea, 
especially in the valleys and glens. But if the mountains 
themselves are gaunt and bare, the prospect from their 
summits is glorious, stretching over the sea which washes 
the sides of the peninsula, and across it to the long line of 
blue mountains which bound, as in a vast amphitheatre, the 
horizon on the north, the west, and the soit: These blue 


266 


THE LIBRARY, II. vu. 7 


and took the city. After burying those of his own side 
who had fallen, to wit, Hippasus, son of Ceyx, and 
Argius and Melas, the sons of Licymnius, he pillaged 
the city and led Iole captive. And having put in at 
Cenaeum, a headland of Euboea, he built an altar of 
Cenaean Zeus.!_ Intending to offer sacrifice, he sent 
the herald Lichas to Trachis to fetch fine raiment.? 


mountains are in Magnesia, Phthiotis, and Locris. At their 
foot the whole valley of the Spercheus lies open to view. The 
sanctuary of Zeus, at which Hercules is said to have offered 
his famous sacrifice, was probably at ‘‘the steep city of 
Dium,” as Homer calls it (Zl. ii. 538), which may have 
occupied the site of the modern Lithada, a village situated 
high up on the western face of the mountains, embowered in 
tall olives, pomegranates, mulberries, and other trees, and 
supplied with abundance of flowing water. The inhabitants 
say that a great city once ἈΡΝῚ here, and the heaps of 
stones, many of them presenting the aspect of artificial 
mounds, may perhaps support, if they did not suggest, the 
tradition. See W. Vischer, Erinnerungen und Eindriicke 
aus Griechenland (Bale, 1857), pp. 659-661 ; H. N. Ulrichs, 
Reisen und Forschungen in Greechenland, ii. (Berlin, 1863), 
pp. 236 sq.; C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, ii. 
409 sq. At Dium (Lithada *), in a spot named after a church 
of St. Constantine, the foundations of a temple and fair-sized 
precinct, with a circular base of three steps at the east end, 
have been observed in recent years. These ruins may be the 
remains of the sanctuary of Caenean Zeus. See A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. 123, note 9. 

2 With this and what follows compare Sophocles, T'rachi- 
πῖαρ, 756 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 1 sg.; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 472 sqq.; 1d. Schol. on Lycophron, 50-51 ; Ovid, 
Metamorph. ix. 136 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 36 ; Seneca, Hercules 
Ocetaeus, 485 sqq.; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latuni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 21, 
132 (First Vatican Mythographer, 58; Second Vatican My- 
thographer, 165). The following passage of Apollodorus, 
down to and including the ascension of Hercules to heaven, 
is copied verbally, with a few unimportant omissions and 
changes, by Zenobius (Cent. i. 33), but as usual without 
acknowledgment. 


267 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐσθῆτα olcovta. παρὰ δὲ τούτου τὰ περὶ τὴν 
Ἰόλην Δηιάνειρα πυθομένη, καὶ δείσασα μὴ 
ἐκείνην μᾶλλον ἀγαπήσῃ, νομίσασα ταῖς ἀλη- 
θείαις 3 φίλτρον εἶναι τὸ ῥυὲν αἷμα Νέσσου, 
τούτῳ τὸν χιτῶνα ἔχρισεν. ἐνδὺς δὲ Ἡρακλῆς 
ἔθυεν. ὡς δὲ θερμανθέντος τοῦ χιτῶνος ὁ τῆς 
ὕδρας ἰὸς τὸν χρῶτα ἔσηπε, τὸν μὲν Λίχαν τῶν 
ποδῶν ἀράμενος κατηκόντισεν ἀπὸ τῆς ἸΒοιω- 
tias,* τὸν δὲ χιτῶνα ἀπέσπα προσπεφυκότα τῷ 
σώματι" συναπεσπῶντο δὲ καὶ αἱ σάρκες αὐτοῦ. 
τοιαύτῃ συμφορᾷ κατασχεθεὶς εἰς Τραχῖνα ἐπὶ 
νεὼς κομίζεται. Δηιάνειρα δὲ αἰσθομένη τὸ γε- 
γονὸς ἑαυτὴν ἀνήρτησεν. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ἐντειλά- 
μενος "Ὕλλῳ, ὃς ἐκ Δηιανείρας Hv αὐτῷ παῖς 
πρεσβύτερος, ᾿Ιόλην ἀνδρωθέντα γῆμαι,. παρα- 

1 πυθομένη E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: πυνθανο- 
μένη R. 

2 μὴ ἐκείνην μᾶλλον ἀγαπήσῃ E, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33: μὴ 
πάλιν ἐκείνην ἀγαπήσῃ Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

3 ταῖς ἀληθείαις E, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33: τῇ ἀληθείᾳ Argu- 
ment of Sophocles, Trachiniae. | 

4 ἀπὸ τῆς Bowrlas EA. The words are clearly corrupt. 
Various emendations have been proposed : ἀπὸ τῆς ἀκρωρείας 
Heyne: ἀπὸ τῆς παρωρείας Westermann: ἀπὸ τῆς ἀκροπολέως 
Wagner (comparing iii. 5. 8). We should perhaps read ἀπὸ 
τοῦ ἀκρωτηρίου, comparing ἀκρωτηρίψ above. I have trans- 
lated accordingly. Commelinus and Gale add the words 
εἰς τὴν Εὐβοΐκην θάλασσαν in brackets. This may possibly 
be the true reading. Compare Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 21 aq: 

‘*Corriptt Alcides, et terque quaterque rotatum 
Mittst in Euboicas tormento fortius undas.” 

Ovid is followed by the Vatican Mythographers (“ἐπ Hubo- 
tcas projectt undas,” ‘* Huboico mari immersit”). See Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 21, 132 (First Vatican Mythographer, 58; Second Vati- 
can rhe dona 165). Hercher omits the words ἀπὸ τῆς 
Βοιωτίας and inserts the words eis τὴν θάλασσαν, alleging the 
authority of the Argument to the T'rachiniae of Sophocles, 
where, however, the words do not occur. 


268 


THE LIBRARY, II. vit. 7 


From him Deianira learned about lole, and fearing 
that Hercules might love that damsel more than her- 
self, she supposed that the spilt blood of Nessus was 
in truth a love-charm, and with it she smeared the 
tunic.! So Hercules put it on and proceeded to offer 
sacrifice. But no sooner was the tunic warmed than 
the poison of the hydra began to corrode his skin ; 
and on that he lifted Lichas by the feet, hurled 
him down from the headland,’ and tore off the tunic, 
which clung to his body, so that his flesh was torn 
away with it. In such a sad plight he was carried on 
shipboard to Trachis: and Deianira, on learning what 
had happened, hanged herself.? But Hercules, after 
charging Hyllus his elder son by Deianira, to marry 
Iole when he came of age,* proceeded to Mount 


1 That is, the ‘fine raiment” which Lichas had fetched 
from Trachis for the use of Hercules at the sacrifice. 

2 The reading is uncertain. See the critical] note. 

2 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 3. According to 
Sophocles (Trachiniae, 930 sq.), Deianira stabbed herself with 
a sword. But hanging was the favourite mode of suicide 
adopted by Greek legendary heroines, as by Jocasta, Erigone, 
Phaedra, and Oenone. See Apollodorus, i. 8. 3, i. 9. 27, 
111. δ. 9, iii. 12. 6, iii. 13. 3, iii. 14. 7, Hpitome, i. 19. It does 
not seem to have been practised by men. 

4 For this dying charge of Hercules, see Sophocles, T'rachi- 
niae, 1216 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 278 sqq. It is remark- 
able that Hercules should be represented as so earnestly 
desiring that his concubine should become the wife of his 
eldest son by Deianira. In many polygamous tribes of Africa 
it is customary for the eldest son to inherit all his father’s 
wives, except his own mother. See Folk-lore in the Old 
Testament, i. 541, note 3, ii. 280. Absalom’s treatment of 
his father’s concubines (2 Samuel, xvi. 21 sq.) suggests that 
ἃ similar custom formerly obtained in Israel. I do not 
remember to have met with any other seeming trace of a 
similar practice in Greece. 

269 


APOLLODORUS 


γενόμενος εἰς Οἴτην ὄρος (ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο Tpa- 
χινίων), ἐκεῖ πυρὰν ποιήσας ἐκέλευσεν ἐπιβὰς 5 
ὑφάπτειν. μηδενὸς δὲ τοῦτο πράττειν ἐθέλοντος, 
Ποίας παριὼν κατὰ ξήτησιν ποιμνίων ὑφῆψε. 
τούτῳ καὶ τὰ τόξα ἐδωρήσατο ᾿Ηρακλῆς. καιο- 
μένης δὲ τῆς πυρᾶς λέγεται νέφος ὑποστὰν μετὰ 
βροντῆς αὐτὸν εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀναπέμψαι. ἐκεῖθεν 3 
δὲ τυχὼν ἀθανασίας καὶ διαλλαγεὶς “Ἥρᾳ τὴν 


1 ἐκέλευσεν Εἰ, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Zeno- 
bius, Cent. i. 33: ἐκέλευε A. 

2 ἐπιβὰς Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniac, Zenobius, 
Cent. i. 33: ἐπιβάντος EA. 

3 ἀκεῖθεν E, and apparently all MSS.: ἔνθα Argument o7 
Sophocles, Trachiniae. For ἐκεῖθεν we should perhaps read 


ἐκεῖ. 


1 For the death of Hercules on the pyre, see Sophocles, 
Trachiniae, 1191 sgg.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 3-8 ; Lucian, 
Hermotimus, 7; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 229 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 36; Seneca, Hercules Oectaeus, 1483 sgq.; Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen. viii. 300; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 21, 132 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 58 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 165). According 
to the usua] account, it was not Poeas but his son Philoctetes 
who set a light to the pyre. So Diodorus Siculus (iv. 38. 4), 
Lucian (De morte Peregrini, 21), Ovid (Metamorph. ix. 233 4q.), 
Hyginus (Fab. 36), Seneca (Hercules Oetaeus, 1485 s8qq., 
1727), and the Second Vatican Mythographer. According to 
a different and less famous version of the legend, Hercules 
was not burned to death on a pyre, but, tortured by the 
agony of the poisoned robe, which took fire in the sun, he 
flung himself into a neighbouring stream to ease his pain and 
was drowned. The waters of the stream have been hot ever 
since, and are called Thermopylae. See Nonnus, in Wester- 
mann’s Mythographi Graeci, Appendix Narrationum, xxviii. 
8; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 50-51. Nonnus expressly 
says that the poisoned tunic took fire and burned Hercules. 
That it was thought to be kindled by exposure to the heat 


270 


THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 7 


Oeta, in the Trachinian territory, and there con- 
structed a pyre,! mounted it, and gave orders to 
kindle it. When no one would do so, Poeas, pass- 
ing by to look for his flocks, set a light to it. On 
him Hercules bestowed his bow. While the pyre 
was burning, it is said that a cloud passed under 
Hercules and with a peal of thunder wafted him up 
to heaven.? Thereafter he obtained immortality, and 
being reconciled to Hera he married her daughter 


of the sun appears from the narrative of Hyginus (fab. 36) ; 
compare Sophocles, Trachiniae, 684-704 ; Seneca, Hercules 
Octaeus, 485 sqq., 716 sqq. The waters of Thermopylae are 
steaming hot to this day. See Adonis, Atus, Osiris, 3rd ed. 
i. 210 sg. The Vatican Mythographers, perhaps through the 
blunder of a copyist, transfer the death of Hercules from 
Mount Oeta to Mount Etna. | 
* The ascension of Hercules to heaven in a cloud is 
described also by Zenobius (Cent. i. 33), who copies Apollo- 
dorus. In a more sceptical vein Diodorus Siculus (iv. 38. 4) 
relates that, as soon as a light was set to the pyre, a 
thunderstorm burst, and that when the friends of the hero 
came to collect his bones they could find none, and therefore 
supposed he had been translated to the gods. As to the 
traditional mode of Hercules’s death, compare Alberuni’s 
India, English ed. by E. C. Sachau, ii. 168 : ‘‘Galenus says in 
his commentary to the apothegms of Hippocrates: ‘It is 
generally known that Asclepius was raised to the angels in 
a column of fire, the like of which is also related with regard 
to Dionysos, Heracles, and others, who laboured for the 
benefit of mankind. People say that God did thus with them 
in order to destroy the mortal and earthly part of them by 
the fire, and afterwards to attract to himself the immortal 
part of them, and to raise their souls to heaven.’” So Lucian 
speaks of Hercules becoming a god in the burning pile on 
Mount Oeta, the human element in him, which he had in- 
herited from his mortal mother, being purged away in the 
flames, while the divine element ascended pure and spotless 
to the gods. See Lucian, Hermotumus,7. The notion that 
fire separates the immortal from the mortal element in man 
has already met usin Apollodorus. See i. 5. 4. 
271 


APOLLODORUS 


ἐκείνης θυγατέρα “HBnyv ἔγημεν, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ 
παῖδες ᾿Αλεξιάρης καὶ ᾿Ανίκητος ἐγένοντο. 

Ἦσαν δὲ παῖδες αὐτῷ ἐκ μὲν τῶν Beoriou! 
θυγατέρων, ἸΠρόκριδος μὲν ᾿Αντιλέων καὶ Ἵππεύς 
(ἡ πρεσβυτάτη γὰρ διδύμους ἐγέννησε), Πανόπης 
δὲ τς Λύσης Εὐμήδης, ... Κρέων, 
᾿Επιλάϊδος ᾿Αστυάναξ, Κέρθης ᾿Ιόβης, EvpuBias 
Πολύλαος, Πατροῦς ᾿Αρχέμαχος, Μηλίνης Aao- 

lA ” , 3 ϑ ’ 9 
μέδων, Κλυτίππης Εὐρύκαπυς, Εὐρύπυλος Ἐ- 
Barns, ᾿Αγλαΐης ᾿Αντιάδης, Ὀνήσιππος Χρυσ- 

J ᾽ 7 , rr s , 
nidos, ‘Opeins Λαομένης, Γέλης Λυσιδίκης, 
᾿Εντελίδης Μενιππίδος,5 ᾿Ανθίππης ᾿Ἱπποδρόμος, 
Τελευταγόρας Εὐρυ..., Καπύλος" Ἵππωτος,5 
Εὐβοίας "οΟλυμπος, Νίκης Νικόδρομος, ᾿Αργέλης 
Κλεόλαος, ᾿Εξόλης ᾿Ερύθρας, Ἐξανθίδος Ὃ μόλιπ- 
πος, Στρατονίκης Atpouos, Κελευστάνωρ᾽Ἴ φιδος. 
Λαοθόης "Avtidos,’ ᾿Αντιόπης ὃ ᾿Αλόπιος, ᾿᾽Αστυ- 
βίης Καλαμήτιδος,, Φυληίδος Τίγασις, Αἰσ- 
χρηίδος Λευκώνης, ᾿Ανθείας. .., Εὐρυπύλης 
᾿Αρχέδικος, Δυνάστης ’Epatods,” ᾿Ασωπτίδος "" 

1 Θεσπίου Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner: Θεστίου EA. See above, note on ii. 4. 9. 

2 Εὐμήδης R: εὐμίδης A: Εὐμείδης Heyne. 

8 "EvreAlSns Μενιππίδος C. Keil: στεντεδίδης μενιππίδης A. 

4 Eipv..., Kawddos. The manuscripts (A) read εὐρυ- 
κάπυλος. Commelinus conjectured Edpi«ns: Πύλος, which is 
accepted by Heyne, Westermann, Miiller (conjecturing 
IlvAns). Wagner conjectured Εὐρύτης. 

5 ἵππωτος A: Ἱππότης Heyne: Ἱππόθοος Faber: lnrovs 
Hercher. 6 “Ig:d0s Heyne: ἴφις A. 

7 Ἄντιφος Heyne: “Avtidos A. 

δ Αντιόπης Heyne: ᾿Αντιώπης A. 

9 Καλαμήτιδος Heyne: κλααμήτιδος RR&C: κλαμήτιδος δ: 
κάλης μήτιδος Commelinus; καλλιδημίδης Hercher. 

10 'Eparovs Aegius: “Eparos A. 
1 ’Agwridos Heyne: ᾿Ασωπίδης A. 
272 


THE LIBRARY, II. vu. 7-8 


Hebe,1 by whom he had sons, Alexiares and 
Anicetus. 

And he had sons by the daughters of Thespius,’ 
to wit: by Procris he had Antileon and Hippeus 
(for the eldest daughter bore twins); by Panope 
he had Threpsippas; by Lyse he had Eumedes; 
.... he had Creon; by Epilais he had Astyanax ; 
by Certhe he had Iobes; by Eurybia he had Poly- 
laus; by Patro he had Archemachus; by Meline 
he had Laomedon ; by Clytippe he had Eurycapys ; 
by Eubote he had Eurypylus; by Aglaia he had 
Antiades ; by Chryseis he had Onesippus ; by Oria 
he had Laomenes ; by Lysidice he had Teles; by 
Menippis he had Entelides; by Anthippe he had 
Hippodromus; by Eury .... he had Teleuta- 
goras; by Hippo he had Capylus; by Euboea he 
had Olympus; by Nice he had Nicodromus; by 
Argele he had Cleolaus; by Exole he had Eurythras ; 
by Xanthis he had Homolippus; by Stratonice he 
had Atromus; by Iphis he had Celeustanor; by 
Laothoe he had Antiphus; by Antiope he had Alo- 
pius ; by Calametis he had Astybies; by Phyleis he 
had Tigasis, by Aeschreis he had Leucones; by 
Anthea....; by Eurypyle he had Archedicus; by 
Erato he had Dynastes ; by Asopis he had Mentor ; 

1 On the marriage of Hercules with Hebe, see Homer, Od. 
xi. 602 sqq.; Hesiod, T'heog. 950 sqq.; Pindar, Nem. i. 69 (104) 
sqq., x. 17 (30) sq., Isthm. iv. 59 (100); Euripides, Heracltdae, 
915 sq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 1349, 1350; Ovid, 
Metamorph. ix. 400 842. According to Euripides (Heraclidae, 
854 sqq.), at the battle which the Athenians fought with the 
Argives in defence of the Heraclids, two stars were seen 
shining brightly on the car of Iolaus, and the diviner inter- 
preted them as Hercules and Hebe 


2 A short list of the sons of Hercules is given by Hyginus, 
Fab. 162. As to the daughters of Thespius, see above, ii. 4. 10. 


273 
VOL. I. T 


APOLLODORUS 


Μέντωρ, Hovns ᾿Αμήστριος, Τιφύσης Λυγκαῖος, 
᾿Αλοκράτης Ὀλυμπούσης, ᾿Ελικωνίδος Φαλίας, 
Ἡσυχείης Οἰστρόβλης,Σ Τερψικράτης Evpuorns, 
᾿Ελαχείας Βουλεύς, ᾿Αντίμαχος Νικίππης, άτ- 
ροκλος Πυρίππης, Νῆφος Πραξιθέας, Λυσίππης 
᾿Εράσιππος, Λυκοῦργος " Τοξικράτης, Βουκόλος 
Μάρσης, Λεύκιππος ὐρυτέλης, Ἱπποκράτης 
Ἵππόξζξυγος. οὗτοι μὲν ἐκ τῶν Θεσπίου " θυγα- 
τέρων, ἐκ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων, Δηιανείρας «μὲν; 7 τῆς 
Οἰνέως Ὕλλος Κτήσιππος Τληνὸς ᾿Ονείτης,8 ἐκ 
Μεγάρας δὲ τῆς Κρέοντος Θηρίμαχος Δηικόων 
Κρεοντιάδης, ἐξ ᾿Ομφάλης δὲ ᾿Αγέλαος, ὅθεν καὶ 
τὸ Κροίσου γένος. Χαλκιόπης «δὲ; 15 τῆς Εὐρυ- 


1 Λυγκαῖος A, Westermann: Λυγκεὺς Heyne, Miiller, 
Bekker, Hercher. 

2 Οἰστρόβλης L. Dindorf: οἰστρέβλης A. 

3 Ἑὐρύωψ Heyne, Miiller. : 

4 *EAaxelas Heyne, Bekker: édevxeias A, Westermann, 
Miiller: Aoxfas Hercher. 

5 Λυκοῦργος Hercher, Wagner. The MSS. (A) add λύκιος, 
which Heyne proposed to omit. Westermann reads Λυκοῦρ- 
γος, Λύκιος Τοξικράτης, supposing that the name of Lycurgus’s 
mother is lost, and that Lycius was the son of oxicrate. 
Miiller edits the passage similarly. Bekker brackets 
Δύκιος. 

8 Θεσπκίου Aegius, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner: θεστίου A. 7 μὲν inserted by Heyne. 

8 TAnvds ’Oveirns Gale: yAnntsovelrns A: Γληνεὺς ‘O8lrns 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1. 

® Κροίσον Aegius: xpnolov A. 9 δὲ inserted by Hercher. 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1. 
2 Compare ii. 4. 11; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 269, who 
agrees with Apollodorus as to the names of the children 


274 


THE LIBRARY, IT. vir. ὃ 


by Eone he had Amestrius ; by Tiphyse he had Lyn- 
caeus ; by Olympusa he had Halocrates; by Helico- 
nis he had Phalias; by Hesychia he had Oestrobles; 
by Terpsicrate he had Euryopes; by Elachia he had 
Buleus; by Nicippe he had Antimachus; by Pyrippe 
he had Patroclus; by Praxithea he had Nephus; by 
Lysippe he had Erasippus; by Toxicrate he had Ly- 
curgus ; by Marse he had Bucolus; by Eurytele he 
had Leucippus ; by Hippocrate he had Hippozygus. 
‘These he had by the daughters of Thespius. And 
he had sons by other women: by Deianira, daughter 
of Oeneus, he had Hyl}lus, Ctesippus, Glenus and 
Onites ;! by Megara, daughter of Creon, he had 
Therimachus, Deicoén, and Creontiades;? by Om- 
phale he had Agelaus,? from whom the family of 
Croesus was descended ;* by Chalciope, daughter 


whom Hercules had by Megara. But other writers gave 
different lists. Dinias the Argive, for example, gave the 
three names mentioned by Apollodorus, but added to them 
Deion. See the Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. v. 61 (104). 

3 Diodorus Siculus (iv. 31.8) and Ovid (Heroides, ix. 53 8q.) 
oo Lamus as the name of the son whom Omphale bore to 

ercules. 

+ According to Herodotus (i. 7) the dynasty which preceded 
that of Croesus on the throne of Sardes traced their descent 
from Alcaeus, the son of Hercules by a slave girl. It is a 
curious coincidence that Croesus, like his predecessor or an- 
cestor Hercules, is said to have attempted to burn himself on a 
pyre when the Persians captured Sardes. See Bacchylides, iii. 
24-62. The tradition is supported by the representation of 
the scene on a red-figured vase, which may have been painted 
about forty years after the capture of Sardes and the death 
or captivity of Croesus. See Baumeister, Denkmdler des 
klassischen Altertums, ii. 796, fig. 860. Compare Adonis, 
Attis, Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 174 sgqg. The Hercules whom Greek 
tradition associated with Omphale was probably an Oriental 
deity identical with the Sandan of Tarsus. See Adonis, Attis, 
Osiris, i. 124 sqq. 


275 
T 2 . 


APOLLODORUS 


πύλου Θετταλός, ᾿πικάστης τῆς Δὐγέου 3 Θεσ- 
τάλος, Παρθενόπης τῆς Στυμφάλου Εὐήρης, Abyns 
τῆς ᾿Αλεοῦ Τήλεφος, ᾿Αστυόχης τῆς Φύλαντος 
Τληπόλεμος, ᾿Αστυδαμείας τῆς ᾿Αμύντορος Κτή- 
σιίππος, Αὐτονόης τῆς Πειρέως Παλαίμων. 

VIII. Μεταστάντος δὲ ρακλέους εἰς θεοὺς οἱ 
παῖδες αὐτοῦ φυγόντες Ἐὐρυσθέα πρὸς Κήυκα 
παρεγένοντο. ὡς δὲ ἐκείνους ἐκδιδόναι λέγοντος 
Εὐρυσθέως καὶ πόλεμον ἀπειλοῦντος ἐδεδοίκεσαν, 
Τραχῖνα καταλιπόντες διὰ τῆς ᾿Ελλάδος ἔφυγον. 
διωκόμενοι δὲ ἦλθον εἰς ᾿Αθήνας, καὶ καθεσθέντες 
ἐπὶ τὸν ἐλέου βωμὸν ἠξίουν βοηθεῖσθαι. ᾿Αθηναῖοι 
δὲ οὐκ ἐκδιδόντες αὐτοὺς πρὸς τὸν Εὐρυσθέα 
πόλεμον ὑπέστησαν, καὶ τοὺς μὲν παῖδας αὐτοῦ 
᾿Αλέξανδρον ᾿Ιφιμέδοντα Εὐρύβιον Μέντορα Πε- 
ριμήδην ἀ ἀπέκτειναν' αὐτὸν δὲ Εὐρυσθέα φεύγοντα 
ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος καὶ πέτρας ἤδη παριππεύοντα Σκει- 


1 Εὐρυπύλου Aegius : Εὐρυπύλης A. 
“ Αὐγέον Heyne: αἰγέον A. 


1 See above, ii. 7. 4, and below, iii. 9. 1. 

2 See above, ii. 7. 6. 

3 Ceyx, king of Trachis, who had given shelter and hospi- 
tality to Hercules. See above, ii. 7.7. Compare Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 57, who agrees with Apollodorus as to the threats 
of Eurystheus and the consequent flight of the children of 
Hercules from Trachis to Athens. According to Hecataeus, 
quoted by Longinus (De sublunitate, 27), king Ceyx ordered 
them out of the country, pleading his ‘powerlessness to protect 
them. Compare Pausanias, i. 32. 6. 

* Compare Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights, 1151, who 
mentions that the Heraclids took refuge at the altar of Mercy. 
As to the altar of Mercy see below, iii-7.1 note. Apollodorus 
has omitted a famous episode in the war which the Athenians 
waged with the Argives in defence of the children of Hercules. 
An oracle having declared that victory would rest with the 


276 





THE LIBRARY, II. vu. 8—vin. 1 


of Eurypylus, he had Thettalus; by Epicaste, daugh - 
ter of Augeas, he had Thestalus; by Parthenope, 
daughter of Stymphalus, he had Everes; by Auge, 
daughter of Aleus, he had Telephus ;1 by Astyoche, 
daughter of Phylas, he had Tlepolemus;? by Asty- 
damia, daughter of Amyntor, he had Ctesippus; by 
Autonoe, daughter of Pireus, he had Palaemon. 
VIII. When Hercules had been translated to the 
gods, his sons fled from Eurystheus and came to 
Ceyx.® But when Eurystheus demanded their sur- 
render and threatened war, they were afraid, and, 
quitting Trachis, fled through Greece. Being pur- 
sued, they came to Athens, and sitting down on the 
altar of Mercy, claimed protection.‘ Refusing to 
surrender them, the Athenians bore the brunt of 
war with Eurystheus, and slew his sons, Alexander, 
Iphimedon, Eurybius, Mentor and Perimedes. Eury- 
stheus himself fled in a chariot, but was pursued and 
slain by Hyllus just as he was driving past the 


Athenians if a high-born maiden were sacrificed to Perse- 
phone, a voluntary victim was found in the person of Macaria, 
daughter of Hercules, who gave herself freely to die for 
Athens. See Euripides, Heraclidae, 406 sqq., 488 sqq.; Pau- 
sanias, i. 32. 6; Zenobius, Cent. ii. 61; Timaeus, Lexicon, 
8.0. BdAA’ εἰς μακαρίαν ; Scholiast on Plato, Hippias Major, 
Ρ. 293 a; Scholiast on Aristophanes, l.c. The protection 
afforded by Athens to the suppliant Heraclids was a subject 
of patriotic pride to the Athenians. See Lysias, ii. 11-16; 
Isocrates, Panegyric, 15 and 16. The story was told by 
Pherecydes, who represented Demophon, son of Theseus, as 
the protector of the Heraclids at Athens. See Antoninus 
Liberalis, Transform. 33. In this he may have been followed 
by Euripides, who in his play on the ae τὸν introduces 
Demophon as king of Athens and champion of the Heraclids 
(Heraclidae, 111 sqq.). But, according to Pausanias (i. 32. 6), 
it was not Demophon but his father Theseus who received 
the refugees and declined to surrender them to Eurystheus. 


277 


APOLLODORUS 


povidas! κτείνει διώξας Ὕλλος, καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν 
ἀποτεμὼν ᾿Αλκμήνῃ δίδωσιν: ἡ δὲ κερκίσι τοὺς 
ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐξώρυξεν αὐτοῦ. 

1 Σκειρωνίδας EK: χειρονίδας A. 


1 Traditions varied concerning the death and burial of 
Eurystheus. Diodorus Siculus (iv. 57. 6), in agreement with 
Apollodorus, says that all the sons of Eurystheus were slain 
in the battle, and that the king himeelf, fleeing in his chariot, 
was killed by Hyllus, son of Hercules. According to Pausa- 
nias (i. 44. 9), the tomb of Eurystheus was near the Scironian 
Rocks, where he had been killed by Iolaus (not Hyllus) as he 
was fleeing home after the battle. According to Euripides, 
he was captured by Iolaus at the Scironian Rocks and carried 
a prisoner to Alcmena, who ordered him to execution, 
although the Athenians interceded for his life ; and his body 
was buried before the sanctuary of Athena at Pallene, an 
Attic township situated between Athens and Marathon. See 
Euripides, Heraclidae, 843 sqq., 928 sqq., 1030 sqq. According 
to Strabo (viii. 6. 19, p. 377), Eurystheus marched against 
the Heraclids and Iolaus at Marathon ; he fell in the battle, 
and his body was buried at Gargettus, but his head was cut 
off and buried separately in Tricorythus, under the high road, 
at the spring Macaria, and the place was hence called ‘‘ the 
Head of Eurystheus.” Thus Strabo lays the scene of the 
battle and of the death of Eurystheus at Marathon. From 
Pausanias (i. 32. 6) we know that the spring Macaria, named 
after the heroine who sacrificed herself to gain the victory 
for the Heraclids, was at Marathon. The name seems to 
have been applied to the powerful subterranean springs 
which form a great marsh at the northern end of the plain of 
Marathon. The ancient high road, under which the head 
of Eurystheus was buried, and of which traces existed down 
to modern times, here ran between the marsh on the one 
hand and the steep slope of the mountain on the other. At 
the northern end of the narrow defile thus formed by the 
marsh and the mountain stands the modern village of Kato- 
Souli, which is proved by inscriptions to have occupied the 
site of the ancient Tricorythus. See W. M. Leake, The Dems 
of Athens, 2nd ed. (London, 1841), pp. 95 sg., and my com- 
mentary on Pausanias, vol. ii. pp. 139, 439 sq. But Pallene, 


278 


THE LIBRARY, II. vin. 1 


Scironian cliffs ; and Hyllus cut off his head and gave 
it to Alemena; and she gouged out his eyes with 
weaving-pins.! 


at or near which, according to Euripides, the body of 
Eurystheus was buried, lay sume eighteen miles or so awa 

at the northern foot of Mount Hymettus, in the gap which 
divides the high and steep mountains of Pentelicus and 
Hymettus from each other. That gap, forming the only 
gateway into the plain of Athens from the north-east, was 
strategically very important, and hence was naturally the 
scene of various battles, legendary or historical. Gargettus, 
where, according to Strabo, confirmed by Hesychius and 
Stephanus Byzantius (8.0. Tapynrrés), the headless trunk of 
Kurystheus was interred, seems to have lain on the opposite 
side of the gap, near the foot of Pentelicus, where a small 
modern village, Garito, apparently preserves the ancient name. 
See W. M. Leake, op. cat. pp. 26 sqq., 44-47 ; Karten von 
Athika, Hrléuternder Text, Heft 11. von A. Milchhoefer 
(Berlin, 1883), pp. 35 (who differs as to the site of Gargettus) ; 
Guides-J oanne, Gréce, par B. Haussoullier, i. (Paris, 1896), pp. 
204 sq. Thus the statements of Euripides and Strabo about 
the place where the body of Eurystheus was buried may be 
reconciled if we suppose that it was interred at Gargettus 
facing over against Pallene, which lay on the opposite or 
southern side of the gap between Pentelicus and Hymettus. 
For the battles said to have been fought at various times in 
this important pass, see Herodotus, i. 62 sq.; Aristotle, Con- 
stitution of Athens, 15, with Sir J. E. Sandys’s note; Plu- 
tarch, Theseus, 13; Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytus, 35. 

The statement of Apollodorus that Hyllus killed Eury- 
stheus and brought his head to Alemena, who gouged out his 
eyes with weaving-pins, is repeated by Zenobius (Cent. ii. 61), 
who probably here, as so often, simply copied our author 
without acknowledgment. According to Pindar (Pyth. ix. 
79 (137) sqq., with the Scholia), the slayer of Eurystheus was 
not Hyllus but Iolaus; and this seems to have been the 
common tradition. 

Can we explain the curious tradition that the severed head 
and body of the foeman Eurystheus were buried separately 
many miles apart, and both of them in passes strategically 
important? According to Euripides (Heraclidae, 1026 sqq.), 


279 


2 


APOLLODORUS 


᾿Απολομένου δὲ Εὐρυσθέως ἐπὶ Πελοπόννησον 
ἦλθον οἱ ᾿Ηρακλεῖδαι, καὶ πάσας εἷλον τὰς πόλεις. 
ἐνιαυτοῦ δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ καθόδῳ διαγενομένου 


Eurystheus, before being killed by the order of Alcmena, 
announced to the Athenians that, in gratitude for their 
merciful, though fruitless, intercession with Alcmena, he 
would still, after his death, lying beneath the sod, be a friend 
and saviour to Athens, but a stern foe to the descendants of 
the Heraclids—that is, to the Argives and Spartans, both of 
whom traced the blood of their kings to Hercules. Further, 
he bade the Athenians not to pour libations or shed blood on 
his grave, for even without such offerings he would in death 
benefit them and injure their enemies, whom he would drive 
home, defeated, from the borders of Attica. From this it 
would seem that the ghost of Eurystheus was supposed to 
gue Attica against invasion ; hence we can understand why 

is body should be divided in two and the severed parts 
buried in different passes by which enemies might march 
into the country, because in this way the ghost might 
reasonably be expected to do double duty as a sentinel or 
spiritual outpost in two important places at the same time. 
Similarly the dead Oedipus in his grave at Athens was 
believed to protect the country and ensure its welfare. See 
Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, 576 sqq., 1518-1534, 1760-1765 ; 
Aristides, Or. xlvi. vol. ii. p. 230, ed. G. Dindorf. So Orestes, 
in gratitude for his acquittal at Athens, is represented by 
Aeschylus as promising that even when he is in his grave he 
will prevent any Argive leader from marching against Attica. 
See Aeschylus, Humenides, 732 (762) sqqg. And Euripides 
makes Hector declare that the foreigners who had fought in 
defence of Troy were ‘‘no small security to the city” even 
when ‘‘they had fallen and were lying in their heaped-up 
graves.” See Euripides, Rhesus, 413-415. These examples 
show that in the opinion of the Greeks the ghosts even of 
foreigners could serve as guardian spirits of a country to 
which they were attached by ties of gratitude or affection ; 
for in each of the cases I have cited the dead man who was 
thought to protect either Attica or Troy was a stranger from 
a strange land. Some of the Scythians in antiquity used to 
cut off the heads of their enemies and stick them on poles 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vin. 2 


After Eurystheus had perished, the Heraclids 
came to attack Peloponnese and they captured all 
the cities.| When a year had elapsed from their 


over the chimneys of their houses, where the skulls were 
supposed to act as watchmen or guardians, perhaps by 
repelling any foul fiends that might attempt to enter the 
dwelling by coming down the chimney. See Herodotus, 
iv. 103. So tribes in Borneo, who make a practice of cutting 
off the heads of their enemies and garnishing their houses 
with these trophies, imagine that they can propitiate the 
spirits of their dead foes and convert them into friends and 
protectors by addressing the skulls in endearing language and 
offering them food. See Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild, 
i. 294 sqq. The references in Greek legend to men who habitu- 
ally relieved strangers of their heads, which they added to 
their collection of skulls, may point to the former existence 
among the Greeks of a practice of collecting human skulls for 
the purpose of securing the ghostly protection of their late 
owners. See notes on ii. 5. 11 (Antaeus), ii. 7. 7 (Cycnus). 
ar τρὰὺ Epitome, ii. 5 (Oenomaus) ; note on i. 7. 8 (Evenus). 

1 For the first attempted invasion of the Peloponnese by 
the Heraclids or sons of Hercules, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
58. 1-4. The invasion is commonly spoken of as a return, 
because, though their father Hercules had been born at 
Thebes in Boeotia, he regarded Mycenae and Tiryns, the 
kingdom of his forefathers, as his true home. The word 
(κάθοδος) here employed by Apollodorus is regularly applied 
by Greek writers to the return of exiles from banishment, 
and in particular to the return of the Heraclids. See, for 
example, Strabo, viii. 3. 30, p. 354, viii. 4. 1, p. 359, viii. 5. 5, 
p. 365, viii. 6. 10, p. 372, vili. 7.1, p. 383, viii. 8. 5, p. 389, 
ix. 1. 7, p. 392, x. 2.6, p. 451, xiii. 1.3, p. 582, xiv. 2.6, p. 653 : 
Pausanias, iv. 3. 3, v. 6. 8. The corresponding verbs, κατέρ- 
χεσθαι, "" to return from exile,” and κατάγειν, ‘to bring back 
from exile,” are both used by Apollodorus in these senses. 
See ii. 7. 2 and 3, ii. 8. 2 and 5, iii. 10. 5. The final return 
of the Heraclids, in conjunction with the Dorians, to the 
Peloponnese is dated by Thucydides (i. 12. 3) in the eightieth 
yenr after the capture of Troy; according to Pausanias 
(iv. 3. 3), it occurred two generations after that event, which 
tallies fairly with the estimate of Thucydides. Velleius 


281 


ies aia a 


APOLLODORUS 


φθορὰ; πᾶσαν Πελοπόννησον κατέσχε, καὶ ταύτην 
γενέσθαι χρησμὸς διὰ τοὺς Ἡρακλείδας ἐδήλου" 
πρὸ γὰρ τοῦ δέοντος αὐτοὺς κατελθεῖν. ὅθεν ἀπο- 
λιπόντες Πελοπόννησον ἀνεχώρησαν 5 εἰς Μαρα- 
θῶνα κἀκεῖ κατῴκουν. Τληπόλεμος οὖν κτείνας 
οὐχ ἑκὼν Λικύμνιον (τῇ βακτηρίᾳ γὰρ αὐτοῦ 
θεράποντα ὃ πλήσσοντος ὑπέδραμε) πρὶν ἐξελθεῖν 
αὐτοὺς ἐκ ἸΠελοποννήσου, φεύγων pet’ οὐκ 
ὀλίγων ἧκεν εἰς “Ῥόδον, κἀκεῖ κατῴκει. “TrXos δὲ 
τὴν μὲν Ἰόλην κατὰ τὰς τοῦ πατρὸς ἐντολὰς ὃ 
ἔγημε, τὴν δὲ κάθοδον ἐζήτει τοῖς Ἡρακλείδαις 
κατεργάσασθαι. διὸ παραγενόμενος εἰς Δελφοὺς 
ἐπυνθάνετο πῶς ἂν κατέλθοιεν. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἔφησε ® 
περιμείναντας τὸν τρίτον καρπὸν κατέρχεσθαι. 
νομίσας δὲ Υλλος τρίτον καρπὸν λέγεσθαι τὴν 
τριετίαν, τοσοῦτον περιμείνας χρόνον σὺν τῷ 
στρατῷ κατῇει... τοῦ Ἡρακλέους ἴ ἐπὶ ΠΕελο- 
πόννησον, Τισαμενοῦ τοῦ ᾽Ορέστου βασιλεύοντος 


1 διαγενομένου φθορὰ Wagner : γενομένου φθορὰ E: γενομένης 
φθορᾶς Α. 

2 ἀνεχώρησαν ERR®, O in margin: ἦλθον BC. 

3 θεράποντα Faber: θεραπεύοντα A. 

ὁ αὐτοὺς Heyne: αὐτὸν A. 


5 ras... ἐντολὰς R: ἐντολὴν A. 
6 ἔφησε A: ἔχρησε Mendelssohn. 
7 κατήει. .. τοῦ Ἡρακλέους. The lacuna was indicated by 


Heyne. Faber proposed to read κατῆγε τοὺς Ἡρακλέους. 
See the exegetical note. 


Paterculus (i. 2. 1) agrees with Thucydides as to the date, 
and adds for our further satisfaction that the return took 
place one hundred and twenty years after Hercules had been 
promoted to the rank of deity. 

1 Diodorus Siculus says nothing of this return of the 
Heraclids to Attica after the plague, but he records (iv. ὅδ. 8 


282 





THE LIBRARY, II. vir. 2 


return, a plague visited the whole of Peloponnese ; 
and an oracle declared that this happened on account 
of the Heraclids, because they had returned before 
the proper time. Hence they quitted Peloponnese 
and retired to Marathon and dwelt there.’ Now 
before they came out of Peloponnese, Tlepolemus 
had_ killed Licymnius inadvertently; for while 
he was beating a servant with his stick Licymnius 
ran in between ; so he fled with not a few, and came 
to Rhodes, and dwelt there.2— But Hyllus married 
Iole according to his father’s commands, and sought 
to effect the return of the Heraclids. So he went 
to Delphi and inquired how they should return; 
and the god said that they should await the third crop 
before returning. But Hyllus supposed that the 
third crop signified three years; and having waited 
that time he returned with his army?. . . of 
Hercules to Peloponnese, when Tisamenus, son of 


sq.) that, after their defeat and the death of Hyllus at the 
Isthmus, they retired to Tricorythus and stayed there for 
fifty years. We have seen (above, p. 278, note on ii. 
8. 1) that Tricorythus was situated at the northern end of 
the plain of Marathon. 

3 For the homicide and exile of Tlepolemus, see Homer, 
Il, ii. 653-670, with the Scholiast on 662 ; Pindar, Olymp. vii. 
27 (50) sqq.; Strabo, xiv. 2. 6, p. 653 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 58. 
7 eq. According to Pindar, the homicide was apparently not 
accidental, but committed in a fit of anger with a staff of 
olive- wood. 

58 He was met by a Peloponnesian army at the Isthmus of 
Corinth and there defeated and slain in single combat by 
. Echemus, king of Tegea. Then, in virtue of a treaty which 
they had concluded with their adversaries, the Heraclids 
retreated to Attica and did not attempt the invasion of 
Peloponnese again for fifty years. See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
58.1-5; Pausanias, viii. 5.1. These events may have been 
recorded by Apollodorus in the lacuna which follows. 


283 


APOLLODORUS 


Πελοποννησίων. καὶ γενομένης πάλιν μάχης νικ- 
a 3 
ὥσι Πελοποννήσιοι καὶ ᾿Αριστόμαχος θνήσκει. 
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠνδρώθησαν οἱ [Κλεοδαίου] παῖδες, 
ἐχρῶντο περὶ καθόδου. τοῦ θεοῦ δὲ εἰπόντος ὅ τι 
καὶ τὸ πρότερον, Τήμενος ἡτιᾶτο λέγων τούτῳ 
θέ 9 ϑ A e δὲ θ Ν > 2λ, “A 
πεισθέντας 35 ἀτυχῆσαι. ὁ εὸς ἀνεῖλε τῶν 
ἀτυχημάτων αὐτοὺς αἰτίους εἶναι τοὺς γὰρ χρη- 
\ ἢ “ , \ 2 a 3 \ 
σμοὺς ov συμβάλλειν. λέγειν yap ov γῆς ἀλλὰ 
γενεᾶς καρπὸν τρίτον, καὶ στενυγρὰν τὴν εὐρυ- 
γάστορα, δεξιὰν κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισθμὸν ἔχοντι τὴν 
θάλασσαν.) ταῦτα Τήμενος ἀκούσας ἡτοίμαξε τὸν 


1 Κλεοδαίον Gale, bracketed by Westermann and Miiller, 
but not by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner: κλεολάου A. 
We should perhaps read ᾿Αριστομάχου. 

2 πεισθέντας conjectured by Commelinus, preferred by 
Gale; πεισθέντα Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, apparently following the MSS. Wagner's note 
πεισθέντας A seems to be a mistake for πεισθέντα A. 

3 στενυγρὰν Thy εὐρυγάστορα, δεξιὰν κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισθμὸν ἔχοντι 
τὴν θάλασσαν Heyne, Bekker, Hercher: στενυγρὸν τὸν τὴν 
εὐρυγάστορα δεξιὰν κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισθμὸν ἔχοντα τὴν θάλασσαν Wag- 
ner, which I cannot construe. 


1 Pausanias at first dated the return of the Heraclids in 
the reign of this king (ii. 18. 7, iii. 1. 5; compare iv. 3. 3), 
but he afterwards retracted this opinion (viii. 5. 1). 

2 This Aristomachus was a son of Cleodaeus (Pausanias, ii. 
7. 6), who was a son of Hyllus (Pausanias, iii. 15. 10), who 
was a son of Hercules (Pausanias, i. 35. 8). Aristomachus 
was the father of Aristodemus, Temenus, and Cresphontes 
(Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, viii. 5. 6), of whom Temenus and 
Cresphontes led the Heraclids and Dorians in their final 
invasion and conquest of Peloponnese (Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, 
v. 3. 5 84.. v. 4. 1, viii. 5. 6, x. 38. 10). Compare Herodotus, 
vi. 52, who indicates the descent of Aristodemus from Her- 
cules concisely by speaking of ‘‘ Aristodemus, the son of 


284 


THE LIBRARY, II. vit. 2 


Orestes, was reigning over the Peloponnesians.! And 
in another battle the Peloponnesians were victorious, 
and Aristomachus? was slain. But when the sons 
of Cleodaeus® were grown to man’s estate, they 
inquired of the oracle concerning their return. And 
the god having given the same answer as before, 
Temenus blamed him, saying that when they had 
obeyed the oracle they had been unfortunate. But 
the god retorted that they were themselves to blame 
for their misfortunes, for they did not understand the 
oracles, seeing that by “the third crop” he meant, 
not a crop of the earth, but a crop of a generation, 
and that by the narrows he meant the broad-bellied 
sea on the right of the Isthmus. On hearing that, 


Aristomachus, the son of Cleodaeus, the son of Hyllus.” Thus, 
according to the traditional genealogy, the conquerors of the 
Peloponnese were great-great-grandsons of Hercules. With 
regard to Aristomachus, the father of the conquerors, Pausa- 
nias says (ii. 7. 6) that he missed his chance of returning to 
Peloponnese through mistaking the meaning of the oracle. 
The reference seems to be to the oracle about ‘‘ the narrows,”’ 
which is reported by Apollodorus (see below, note 4). 

3 As Heyne pointed out, the name Cleodaeus here is 
almost certainly wrong, whether we suppose the mistake to 
have been made by Apollodorus himself or by a copyist. For 
Cleodaeus was the father of Aristomachus, whose death in 
battle Apollodorus has just recorded ; and, as the sequel 
clearly proves, the reference is here not to the brothers but 
to the sons of Aristomachus, namely, Temenus and Cres- 
phontes, the conquerors of the Peloponnese. Compare the 
preceding note. 

* The oracle was recorded and derided by the cynical 
philosopher Oenomaus, who, having been deceived by what 
purported to be a revelation of the deity, made it his business 
to expose the whole oracular machinery to the ridicule and 
contempt of the public. This he did in a work entitled On 
Oracles, or the Exposure of Quacks, of which Eusebius has 
preserved some extracts. From one of these (Eusebius, 


285 


APOLLODORUS 


στρατόν, καὶ ναῦς ἐπήξατο τῆς Λοκρίδος ἔνθα 
νῦν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου ὁ τόπος Ναύπακτος λέγεται. ἐκεῖ 
δ᾽ ὄντος τοῦ στρατεύματος ᾿Αριστόδημος κεραυ- 
νωθεὶς ἀπέθανε, παῖδας καταλιπὼν ἐξ 'Apyeias 
τῆς Αὐτεσίωνος διδύμους, Εὐρυσθένη καὶ Προκλέα. 
συνέβη δὲ καὶ τὸν στρατὸν ἐν Ναυπάκτῳ συμ- 
φορᾷ περιπεσεῖν. ἐφάνη γὰρ αὐτοῖς μάντις χρη- 
σμοὺς λέγων καὶ ἐνθεάζων, ὃν ἐνόμισαν μώγον 
εἶναι ἐπὶ λύμῃ τοῦ στρατοῦ πρὸς Πελοποννησίων 
ἀπεσταλμένον. τοῦτον βαλὼν ἀκοντίῳ ᾿Ἱππότης ὁ 
Φύλαντος τοῦ ᾿Αντιόχου τοῦ Ηρακλέους τυχὼν 
ἀπέκτεινεν. οὕτως δὲ γενομένου τούτου τὸ μὲν 
ναυτικὸν διαφθαρεισῶν τῶν νεῶν ἀπώλετο, τὸ δὲ 
πεζὸν ἠτύχησε λιμῷ, καὶ διελύθη τὸ στράτευμα. 
χρωμένου δὲ περὶ τῆς συμφορᾶς Τημένου, καὶ 
τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τοῦ μάντεως γενέσθαι ταῦτα 
λέγοντος, καὶ κελεύοντος φυγαδεῦσαι δέκα ἔτη τὸν 
ἀνελόντα καὶ χρήσασθαι ἡγεμόνι τῷ τριοφθάλμῳ, 
τὸν μὲν Ἱππότην ἐφυγάδευσαν, τὸν δὲ τριόφθαλ- 
1 ἐπήξατο Aegius: ἐπάσσετο A. 


Praeparatio Evangelii, v. 20) we learn that when Aristoma- 
chus applied to the oracle, he was answered, ‘‘ The gods 
declare victory to thee by the way of the narrows ” (Nixny σοι 
φαίνουσι θεοὶ δι᾿ ὁδοῖο στενύγρων). This the inquirer understood 
to mean ‘‘by the Isthmus of Corinth,” and on that under- 
standing the Heraclids attempted to enter Peloponnese by 
the Isthmus, but were defeated. Being taxed with deception, 
the god explained that when he said ‘‘ the narrows” he really 
meant ‘‘the broads,” that is, the sea at the mouth of the 
Gulf of Corinth. Compare K. O. Miiller, Die Dorier?, i. 58 sq., 
who would restore the ‘‘retort courteous ” of the oracle in 
two iambic lines as follows :— 

γενεᾶς γάρ, οὐ γῆς καρπὸν ἐξεῖπον τρίτον 

καὶ τὴν στενυγρὰν αὖ τὸν εὐρυγάστορα 

- ἔχοντα κατὰ τὸν ᾿Ισθμὸν δεξιάν. 


286 


THE LIBRARY, II. vin. 2-3 


Temenus made ready the army and built ships in 
Locris where the place is now named Naupactus 
from that. While the army was there, Aristo- 
demus was killed by a thunderbolt,? leaving twin 
sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, by Argia, daughter of 
Autesion.2 And it chanced that a calamity also 
befell the army at Naupactus. For there appeared to 
them a soothsayer reciting oracles in a fine frenzy, 
whom they took for a magician sent by the Pelopon- 
nesians to be the ruin of the army. So Hippotes, 
son of Phylas, son of Antiochus, son of Hercules, 
threw a javelin at him, and hit and killed him.4 
In consequence of that, the naval force perished 
with the destruction of the fleet, and the land force 
suffered from famine, and the army disbanded. 
When Temenus inquired of the oracle concerning 
this calamity, the god said that these things were 
done by the soothsayer® and he ordered him to 
banish the slayer for ten years and to take for his 
guide the Three-eyed One. So they banished Hip- 
potes, and sought for the Three-Eyed One.® And 

} Naupactus means ‘‘ship-built.” Compare Strabo, ix. 4.7; 
Pausanias, iv. 26.1, x. 38. 10. 

2 Aristodemus was a son of Aristomachus and brother of 
Temenus and Cresphontes, the conquerors of the Peloponnese 
(Pausanias, ii. 18. 7). Some said te was shot by Apollo at 
Delphi for not consulting the oracle, but others said he was 
murdered by the children of Pylades and Electra (Pausanias, 
iii. 1.6). Apollodorus clearly adopts the former of these two 
accounts ; the rationalistic Pausanias preferred the latter. 

3 Compare Herodotus, vi. 52. 

4 The soothsayer was Carnus, an Acarnanian ; the Dorians 
continued to propitiate the soul of the murdered seer after 
his death. See Pausanias, iii. 13. 4; Conon, Narrationes, 
26 ; Scholiast on Theocritus, v. 83. 

5 That is, by the angry spirit of the murdered man. 

6 With this and what follows compare Pausanias, v. 3. 5 δᾳ.; 
Suidas, 3.v. Τριόφθαλμος ; and as to Oxylus, compare Strabo, 
viii. 3. 33, p. 357. Pausanias calls Oxylus the son of Haemon. 


287 


APOLLODORUS 


μον ἐζήτουν. καὶ περιτυγχάνουσιν ᾿Οξύλῳ τῷ 
᾿Ανδραίμονος, ἐφ᾽ ἵππου καθημένῳ! μονοφθάλμου 
(τὸν γὰρ ἕτερον τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν ἐκκέκοπτο ὃ τόξῳ). 
ἐπὶ φόνῳ γὰρ οὗτος φυγὼν εἰς Ἦλιν, ἐκεῖθεν εἰς 
Αἰτωλίαν ἐνιαυτοῦ διελθόντος ἐπανήρχετο. συμ- 
βαλόντες οὖν τὸν χρησμόν, τοῦτον ἡγεμόνα 
ποιοῦνται. καὶ συμβαλόντες τοῖς πολεμίοις καὶ 
τῷ πεζῷ καὶ τῷ ναυτικῷ προτεροῦσι στρατῷ, καὶ 
Τισαμενὸν κτείνουσι τὸν ᾿Ορέστου. θνήσκουσι δὲ 
συμμαχοῦντες αὐτοῖς οἱ Αὐγιμίου παῖδες, Πάμ- 
φυλος καὶ Δύμας. 

Ἐπειδὴ «δὲ» ἐκράτησαν Πελοποννήσου, τρεῖς 
ἱδρύσαντο βωμοὺς πατρῴου Διός, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτων 
ἔθυσαν, καὶ ἐκληροῦντο τὰς πόλεις. πρώτη μὲν 
οὖν λῆξις “Apyos, δευτέρα «δὲ Λακεδαίμων, 
τρίτη δὲ Μεσσήνη. κομισάντων δὲ ὑδρίαν ὕδατος, 
ἔδοξε ψῆφον βαλεῖν ἕκαστον. Τήμενος οὖν καὶ 
οἱ ᾿Αριστοδήμου παῖδες ἸἹΙροκλῆς καὶ Εὐρυσθένης 
ἔβαλον λίθους, Κρεσφόντης δὲ βουλόμενος Μεσ- 
σήνην λαχεῖν γῆς ἐνέβαλε βῶλον. ταύτης δὲ 
διαλυθείσης ἔδει τοὺς δύο κλήρους ἀναφανῆναι. 
ἑλκυσθείσης δὲ πρώτης * μὲν τῆς Τημένου, δευτέρας 
δὲ τῆς τῶν ᾿Αριστοδήμον παίδων, Μεσσήνην 


1 καθημένῳ Aegius: καθημένου A. 

2 μονοφθάλμου, Frazer (compare Pausanias, v. 3.5; Suidas, 
8.υ. ΤριόφθαλμοΞ) ; μονοφθάλμῳ Wagner and previous editors, 
following apparently the MSS. 

δ᾽ ἐκκέκοπτο Gale, Heyne, for ἐκέκοπτο: ἐξεκέκοπτο Hercher. 
But on the omission of the augment, see Jelf, Greek Gram- 
mar *, i. 169, Obs. 4. 4 πρώτης Aegius: πρώτου A. 


288 





THE LIBRARY, II. vin. 3-4 


they chanced to light on Oxylus, son of Andraemon, a 
man sitting on a one-eyed horse (its other eye having 
been knocked out with an arrow); for he had fled to 
Elis on account of a murder, and was now returning 
from there to Aetolia after the lapse of a year.! 
So guessing the purport of the oracle, they made 
him their guide. And having engaged the enemy 
they got the better of him both by land and sea, 
and slew Tisamenus, son of Orestes.? Their allies, 
Pamphylus and Dymas, the sons of Aegimius, also 
fell in the fight. 

When they had made themselves masters of Pelo- 
ponnese, they set up three altars of Paternal Zeus, 
and sacrificed upon them, and cast lots for the 
cities, So the first drawing was for Argos, the second 
for Lacedaemon, and the third for Messene. And 
they brought a pitcher of water, and resolved that 
each should cast in a lot. Now Temenus and the 
two sons of Aristodemus, Procles and Eurysthenes, 
threw stones; But Cresphontes, wishing to have 
Messene allotted to him, threw in a clod of earth. 
As the clod was dissolved in the water, it could not be 
but that the other two lots should turn up. The lot 
of Temenus having been drawn first, and that of 
the sons of Aristodemus second, Cresphontes got 


1 The homicide is said to have been accidental ; according 
to one account, the victim was the homicide’s brother. See 
Pausanias, v. 3.7. As to the banishment of a murderer for 
a year, see note on ii. 5. 11. 

2 Pausanias gives a different account of the death of 
Tisaments. He says that, being expelled from Lacedaemon 
and Argos by the returning Heraclids, king Tisamenus led 
an army to Achaia and there fell in a battle with the Ionians, 
who then inhabited that district of Greece. See Pausanias, 
ii. 18. 8, vii. 1. 7 4g. 

289 


vol. 1. U 


APOLLODORUS 


5 ἔλαβε" Κρεσφόντης. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῖς βωμοῖς ols ἔθυ- 
σαν εὗρον σημεῖα κείμενα οἱ μὲν λαχόντες “Apryos 
φρῦνον, οἱ δὲ Λακεδαίμονα 2 δράκοντα, ot δὲ Μεσ- 
σήνην ἀλώπεκα. περὶ δὲ τῶν σημείων ἔλεγον οἱ 
μάντεις, τοῖς μὲν τὸν φρῦνον καταλαβοῦσιν ὃ ἐπὶ 
τῆς πόλεως μένειν ἄμεινον (μὴ γὰρ ἔχειν ἀλκὴν 
πορευόμενον τὸ θηρίον), τοὺς δὲ δράκοντα κατα- 
λαβόντας δεινοὺς ἐπιόντας ἔλεγον ἔσεσθαι, τοὺς 
δὲ τὴν ἀλώπεκα δολίους. 

Τήμενος μὲν οὖν παραπεμπόμενος τοὺς παῖδας 
᾿Αγέλαον καὶ Εὐρύπυλον καὶ Καλλίαν, τῇ θυγατρὶ 
προσανεῖχεν ‘TpvnOoi καὶ τῷ ταύτης ἀνδρὶ Δηι- 
φόντῃ. ὅθεν οἱ παῖδες πείθουσί τινας 4 ἐπὶ μισθῷ 
τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν φονεῦσαι. γενομένου δὲ τοῦ 
φόνου τὴν βασιλείαν ὁ στρατὸς ἔχειν ἐδικαίωσεν 
“Ὑρνηθὼ καὶ Δηιφόντην.ὃ Κρεσφόντης δὲ οὐ πολὺν 
Μεσσήνης βασιλεύσας χρόνον μετὰ δύο πταίδων 
φονευθεὶς ἀπέθανε. ἸΠολυφόντης δὲ ἐβασίλευσεν, 
αὐτῶν τῶν Ἡρακλειδῶν ὑπάρχων, καὶ τὴν τοῦ 

1 ἔλαχε Hercher. 

3 λακεδαίμονα E: λακεδαίμονα λαχόντες A. 

8 καταλαβοῦσιν E. According to Heyne, the MSS. have 
καταβαλοῦσι. 

* τινας Faber, Westermann, Hercher, Wagner: τιτᾶνας A, 
Bekker. Heyne conjectured Τιτανίους from Τιτάνη or Τίτανα, 
a town near Sicyon. See Pausanias, ii. 11. 3-ii. 12. 1; 
Stephanus Byzantius, s.v, Τίτανα, who recognizes the ad- 
jective Τιτάνιος. 

5 'γρνηθὼ καὶ Δηιφόντην Heyne: ὑρνηθοῖ καὶ δηιφόντῃ A. 

6 αὐτὸς Faber: καὶ αὐτὸς Hercher. 





1 As to the drawing of the lots, and the stratagem by 
which Cresphontes secured Messenia for himself, see Poly- 
aenus, Strateg. i. 6; Pausanias, iv. 3. 4 sg. Sophocles alludes 
to the stratagem (Ajax, 1283 sgq., with the Scholiast on 1285). 


290 





THE LIBRARY, 1]. vin. 4-5 


Messene.!_ And on the altars on which they sacri- 
ficed they found signs lying: for they who got Argos 
by the lot: found a toad ; those who got Lacedaemon 
found a serpent; and those who got Messene found 
ἃ fox.2, As to these signs the seers said that those 
who found the toad had better stay in the city (seeing 
that the animal has no strength when it walks); that 
those who found the serpent would be terrible in 
attack, and that those who found the fox would be 
wily. 

Now Temenus, passing over his sons Agelaus, 
Eurypylus, and Callias, favoured his daughter Hyrne- 
tho and her husband Deiphontes; hence his sons 
hired some fellows to murder their father. On the 
perpetration of the murder the army decided that 
the kingdom belonged to Hyrnetho‘ and Deiphontes. 
Cresphontes had not long reigned over Messene when 
he was murdered with two of his sons;5 and Poly- 
phontes, one of the true Heraclids, came to the 


2 In the famous paintings by Polygnotus at Delphi, the 
painter depicted Menelaus, king of Santa: with the device 
of a serpent on his shield. See Pausanias, x. 26.3. The 
great Messenian hero Aristomenes is said to have escaped by 
the help of a fox from the pit into which he had been thrown 
by the Lacedaemonians. See Pausanias, iv. 18. 6 sq. Ido 
not remember to have met with any evidence, other than that 
of Apollodorus, as to the association of the toad with Argos. 

3 Compare Pausanias, ii. 19. 1, ii. 28. 2 sqq., who agrees as 
to the names of Hyrnetho and her husband Deiphontes, but 
differs as to the sons of Temenus, whom he calls Cisus, Cerynes 
Phalces, and Agraeus. 

4 The grave of Hyrnetho was shown at Argos, but she is 
said to have been accidentally killed by her brother Phalces 
near Epidaurus, and long afterwards she was worshipped in a 
sacred grove of olives and other trees on the place of her death. 
See Pausanias, ii. 23. 3, ii. 28. 3-7 - 

5 Compare Pausanias, iv 3. 7. 


201 
u 2 


APOLLODORUS 


φονευθέντος γυναῖκα Μερόπην ἄκουσαν ἔλαβεν. 
ἀνῃρέθη δὲ καὶ οὗτος. τρίτον γὰρ ἔχουσα παῖδα 
Μερόπη καλούμενον Αἴπυτον; ἔδωκε τῷ ἑαυτῆς 
πατρὶ τρέφειν. οὗτος ἀνδρωθεὶς καὶ κρύφα κατελ- 
θὼν ἔκτεινε Πολυφόντην καὶ τὴν πατρῴαν βασι- 
λείαν ἀπέλαβεν. 
1 Αἴπυτον Heyne : αἴγυπτον A. 
1 Compare Hyginus, Fab, 137. 


2 Compare Pausanias, iv. 3. 7 sq. (who does not name 
Polyphontes); Hyginus, Fab. 184. According to Hyginus, 


292 








THE LIBRARY, II. viu. 5 


throne and took to wife, against her will, Merope, 
the wife of the murdered man.!' But he too was 
slain. For Merope had a third son, called Aepytus, 
whom she gave to her own father to bring up. When 
he was come to manhood he secretly returned, 
killed Polyphontes, and recovered the kingdom of 
his fathers.? 


the name of the son of Cresphontes who survived to avenge 
his father’s murder was Telephon. This story of Merope, 
Aepytus, and Polyphontes is the theme of Matthew Arnold’s 
tragedy Merope, an imitation of the antique. 


293 


Digitized by Google 


BOOK III 


1" 


+ 


I. Ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ Ἰνάχειον διερχόμενοι γένος τοὺς 
ἀπὸ Βήλου μέχρι τῶν Ἡρακλειδῶν δεδηλώκαμεν, 
ἐχομένως λέγωμεν καὶ τὰ περὶ ᾿Αγήνορος. ὡς 
γὰρ ἡμῖν λέλεκται, δύο Λιβύη ἐγέννησε παῖδας 
ἐκ Ἰ]οσειδῶνος, Βῆλον καὶ ᾿Αγήνορα. ἘΒῆλος μὲν 
οὖν βασιλεύων Αἰγυπτίων τοὺς προειρημένους 
ἐγέννησεν, ᾿Αγήνωρ δὲ παραγενόμενος εἰς τὴν 
Φοινίκην ' γαμεῖ ples Sank ον καὶ τεκνοῖ θυγα- 
τέρα μὲν Εὐρώπην, παῖδας δὲ Κάδμον καὶ Φοίνικα 
καὶ Κίλικα. τινὲς δὲ Εὐρώπην οὐκ ᾿Αγήνορος 


1 Φρινίκην Emperius, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: εὐρώπην 
A, Westermann, Miiller, who brackets the clause παραγενό- 
μενος eis Εὐρώπην. 


1 See above, ii. 1. 4. 

2 The ancients were not agreed as to the genealogies of 
these mythical ancestors of the Phoenicians, Cilicians, and 
Thebans. See the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 
ii. 178, iii. 1186. Among the authorities whose divergent 
views are reported in these passages by the Scholiast are 
Hesiod, Pherecydes, Asclepiades, and Antimachus. Moschus 
(ii. 40 and 42) agrees with Apollodorus that the mother of 
Europa was Telephassa, but differs from him as to her father 
(see below), According to Hyginus (Fab. 6 and 178), the 
mother who bore Cadmus and Europa to Agenor was not 
Telephassa but Argiope. According to Euripides, Agenor 
had three sons, Cilix, Phoenix, and Thasus. See Scholiast 
on Euripides, Phoenissae, 6. Pausanias agrees with regard 
to Thasus, saying that the natives of Thasos were Phoenicians 
by descent and traced their origin to this Thasus, son of 


206 








BOOK lll 


I. Havine now run over the family of Inachus and 
described them from Belus down to the Heraclids, 
we have next to speak of the house of Agenor. For 
as I have said,! Libya had by Poseidon two sons, 
Belus and Agenor. Now Belus reigned over the 
Egyptians and begat the aforesaid sons ; but Agenor 
went to Phoenicia, married Telephassa, and begat a 
daughter Europa and three sons, Cadmus, Phoenix, 
and Cilix.? But some say that Europa was a daughter 


Agenor (Pausanias, v. 25. 12). In saying this, Pausanias 
followed Herodotus, who tells us that the Phoenician colonists 
of Thasos discovered wonderful gold mines there, which the 
historian had visited (Herodotus, vi. 46 sq.), and that they 
had founded a sanctuary of Hercules in the island (ii. 44). 
Herodotus also (vii. 91) represents Cilix as a son of the 
Phoenician Agenor, and he tells us (iv. 147) that Cadmus, son 
of Agenor, left a Phoenician colony in the island of Thera. 
Diodorus Siculus reports (v. 59. 2 sq.) that Cadmus, son of 
Agenor, planted a Phoenician colony in Rhodes, and that the 
descendants of the colonists continued to hold the hereditary 
priesthood of Poseidon, whose worship had been instituted 
by Cadmus. He mentions also that in the sanctuary of 
Athena at Lindus, in Rhodes, there was a tripod of ancient 
style bearing a Phoenician inscription. The statement has 
been confirmed in recent years by the discovery of the official 
record of the temple of Lindian Athena in Rhodes. For in 
this record, engraved on a marble slab, there occurs the 
followin crag ee ‘“‘Cadmus (dedicated) a bronze tripod 
engraved with Phoenician letters, as Polyzalus relates in the 
fourth book of the histories.” See Chr. Blinkenberg, La 


297 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀλλὰ Φοίνικος λέγουσι. ταύτης Ζεὺς ἐρασθείς," 
Ἐῤόδου ἀποπλέων,Σ ταῦρος χειροήθης γενόμενος, 
ἐπιβιβασθεῖσαν διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης ἐκόμισεν εἰς 
Κρήτην. ἡ δέ, ἐκεῖ συνευνασθέντος αὐτῇ Διός, 
ἐγέννησε Μίνωα Σαρπηδόνα Ῥαδάμανθυν: καθ᾽ 
Ὅμηρον δὲ Σαρπηδὼν ἐκ Διὸς καὶ Λαοδαμείας 
τῆς Βελλεροφόντου. ἀφανοῦς δὲ Εὐρώπης γενο- 
μένης ὁ πατὴρ αὐτῆς ᾿Αγήνωρ ἐπὶ ζήτησιν ἐξέ- 
πεμψε τοὺς παῖδας, εἰπὼν μὴ πρότερον ἀναστρέ- 
dew πρὶν ἂν ἐξεύρωσιν Ἑὐρώπην. συνεξῆλθε δὲ 
ἐπὶ τὴν ζήτησιν αὐτῆς Τηλέφασσα ἡ μήτηρ καὶ 


1 ἐρασθείς. In the MSS. there follow the words πίπτει διὰ 
τῆς θαλάσσης, which, as Heyne says, seem to have arisen 
through confusion with the following ἐπιβιβασθεῖσαν διὰ τῆς 
θαλάσσης. 

2 ῥόδου ἀποπλέων apparently corrupt, omitted by Heyne, 
Bekker, Hercher : Ῥόδου ἀποπλέων Westermann ῥόδον ἀπο- 
πνέων Sevinus: κρόκου ἀποπνέων Clavier (comparing Scholiast 
on Homer, 77. xii. 292, ἤλλαξεν ἑαυτὸν eis ταῦρον καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ 
στόματος κρόκον ἔπνει) : ἐκ ῥόδων or ἐκ ῥοδῶνος ἀφελὼν Wagner 
(comparing Moschus, ii. 70). 


Chronique du Temple Lindien (Copenhagen, 1912), p. 324. 
However, from such legends all that we can safely infer is 
that the Greeks traced a blood relationship between the 
Phoenicians and Cilicians, and recognised a Phoenician 
element in some of the Greek islands and parts of the main- 
land. If Europa was, as seems possible, a personification of 
the moon in the shape of a cow (see The Dying God, p. 88), 
we might perhaps interpret the quest of the sons of Agenor 
for their lost sister as a mythical description of Phoenician 
mariners steering westward towards the moon which they 
saw with her silver horns setting in the sea. 

1 Europa was a daughter of Phoenix: according to Homer 
(Il. xiv. 321 sq.), Bacchylides (xvi. 29 sqq. p. 376, ed. Jebb), 
and Moschus (ii. 7). So, too, the Scholiast on Homer (J1. xii. 
292) calls Europa a daughter of Phoenix. The Scholiast on 
Plato (Timaeus, p. 248) speaks of Europa as a daughter of 


298 





THE LIBRARY, III.1. 1 


not of Agenor but of Phoenix. Zeus loved her, 
and turning himself into a tame bull, he mounted 
her on his back and conveyed her through the sea 
to Crete.2. There Zeus bedded with her, and she 
bore Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys ;° but 
according to Homer, Sarpedon was a son of Zeus by 
Laodamia, daughter of Bellerophon.* On the dis- 
appearance of Europa her father Agenor sent out 
his sons in search of her, telling them not to return 
until they had found Europa. With them her 
mother, Telephassa, and Thasus, son of Poseidon, or 


Agenor, or of Phoenix, or of Tityus. Some said that Cadmus 
also was a son, not of Agenor, but of Phoenix (Scholiast on 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iii. 1186). 

3 Compare Moschus, ii. 77 sgg.; Scholiast on Homer, Ji. xii. 
292 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 78. 1; Lucian, Dial. Marin. xv.; 
id, De dea Syria, 4; Ovid, Metamorph. ii. 836 sqq.; id. Fasti, 
v. 603 δηᾳ.; Hyginus, Fab. 178 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 47, 100 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 148 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 76). The 
connexion which the myth of Zeus and Hhiropa indicates 
between Phoenicia and Crete receives a certain confirmation 
from the worship at Gaza of a god called Marnas, who was 
popularly identified with the Cretan Zeus. His name was 
thought to be derived from a Cretan word marna, meaning 
‘‘maiden”; so that, as Mr. G. F. Hill has pointed out, 
marnas might signify ‘‘young man.” The city is also said 
to have been called Minoa, after Minos. See Stephanus 
Byzantius, 8.0. Γάζα. The worship of Marnas, ‘‘the Cretan 
Zeus,” persisted at Gaza till 402 a.p., when it was finally 
suppressed and his sanctuary, the Marneion, destroyed. See 
Mark the Deacon’s Life of Porphyry, Bishop of Gaza, 64-71, 
pp. 73-82, G. F. Hill’s translation (Oxford, 1913). From this 
work (ch. 19, p. 24) we learn that Marnas was regarded as 
the lord of rain, and that prayer and sacrifice were offered to 
him in time of drought. ΑΒ tothe god and his relation to 
Crete, see G. F. Hill's introduction to his translation, pp. 
XXXii.—XxXXViil. 

8 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xii. 292; Hyginus, 
Fab. 178. 4 Homer, 17. ii. 198 sq. 


299 


APOLLODORUS 


Θάσος ὁ Ποσειδῶνος, ws δὲ Φερεκύδης φησὶ 
Κώλικος.: ὡς δὲ πᾶσαν ποιούμενοι ζήτησιν εὑ- 
ρεῖν ἦσαν Ἐὐρώπην ἀδύνατοι, τὴν εἰς οἶκον 
3 \ 3 4 Μ ? ~ μ 
ἀνακομιδὴν ἀπογνόντες ἄλλος ἀλλαχοῦ κατῴ- 
κησαν,2 Φοῖνιξ μὲν ἐν Φοινίκῃ, Κίλιξ δὲ Φοινίκης 
πλησίον, καὶ" πᾶσαν τὴν ὑφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ κειμένην 
χώραν ποταμῷ σύνεγγυς Πυράμῳ ΚΚαίιλικίαν 
ἐκάλεσε > Κάδμος δὲ καὶ Τηλέ ἐν Θρά 
ἐκάλεσε μος καὶ Ἰηλέφασσα ἐν Θρᾳκῇῃ 
κατῴκησαν. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Θάσος ἐν Θρᾷκῃ " 
κτίσας πόλεν Θάσον κατῴκησεν. 

Εὐρώπην δὲ γήμας ᾿Αστέριος; ὁ Κρητῶν 
δυνάστης τοὺς ἐκ ταύτης παῖδας ἔτρεφεν. οἱ δὲ 
ὡς ἐτελειώθησαν, πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐστασίασαν' 
ἴσχουσι γὰρ ἔρωτα παιδὸς ὃς ἐκαλεῖτο Μίλητος, 
9 , \ 9 \ ? a A , a 
Απόλλωνος δὲ ἦν καὶ ᾿Αρείας τῆς Κλεόχου. τοῦ 
δὲ παιδὸς πρὸς Σαρπηδόνα μᾶλλον οἰκείως ἔχον- 
Tos πολεμήσας Μίνως ἐπροτέρησεν. οἱ δὲ φεύ- 


1 κίλικος Heyne: κιλίκιος A. 

2 κατῴκησαν R8O: κατῴκισαν A. 

3 ἐν Φοινίκῃ Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: φοινίκην A. 

4 $s καὶ Hercher. 

5 καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν ὑφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ κειμένην χώραν ποταμῷ σύνεγγυς 
Πυράμῳ Κιλικίαν ἐκάλεσε Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bek- 
ker. This seems to be the reading of all the MSS. Wagner 
alters the passage as follows: καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν κειμένην χώραν» 
ποταμῷ σύνεγγυς Tupdum Κιλικίαν ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ ἐκάλεσε, “ And 
he called all the country near the river Pyramus after him- 
self Cilicia.” But with this rearrangement the words κει- 
μένην χώραν become ungrammatical as they stand, and to 
restore the grammar they must be transposed and placed 
after Πυράμῳ, so as to read: καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν ποταμῷ σύνεγγυς 
Πυράμῳ κειμένην χώραν ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ Κιλικίαν ἐκάλεσε. Hercher 
simply omits ὑφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ, which is equally fatal to the gram- 
mar. It is better to keep the MS. reading, which gives an 
unobjectionahle sense. 

© ἐν «νήσῳ πρὸς τῇ: Θράκῃ Heyne. This gives the sense 


300 


THE LIBRARY, III. 1, 1-2 


according to Pherecydes, of Cilix,! went forth in 
search of her. But when, after diligent search, they 
could not find Europa, they gave up the thought of 
returning home, and took up their abode in divers 
places ; Phoenix settled in Phoenicia; Cilix settled 
near Phoenicia, and all the country subject to him- 
self near the river Pyramus he called Cilicia; and 
Cadmus and Telephassa took up their abode in 
Thrace and in like manner Thasus founded a city 
Thasus in an island off Thrace and dwelt there.” 
Now Asterius, prince of the Cretans, married 
Europa and brought up her children.? But when 
they were grown up, they quarrelled with each 
other; for they loved a boy called Miletus, son of 
Apollo by Aria, daughter of Cleochus.4 As the 
boy was more friendly to Sarpedon, Minos went to 
war and had the better of it, and the others fled. 


1 According to some writers, Thasus was a son of Agenor. 
See above, note on p. 296. 

2 Apollodorus probably meant to say that Thasus colonized 
the island of Thasos. The text may be corrupt. See Critical 
Note. For the traces of the Phoenicians in Thasos, see 
above, note on p. 296. 

8 Compare Scholiast on Homer, Ji. xii. 292; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 60. 3 (who calls the king Asterius). On the place 
of Asterion or Asterius in Cretan mythology, see A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. 543 8qq. 

4 With the following legend of the foundation of Miletus 
compare Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 30 ; Pausanias, vii. 
2.5; Scholiast on Apollonius RKhodius, Argon. i. 186. 


required. I have translated accordingly. Hercher as usual 
cuts the difficulty by omitting ἐν @pdxn. 

7 "Agrépios Wagner (referring to Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
60. 3): ᾿Αστερίων A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher. 


301 


APOLLODORUS 


γουσι, καὶ Μίλητος μὲν Καρίᾳ προσσχὼν: ἐκεῖ 
πόλιν ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ ἔκτισε Μίλητον, Σαρπηδὼν δὲ 
συμμαχήσας Κίλικει πρὸς Λυκίους ἔχοντι πό- 
λεμον, ἐπὶ μέρει 5 τῆς χώρας, Λυκίας ἐβασίλευσε. 
καὶ αὐτῷ δίδωσι Ζεὺς ἐπὶ τρεῖς γενεὰς ζῆν. ἔνιοι 
δὲ αὐτοὺς ὃ ἐρασθῆναι λέγουσιν ᾿Ατυμνίον τοῦ 
Διὸς καὶ Κασσιεπείας, καὶ διὰ τοῦτον στασιάσαι. 
Ῥαδάμανθυς δὲ τοῖς νησιώταις νομοθετῶν, αὖθις 
φυγὼν εἰς Βοιωτίαν ᾿Αλκμήνην γαμεῖ, καὶ μεταλ- 
λάξας ἐν “Αἰδου μετὰ Μίνωος δικάξει. Μίνως δὲ 
Κρήτην κατοικῶν ἔγραψε νόμους, καὶ γήμας 
Πασιφάην τὴν “Ἡλίου καὶ Ileponidos, ὡς <dé>* 
᾿Ασκληπιάδης φησί, Κρήτην τὴν ᾿Αστερίου 
θυγατέρα, παῖδας μὲν ἐτέκνωσε Κατρέα Δευκα- 
λίωνα Γλαῦκον ᾿Ανδρόγεων, θυγατέρας δὲ ᾿Ακάλ- 
λην Ἐενοδίκην ᾿Αριάδνην Φαίδραν, ἐκ Tapetas 
δὲ νύμφης Εὐρυμέδοντα Νηφαλίωνα Χρύσην 
Φιλόλαον, ἐκ δὲ Δεξιθέας Εὐξάνθιον. 

"Aotepiov® δὲ ἄπαιδος ἀποθανόντος Μίνως 
βασιλεύειν θέλων Κρήτης ἐκωλύετο. φήσας δὲ 
παρὰ θεῶν τὴν βασιλείαν εἰληφέναι, τοῦ πιστευ- 


1 προσσχὼν Heyne: προσχὼν A. 

2 μέρει Heyne: μέρη A. 

5. αὐτοὺς Wagner: αὐτὸν A. ὦ δὲ inserted by Miiller. 

δ ᾿Αστερίου A, Wagner: ᾿Αστερίωνος Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 


‘ Compare Herodotus, i. 173 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 3; 
Strabo, xii. 8. 5, p. 573; Pausanias, vii. 3.7. Sarpedon was 
worshipped as a heroin Lycia. See W. Dittenberger, Ortenits 
Graect Teeorinonss Selectae, No. 552 (vol. ii. p. 231). 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 1 aq. 

9. See above, ii. 4. 11 note. 

* Daughter of the Sun; compare Apollonius Rhodius, 


302 





THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 2-3 


Miletus landed in Caria and there founded a city 
which he called Miletus after himself; and Sarpedon 
allied himself with Cilix, who was at war with the 
Lycians, and having stipulated for a share of the 
country, he became king of Lycia.1 And Zeus 
granted him to live for three generations. But some 
say that they loved Atymnius, the son of Zeus and 
Cassiepea, and that it was about him that they 
quarrelled. Rhadamanthys legislated for the islanders? 
but afterwards he fled to Boeotia and married Alc- 
mena ὃ; and since his departure from the world he 
acts as judge in Hades along with Minos. Minos, 
residing in Crete, passed laws, and married Pasiphae, 
daughter of the Sun‘ and Perseis; but Asclepiades 
says that his wife was Crete, daughter of Asterius. 
He begat sons, to wit, Catreus,> Deucalion, Glaucus, 
and Androgeus: and daughters, to wit, Acalle, 
Xenodice, Ariadne, Phaedra ; and by a nymph Paria 
he had Eurymedon, Nephalion, Chryses, and Philo- 
laus ; and by Dexithea he had Euxanthius. 

Asterius dying childless, Minos wished to reign 
over Crete, but his claim was opposed. So he alleged 
_ that he had received the kingdom from the gods, 


Argon. iii. 999; Pausanias, iii. 26. 1, v. 25. 9; Antoninus 
Liberalis, Transform. 41; Mythographi Graeci, ed. Wester- 
mann, Appendix Narrationum, p. 379; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 
736. Pausanias interpreted Pasiphae as the moon (iii. 26. 1), 
and this interpretation has been adopted by some modern 
scholars. The Cretan traditions concerning the marriage of 
Minos and Pasiphae seem to point to a ritual marriage per- 
formed every eight years at Cnossus by the king and queen 
as representatives respectively of the Sun and Moon. See 
The Dying God, pp. 70 sqqg.; A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 521 egg. 
(who holds that Europa was originally a Cretan Earth- 
goddess responsible for the vegetation of the year). 
5 Compare Pausanias, viii. 53. 4. 


599 


in 


APOLLODORUS 


θῆναι χάριν edn, 6 τι ἂν εὔξηται, γενέσθαι. Kai 
Ποσειδῶνι θύων ηὔξατο ταῦρον ἀναφανῆναι ἐκ 
τῶν βυθῶν, καταθύσειν ὑποσχόμενος τὸν φα- 
νέντα. τοῦ δὲ Ποσειδῶνος ταῦρον ἀνέντος αὐτῷ 
διαπρεπῆ τὴν βασιλείαν παρέλαβε, τὸν δὲ ταῦρον 
εἰς τὰ βουκόλια πέμψας ἔθυσεν ἕτερον. [θαλασσο- 
κρατήσας δὲ πρῶτος πασῶν τῶν νήσων σχεδὸν 
> A 1 3 θεὶ δὲ 3 Aa II ὃ a Φ Ἁ 
ἐπῆρξεν.] ἃ ὀργισθεὶς δὲ αὐτῷ Ποσειδῶν ὅτι μὴ 
κατέθυσε τὸν ταῦρον, τοῦτον μὲν ἐξηγρίωσε, 
Πασιφάην δὲ ἐλθεῖν εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν αὐτοῦ παρε- 
σκεύασεν. ἡ δὲ ἐρασθεῖσα τοῦ ταύρου συνεργὸν 
λαμβάνει Δαίδαλον, ὃς ἣν ἀρχιτέκτων, πεφευγὼς 
ἐξ ᾿Αθηνῶν ἐπὶ φόνῳ. οὗτος ξυλίνην βοῦν ἐπὶ 
τροχῶν κατασκευάσας, καὶ ταύτην λαβὼν καὶ 
κοιίλάνας ἔνδοθεν, ἐκδείρας τε βοῦν τὴν δορὰν 
περιέρραψε, καὶ θεὶς ἐν ᾧπερ εἴθιστο ὁ ταῦρος 
λειμῶνι βόσκεσθαι, τὴν Πασιφάην ἐνεβίβασ εν. 
\ Ν ε [ον e ? δι a e 
ἐλθὼν δὲ ὁ ταῦρος ὡς ἀληθινῇ Bot συνῆλθεν. ἡ 
δὲ ᾿Αστέριον ἐγέννησε τὸν κληθέντα Μινώταυρον. 
οὗτος εἶχε ταύρου πρόσωπον, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ ἀνδρός" 
Μίνως δὲ ἐν τῷ λαβυρίνθῳ κατά τινας χρησμοὺς 
, 9 AN 3 A ς ᾽ 
κατακλείσας αὐτὸν ἐφύλαττεν. ἦν δὲ ὁ λαβύ- 
ρινθος, ὃν Δαίδαλος κατεσκεύασεν, οἴκημα καμ- 
1 θαλασσοκρατήσας.. . ἐπῆρξεν omitted by Hercher. The 
words seem out of place here. But they occur in S as well 
as K, ἐπῆρξεν ES: ὑπῆρξεν A. 


5 λαβὼν καὶ Heyne, Westermann, Miiller: βαλὼν ESA, 
Wagner : βαλὼν καὶ Bekker. 3 ἔνδοθεν ES: ἔσωθεν A. 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 77.2; J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, 
i. 479 egg. (who seems to follow Apollodorus); Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statius, Theb. v. 431, according to whom the 
bull was sent, in answer to Minos’s prayer, not by Poseidon 
but by Jupiter (Zeus). 


304 


THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 3-4 


and in proof of it he said that whatever he prayed 
for would be done. And in sacrificing to Poseidon 
he prayed that.a bull might appear from the depths, 
promising to sacrifice it when it appeared. Poseidon 
did send him up a fine bull, and Minos obtained 
the kingdom, but he sent the bull to the herds and 
sacrificed another.! Being the first to obtain the 
dominion of the sea, he extended his rule over 
almost all the islands.? But angry at him for not 
sacrificing the bull, Poseidon made the animal savage, 
and contrived that Pasiphae should conceive a 
passion for it.2 In her love for the bull she found an 
accomplice in Daedalus, an architect, who had been 
banished from Athens for murder. He constructed 
a wooden cow on wheels, took it, hollowed it out in 
the inside, sewed it up in the hide of a cow which 
he had skinned, and set it in the meadow in which 
the bull used to graze. Then he introduced Pasiphae 
into it; and the bull came and coupled with it, as if 
it were a real-cow. And she gave birth to Asterius, 
who was called the Minotaur. He had the face of a 
bull, but the rest of him was human; and Minos, in 
compliance with certain oracles, shut him up and 
guarded him in the Labyrinth. Now the Labyrinth 
which Daedalus constructed was a chamber “ that 


2 Compare Herodotus, i. 171; Thucydides, i. 4 and 8. 

3 Here Apollodorus seems to be following Euripides, who 
in a fragment of his drama, The Cretans, introduces Pasiphae 
excusing herself on the ground that her passion for the bull 
was a form of madness inflicted on her by Poseidon as a 

unishment for the impiety of her husband Minos, who had 

roken his vow by not sacrificing the bull to the sea-god. See 
ὟΝ. Schubart und U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Griech- 
ische Dichterfragmente, ii. (Berlin, 1907), pp. 74 sq. 

4 See below, iii. 15. 8. 


395 
VOL. I. x 


APOLLODORUS 


παῖς πολυπλόκοις πλανῶν τὴν ἔξοδον. τὰ μὲν 
οὖν περὶ Μινωταύρου καὶ ᾿Ανδρόγεω καὶ Φαίδρας 
καὶ ᾿Αριάδνης ἐν τοῖς περὶ Θησέως ὕστερον 
ἐροῦμεν. 

11. Κατρέως δὲ τοῦ Μίνωος ᾿Αερόπη καὶ 
Κλυμένη καὶ ᾿Απημοσύνη καὶ ᾿Αλθαιμένης vids 
γίνονται. χρωμένῳ δὲ Katpet περὶ καταστροφῆς 
τοῦ βίου ὁ θεὸς ἔφη ὑπὸ ἑνὸς τῶν τέκνων 1 τεθνή- 
EecOar. Κατρεὺς μὲν οὖν ἀπεκρύβετο τοὺς χρη- 
σμούς, ᾿Αλθαιμένης δὲ ἀκούσας, καὶ δείσας μὴ 
φονεὺς γένηται τοῦ πατρός, ἄρας ἐκ Κρήτης μετὰ 
τῆς ἀδελφῆς ᾿Απημοσύνης προσίσχει τινὶ τόπῳ 
τῆς Ῥόδου, καὶ κατασχὼν Kpntiviay? ὠνόμασεν. 
ἀναβὰς δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ ᾿Αταβύριον καλούμενον ὄρος 
ἐθεάσατο τὰς πέριξ νήσους, κατιδὼν δὲ καὶ ἸΚρή- 
την, καὶ τῶν πατρῴων ὑπομνησθεὶς θεῶν, ἱδρύετο 
βωμὸν ᾿Αταβυρίον Διός. μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ τῆς 


1 τέκνων R: παίδων A. 

2 κρητινίαν R, Hercher, Wagner: κρατινίαν A: Κρητηνίαν 
Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker (compare Stephanus 
Byzantius, 8.v. Κρητηνία). 


1 In the Greek original these words are seemingly a quota- 
tion from a poem, wed a tragedy—perhaps Sophocles’s 
tragedy D us, of which a few fragments survive. See 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 167 sq.; 
The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 
110 sgg. As to the Minotaur and the labyrinth, compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 77. 1-5; Plutarch, Theseus, 15 sqq.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 40; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Achill. 
192. As to the loves of Pasiphae and the bull, see also 
Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytus, 887; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ie ntl 8qq.; Virgil, Hcl. vi. 45 eqqg.; Ovid, Ars Amator. i. 

8qq. 

2 See below, iii. 15. 7-9; Hpittome, i. 7-11. 


306 





THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 4-1. 1 


with its tangled windings perplexed the outward 
way.’ 1 The story of the Minotaur, and Androgeus, 
and Phaedra, and Ariadne, I will tell hereafter in 
my account of Theseus.” ἢ 

II, But Catreus, son of Minos, had three daughters, 
Aerope, Clymene, and Apemosyne, and a son, Al- 
thaemenes.? When Catreus inquired of the oracle 
how his life should end, the god said that he would 
die by the hand of one of his children. Now Catreus 
hid the oracles, but Althaemenes heard of them, and 
fearing to be his father’s murderer, he set out from 
Crete with his sister Apemosyne, and put in at a 
place in Rhodes, and having taken possession of it 
he called it Cretinia. And having ascended the 
mountain called Atabyrium, he beheld the islands 
round about ; and descrying Crete also and calling to 
mind the gods of his fathers he founded an altar 
of Atabyrian Zeus.4¢ But not long afterwards he 


3. The tragic story of the involuntary parricide of Althae- 
menes is similarly told by Diodorus Siculus, v. 59. 1-4, who 
says that this murderer of his father and of his sister was 
afterwards worshipped as a hero in Rhodes. 

4 As to Atabyrian Zeus and his sanctuary on Mount Atabyr- 
ium, Atabyrum, or Atabyris, the highest mountain in Rhodes, 
see Pindar, Olymp. vii. 87 (159) sq.; Polybius, vii. 27. 7, ed. 
L. Dindorf; Appian, Bell. Mithridat. 26; Strabo, xiv. 2. 12, 
p- 655 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 59.2; Lactantius, Divin. Institut. 
i. 22. Diodorus Siculus tells us that the sanctuary, crowning 
a lofty peak, was highly venerated down to his own time, 
and that the island of Crete was visible from it in the distance. 
Some rude remains of the temple, built of grey limestone, 
still exist on a summit a little lower than the highest. See 
H. F. Tozer, The Islands of the Aegean (Oxford, 1890), pp. 
220 sq.; Cecil Torr, Rhodes in Ancient Times, (Cambridge, 
1885), pp. 1, 75. Atabyrian Zeus would seem to have been 
worshipped in the form of a bull; for it is said that there 
were bronze images of cattle on the mountain, which bellowed 


307 
x 2 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀδελφῆς αὐτόχειρ éeyévero. Ἑ) ρμῆς yap αὐτῆς 
ἐρασθείς, ὡς φεύγουσαν αὐτὴν καταλαβεῖν οὐκ 
ἡδύνατο (περιῆν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τῷ τάχει τῶν ποδῶν), 
κατὰ τῆς ὁδοῦ βύρσας ὑπέστρωσε νεοδάρτους," 
ἐφ᾽ als? ὀλισθοῦσα,Σ ἡνίκα ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης " 
ἐπανήει, φθείρεται. καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ μηνύει τὸ 
γεγονός: ὁ δὲ σκῆψιν νομίσας εἶναι τὸν θεόν, λὰξ 
ἐνθορὼν ἀπέκτεινεν. ᾿Αερόπην δὲ καὶ Κλυμένην 
Κατρεὺς Ναυπλίῳ δίδωσιν εἰς ἀλλοδαπὰς ἠπεί- 
ρους ἀπεμπολῆσαι. τούτων ᾿Αερόπην μὲν ἔγημε 
Πλεισθένης καὶ παῖδας ᾿Αγαμέμνονα καὶ Μενέ- 
Aaov ἐτέκνωσε, Κλυμένην δὲ γαμεῖ Ναύπλεος, 
καὶ τέκνων πατὴρ γίνεται Οἴακος καὶ Παλαμή- 
δους. Κατρεὺς δὲ ὕστερον γήρᾳ κατεχόμενος 
> \ , 3 4 A \ 
ἐπόθει τὴν βασιλείαν ᾿Αλθαιμένει τῷ παιδὶ 
παραδοῦναι, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἦλθεν εἰς “Ῥόδον. 
ἀποβὰς δὲ τῆς νεὼς σὺν τοῖς ἥρωσι κατά τινα 
τῆς νήσου τόπον ἔρημον ἠλαύνετο ὑπὸ τῶν βου- 
κόλων, λῃστὰς ἐμβεβληκέναι δοκούντων καὶ μὴ 
δυναμένων ἀκοῦσαι λέγοντος αὐτοῦ τὴν ἀλήθειαν 
διὰ τὴν κραυγὴν τῶν κυνῶν, ἀλλὰ βαλλόντων 


1 νεοδάρτους ER: νεοδάρτας A. 

2 αἷς Heyne, Hercher: ἃς EA, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, Wagner. 

3 ὀλισθοῦσα E: ὀλισθήσασα A. 

4 κρήνης Hercher, Wagner: κρήτης EA. 

5 ἐτέκνωσε ERR®: ἔτεκε A. 

6 Kpnol Bekker. 


when some evil was about to befall the state, and small 
bronze figures of bulls are still sometimes found on the moun- 
tain. See J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, iv. 390 sqqg.; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Olymp. vii. 87 (159) ; Cecil Torr, op. ct. p. 76, with 
plate 4. Further, we know from Greek inscriptions found in 


308 


THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 1-2 


became the murderer of his sister. For Hermes 
loved her, and as she fled from him and he could 
not catch her, because she excelled him in speed of 
foot, he spread fresh hides on the path, on which, 
returning from the spring, she slipped and so was 
deflowered. She revealed to her brother what had 
happened, but he, deeming the god a mere pretext, 
kicked her to death. And Catreus gave Aerope and 
Clymene to Nauplius to sell into foreign lands; and 
of these two Aerope became the wife of Plisthenes, 
who begat Agamemnon and Menelaus; and Clymene 
became the wife of Nauplius, who became the father 
of Oeax and Palamedes. But afterwards in the grip 
of old age Catreus yearned to transmit the kingdom 
to his son Althaemenes, and went for that purpose to 
Rhodes. And having landed from the ship with the 
heroes at a desert place of the island, he was chased 
by the cowherds, who imagined that they were 
pirates on a raid. He told them the truth, but they 
could not hear him for the barking of the dogs, 
and while they pelted him Althaemenes arrived 


the island that there was a religious association which took 
its name of The Atabyriasts from the deity ; and one of these 
inscriptions (No. 31) records a dedication of oxeu or bulls 
(τοὺς Bows) to the god. See Inscriptiones Graecae Insularum 
Rhodi, Chalces, Carpathi, cum Saro Casi, ed. F. Hiller de 
(saertringen (Berlin, 1895), Nos. 31, 161, 891. The oxen so 
dedicated were probably bronze images of the animals, such 
as are found in the island, though Dittenberger thought that 
they were live oxen destined for sacrifice. See his paper, 
De sacris Rhodiorum Commentatio altera (Halle, 1887), pp. 
viii. sg. The worship of Atabyrian Zeus may well have been 
of Phoenician origin, for we have seen that there was a 
Phoenician colony in Rhodes (see above, iii. 1. 1 note), and the 
uname Atabyrian is believed to be Semitic, equivalent to the 
Hebrew Tabor. See Encyclopaedia Biblica, s.v. ‘‘ Tabor,” 
vol. iii. col. 4881 sqg. Compare A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 642 sqq. 


399 


APOLLODORUS 


κἀκείνων, παραγενόμενος ᾿Αλθαιμένης ἀκοντίσας 
ἀπέκτεινεν ἀγνοῶν Κατρέα. μαθὼν δὲ ὕστερον 
τὸ γεγονός, εὐξάμενος ὑπὸ χάσματος ἐκρύβη. 

III. Δευκαλίωνι δὲ ἐγένοντο Ἰδομενεύς τε καὶ 
Κρήτη καὶ νόθος Μόλος. Tradxos δὲ ἔτι νήπιος 
ὑπάρχων, μῦν διώκων εἰς μέλιτος πίθον πεσὼν 
ἀπέθανεν. ἀφανοῦς δὲ ὄντος αὐτοῦ Μίνως πολ- 
λὴν ζήτησιν ποιούμενος περὶ τῆς εὑρέσεως ἐμαν- 
τεύετο. Ἰζούρητες δὲ εἶπον αὐτῷ τριχρώματον 
ἐν ταῖς ἀγέλαις ἔχειν βοῦν, τὸν δὲ τὴν ταύτης 

όαν Ἶ ἄριστα εἰκάσαι δυνηθέντα καὶ ζῶντα τὸν 
παῖδα ἀποδώσειν. συγκληθέντων δὲ τῶν μάν- 
τεων Πολύιδος ὁ Κοιρανοῦ τὴν χρόαν τῆς Bods 
εἴκασε βάτου καρπῷ, καὶ ζητεῖν τὸν παῖδα avay- 
κασθεὶς διά τινος μαντείας ἀνεῦρε. λέγοντος δὲ 
Μίνωος ὅτι δεῖ καὶ ζῶντα ἀπολαβεῖν αὐτόν, ἀπε- 
κλείσθη σὺν τῷ νεκρῷ. ἐν ἀμηχανίᾳ δὲ πολλῇ 
τυγχάνων εἶδε δράκοντα ἐπὶ τὸν νεκρὸν ἰόντα' 
τοῦτον βαλὼν λίθῳ ἀπέκτεινε, δείσας μὴ κἂν" 


1 χρόαν KOR*, Hercher, Wagner: θέαν R (with χρόαν 
written as a correction above the line): θέαν BC, Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 κἂν Bekker: ἂν EA, Wagner. 


1 Compare Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 4. 

2 Glaucus was a son of Minos and Pasiphae. See above, 
iii, 1.2. For the story of his death and resurrection, see 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 811; Apostolius, Cent. v. 
48; Palaephatus, De incredib. 27; Hyginus, Fab, 136; id. 
Astronom. ii. 14. Sophocles and Euripides composed trage- 
dies on the subject. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 216 sqq., 558 sgqq.; The Fragments of 
Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. PP. 56 sqq. 

3 The cow or calf (for so Hyginus describes it) was said to 


310 











THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 2-1. 1 


and killed him with the cast of a javelin, not 
knowing him to be Catreus. Afterwards when he 
learned the truth, he prayed and disappeared in a 
chasm. | 

III. To Deucalion were born Idomeneus and Crete 
and a bastard son Molus.! But Glaucus, while he 
was yet a child, in chasing a mouse fell into a jar of 
honey and was drowned.” On his disappearance 
Minos made a great search and consulted diviners as 
to how he should find him. The Curetes told him that 
in his herds he had a cow of three different colours, 
and that the man who could best describe that cow’s 
colour would also restore his son to him alive. So 
when the diviners were assembled, Polyidus, son of 
Coeranus, compared the colour of the cow to the 
fruit of the bramble, and being compelled to seek 
for the child he found him by means of a sort of 
divination. But Minos declaring that he must 
recover him alive, he was shut up with the dead 
body. And while he was in great perplexity, he 
saw a serpent going towards the corpse. He threw 
a stone and killed it, fearing to be killed himself if 


change colour twice a day, or once every four hours, being 
first white, then red, and then black. The diviner Polyidus 
solved the riddle by comparing the colour of the animal to a 
ripening mulberry, which is first white, then red, and finally 
black. See Hyginus, Fab. 136; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 811; Sophocles, quoted by Athenaeus, ii. 36, p. 51 Ρ, 
and Bekker’s Anecdota Graeca, i. p. 361, lines 20 sgqq.; The 
Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. p. 60, 
frag. 395. 

4 He is said to have discovered the drowned boy by 
observing an owl which had perched on a wine-cellar and was 
driving away bees. See Hyginus, Fab. 136. Compare 
Aelian, Nat. Amm. v. 2, from which it would seem that 
Hyginus here followed the tragedy of Polyidus by Euripides. 


311 


iw 


APOLLODORUS 


2 A 4 v \ n aé 1- Μ 
αὐτὸς ied 5 εἰ τε TO σώμα πάθοι." ἐρχε- 
ται δὲ ἕτερος δράκων, καὶ θεασάμενος νεκρὸν τὸν 
πρότερον ᾿ ἄπεισιν, εἶτα ὑποστρέφει πόαν κομί- 
ζων, καὶ ταύτην ἐπιτίθησιν ἐπὶ πᾶν τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου 

A“ ’ A a , 
capa: ἐπιτεθείσης δὲ τῆς πόας ἀνέστη. θεασά- 
μενος δὲ Πολύιδος καὶ θαυμάσας, τὴν αὐτὴν πόαν 
προσενεγκὼν τῷ τοῦ Γλαύκου σώματι ἀνέστησεν. 
9 δι \ ’ ἃ A + Q9 4 3 
ἀπολαβὼν δὲ Μίνως τὸν παῖδα οὐδ᾽ οὕτως εἰς 


Ἄργος ἀπιέναι τὸν ἸΠολύιδον εἴα, πρὶν ἢ τὴν 


μαντείαν διδάξαι τὸν ᾿λαῦκον: ἀναγκασθεὶς δὲ 
Πολύιδος διδάσκει. καὶ ἐπειδὴ ἀπέπλει, κελεύει 
τὸν Γλαῦκον εἰς τὸ στόμα ἐμπτύσαι" " καὶ τοῦτο 
ποιήσας Γλαῦκος τῆς μαντείας ὁ ἐπελάθετο. τὰ 
μὲν οὖν περὶ τῶν τῆς Εὐρώπης ἀπογόνων μέχρι 
τοῦδέ μοι λελέχθω. 

IV. Κάδμος δὲ ἀποθανοῦσαν θάψας Τηλέφασ- 
σαν, ὑπὸ Θρᾳκῶν ξενισθείς, ἦλθεν εἰς Δελφοὺς 
περὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης πυνθανόμενος. ὁ δὲ θεὸς 
εἶπε περὶ μὲν Ἐὐρώπης μὴ πολυπραγμονεῖν, 
χρῆσθαι δὲ καθοδηγῴ βοΐ, καὶ. πόλιν κτίζειν 


1 εἴ τι τὸ σῶμα πάθοι Bekker: εἰ τούτῳ συμπάθῃ E, Wagner: | 
εἰ τοῦτο συμκάθῃ A: εἰ τούτῳ συμπάθοι Heyne, Miiller: εἰ 


τοῦτο συμπάθοι Westermann. 

* πρότερον ER (first hand): πρῶτον R (second hand, cor- 
rected), . 

3 éumrvaa Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 811, Heyne (in 
note), Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ἐπιπτύσαι EA, Heyne (in 
text), Westermann, Miiller. 

ὁ τῆς μαντείας E: τὴν μαντείαν A. 


i: 1 Accepting Bekker’s emendation of the text. See Critical 
ote. 

* According tv another account, Glaucus was raised from 
the dead by Aesculapius. See below, iii. 10. 3 ; Scholiast on 
Piridar, Pyth. iii. 54 (96); Hyginus, Fab. 49 ; id. Astronom. 


312 


THE LIBRARY, III. im. 1-1v. 1 


any harm befel the body.! But another serpent 
came, and, seeing the former one dead, departed, 
and then returned, bringing a herb, and placed 
it on the whole body of the other; and no sooner 
was the herb so placed upon it than the dead ser- 
pent came to life. Surprised at this sight, Polyidus 
applied the same herb to the body of Glaucus and 
raised him from the dead.2. Minos had now got 
back his son, but even so he did not suffer Polyidus 
to depart to Argos until he had taught Glaucus the 
‘art of divination. Polyidus taught him on compul- 
sion, and when he was sailing away he bade Glaucus 
spit into his mouth. Glaucus did so and forgot the 
art of divination. Thus much must suffice for my 
account of the descendants of Europa. 

IV. When Telephassa died, Cadmus buried her, 
and after being hospitably received by the Thracians 
he came to Delphi to inquire about Europa. The 
god told him not to trouble about Europa, but to 
be guided by a cow, and to found a city wherever 


ii, 14, In a Tongan tradition a dead boy is brought to life 
by being covered with the leaves of a certain tree. See 
Pere Reiter, ‘‘ Traditions Tonguiennes,” Anthropos, xii.—xiii. 
(1917-1918),. pp. 1036 sg. ; und Appendix, ‘‘'The Resurrec- 
tion of Glaucus.” ᾿ 

5 Τὸ is said that when Cassandra refused to grant her 
favours to Apollo in return for the gift of prophecy which he 
had bestowed on her, he spat into her mouth and so prevented 
her from convincing anybody of the truth of her prophecies. 
See Servius, on Virgil, Aen. ii. 247. On ancient superstitions 
about spittle, see Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 35 sqq.; C. de 
Mensignac, Recherches Ethnographiques sur la Salive et le 
Crachat (Bordeaux, 1892), pp. 41 sqq. 


313 


APOLLODORUS 


»ἬΆ (v4 1 ’» ᾿ A “A \ 
ἔνθα ἂν αὕτη; πέσῃ καμοῦσα. τοιοῦτον λαβὼν 
χρησμὸν διὰ Φωκέων ἐπορεύετο, εἶτα Bot συν- 
τυχὼν ἐν τοῖς Πελάγοντος βουκολίοις ταύτῃ 
κατόπισθεν εἵπετο. ἡ δὲ διεξιοῦσα Βοιωτίαν 
ἐκλίθη, πόλις ἔνθα νῦν εἶἰσε Θῆβαι.:Σ βουλόμενος 
δὲ ᾿Αθηνᾷ καταθῦσαι τὴν βοῦν, πέμπει τινὰς τῶν 
) « A ’ 8 » \ A 2 ’ , 
μεθ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ ληψομένους ὃ ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Αρείας κρή- 
νῆς ὕδωρ' φρουρῶν δὲ τὴν κρήνην δράκων, ὃν ἐξ 
ἼΑρεος εἶπόν τινες γεγονέναι, τοὺς πλείονας τῶν 
, ’ 9 , A 
πεμφθέντων διέφθειρεν. ἀγανακτήσας δὲ Κάδμος 
κτείνει τὸν δράκοντα, καὶ τῆς ᾿Αθηνᾶς ὑποθεμένης 
τοὺς ὀδόντας αὐτοῦ σπείρει. τούτων δὲ σπαρέν- 
των ἀνέτειλαν ἐκ γῆς ἄνδρες ἔνοπλοι, ods ἐκά- 
λεσαν Σπαρτούς. οὗτοι δὲ ἀπέκτειναν ἀλλήλους, 
e \ > ΝΜ > 4 4 c € ὃ 9 
οἱ μὲν εἰς ἔριν ἀκούσιον ὁ ἐλθόντες, οἱ δὲ ἀγνο- 
“A 4 , Φ Ul 20 A 3 
obvtes. Φερεκύδης δέ φησιν ὅτι Ἰζάδμος, ἰδὼν ἐκ 
γῆς ἀναφυομένους ἄνδρας ἐνόπλους, ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς 
1 αὕτη Scholiast on Homer, JJ. ii. 494, Hercher: αὐτὴ AS. 
2 πόλις ἔνθα νῦν εἰσι Θῆβαι A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, Wagner : ἔνθα κτίζει πόλιν Καδμείαν ὅπου νῦν εἶσιν αἱ 
Θῆβαι EB: πόλις omitted by the Scholiast on Homer, Ζ. ii. 
494 (ἔνθα νῦν εἰσὶν af Θῆβαι), and by Hercher. 
3 τινὰς... ληψομένους E, Scholiast on Homer, JI. ii. 494: 
τινὰ ληψόμενον SA. 


4 ἀκούσιον AS: ἑκούσιον E. 


} With this story of the foundation of Thebes by Cadmus 
compare Pausanias, ix. 12. 1 sq., ix. 19. 4; Scholiast on 
Homer, Jl. ii. 494; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 638 
(who quotes the oracle at full length); liast on Aeschylus, 
Seven against Thebes, 186; Hyginus, Fab. 178; id, 
Metamorph. iii. 6 sqq. The Scholiast on Homer (l.c.) 
almost verbally with Apollodorus, and cites as his authorities 
the Boeotica of Hellanicus and the third book of Apollodorus. 
Hence we may suppose that in this narrative ApolJodorus 
followed Hellanicus. According to Pausanias, the cow which 


314 


THE LIBRARY, III. 1. 1 


she should fall down for weariness! After receiving 
such an oracle he journeyed through Phocis; then 
falling in with a cow among the herds of Pelagon, 
he followed it behind. And after traversing Boeotia, 
it sank down where is now the city of Thebes. 
Wishing to sacrifice the cow to Athena, he sent 
some of his companions to draw water from the 
spring of Ares. But a dragon, which some said 
was the offspring of Ares, guarded the spring and 
destroyed most of those that were sent. In his in- 
dignation Cadmus killed the dragon, and by the 
advice of Athena sowed its teeth. When they were 
sown there rose from the ground armed men whom 
they called Sparti.2 These slew each other, some 
in a chance brawl, and some in ignorance. But 
Pherecydes says that when Cadmus saw armed 
men growing up out of the ground, he flung stones 


Cadmus followed bore on each flank a white mark resembling 
the full moon ; Hyginus says simply that it had the mark of 
the moon on its flank. Varro says (Rerum rusticarum, iii. 1) 
that Thebes in Boeotia was the oldest city in the world, having 
been built by King Ogyges before the great flood. The tradi- 
tion of its high antiquity has been recently confirmed by the 
discovery of many Mycenaean remains on the site. See A. D. 
Kerampoullos, in ᾿Αρχαιολογικὸν Δελτίον (Athens, 1917), pp. 
1 sqq. 

2 That is, ‘‘sown.” Compare Euripides, Phoenissae, 939 
sq. For the story of the sowing of the dragon’s teeth, see 
Pausanias, ix. 10. ] ; Scholiast on since. Il, 11. 494; Hyginus, 
Fab. 178; Ovid, Metamorph. iii. 26-130. Similarly, Jason 
in Colchis sowed some of the dragon’s teeth which he had 
received from Athena, and from the teeth there sprang up 
armed men, who fought each other. See Apollodorus, i. 9. 23, 
As to the dragon-guarded spring at Thebes, see Euripides, 
Phoenissae, 930 sqq.; Pausanias, 1x. 10. 5, with my note, It 
is a common superstition that springs are guarded by dragons 
or serpents. Compare The Magic Art and the Evolution of 
Kings, ii. 155 8qq. 


315 


2 


ὡς: 


APOLLODORUS 


ἔβαλε!" λίθους, ot δὲ ὑπ᾽ ἀλλήλων νομίζοντες 
βάλλεσθαι εἰς μάχην κατέστησαν. περιεσώ- 
θησαν δὲ πέντε, ᾿ΕἸχίων Οὐδαῖος Χθονίος “Ὑπερή- 
vop Πέλωρος.2 Κάδμος δὲ ἀνθ' ὧν ἔκτεινεν 
ἀίδιον ὁ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐθήτευσεν "Apes: ἦν δὲ ὁ ἐνιαυτὸς 
τότε ὀκτὼ ἔτη. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν θητείαν ᾿Αθηνᾶ αὐτῷ τὴν βασι- 
λείαν" κατεσκεύασε, Ζεὺς. δὲ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ γυναῖκα 
᾿Δρμονίαν, ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ “A peos θυγατέρα. καὶ 
πάντες θεοὶ καταλιπόντες τὸν οὐρανόν, ἐν τῇ 
Καδμείᾳ τὸν γώμον Evo ούμενοι, καθύμνησαν. 
ἔδωκε δὲ αὐτῇ Κάδμος πέπλον καὶ τὸν ἡφαιστό- 
τευκτον ὅρμον, ὃν ὑπὸ Ἡφαίστου λέγουσί τινες 
δοθῆναι Κάδμῳ, Φερεκύδης δὲ ὑ ὑπὸ Εὐρώπης" ὃν 
παρὰ Διὸς αὐτὴν λαβεῖν. γίνονται δὲ Κάδμῳ 
θυγατέρες μὲν Αὐτονόη Ἰνὼ Σεμέλη ᾿Αγαυή, παῖς 
δὲ Πολύδωρος. Ἰνὼ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αθάμας ἔγημεν, 
Αὐτονόην δὲ ᾿Αρισταῖος, ᾿Αγανὴν δὲ ᾿Εχίων. 
Σεμέλης δὲ Ζεὺς ἐρασθεὶς “Ἥρας κρύφα συνευνά- 
ἔβαλε A: ἔβαλλε δ, 

Πέλωρος R: Πέλωρ A. 


ἀίδιον EA : “Apeos υἱόν Hercher. 
τὴν βασιλείαν E: βασιλείαν ὃ. 


- τς - 


1 The names of the five survivors of the Sparti are similarly 


reported by Pausanias (ix. 5. 3), the Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius (Argon. iii. 1179), and Hyginus (Fab. 179). From 
the Scholiast on Apollonius (l.c.), we learn that their names 
were given in like manner by Pherecydes, as indeed we might 
have inferred from Apollodorus’s reference to that author in 
the present passage. Ovid (Metamorph. iii. 126) mentions 
that five survived, but he names only one (Echion). 

. The ἐς eternal year” probably refers to the old eight 
years’ cycle, as to which and the period of a homicide’s 
banishment, see the note on ii. 5. 11. 

3 As to the marriage of Cadmus and Harmonia, see Pindar, 


316 


THE LIBRARY, ΠΙ. ιν. 1-3 


at them, and they, supposing that they were being 
pelted by each other, came to blows. However, five 
of them survived, Echion, Udaeus, Chthonius, Hype- 
renor, and Pelorus.1_ But Cadmus, to atone for the 
slaughter, served Ares for an eternal year; and the 
year was then equivalent to eight years of our 
reckoning.” 

After his servitude Athena procured for him the 
kingdom, and Zeus gave him to wife Harmonia, 
daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. And all the gods 
quitted the sky, and feasting in the Cadmea cele- 
brated the marriage with hymns.? Cadmus gave her a 
robe and the necklace wrought by Hephaestus, which 
some say was given to Cadmus by Hephaestus, but 
Pherecydes says that it was given by Europa, who 
had received it from Zeus.4 And to Cadmus were 
born daughters, Autonoe, Ino, Semele, Agave, and 
a son Polydorus.® Ino was married to Athamas, 
Autonoe to Aristaeus, and Agave to Echion. But 
Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to 


Pyth, iii. 88 (157) sqq.; Euripides, Phoenissae, 822 sq. ; 
Theognis, 15-18; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 2. 1, v. 48. 5, v.49. 1; 
Pausanias, 11]. 18. 12, ix. 12.3; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 101 (Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 78, who calls the wife Hermiona). 

* According to another account, this golden necklace was 
hestowed by Aphrodite on Cadmus or on Harmonia. See 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 5 ; Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 94 
(167); Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae,71. But, according 
to yet another account, the necklace and robe were both 
bestowed by Athena. See Diodorus Siculus, v. 49.1. The 
Second Vatican eee nner (78, see preceding note) says 
that the necklace was made by Vulcan (Hephaestus) at the 
instigation of Minerva (Athena), and that it was bestowed by 
him on Harmonia at her marriage. 

5 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 975-978 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
2.1. As to the daughters Semele and Ino, compare Pindar, 
Olymp. ii. 22 (38) sqq. 


317 


APOLLODORUS 


φ \ A e ΔΗ͂ s 
ζεται. ἡ δὲ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα ὑπὸ “Ἥρας, κατανεύ- 
σαντος αὐτῇ Διὸς πᾶν τὸ αἰτηθὲν ποιήσειν, 

3 a [οὶ 3. N a 
αἰτεῖται τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν οἷος ἦλθε μνη- 
4 @W \ 4 lA 3 
στευόμενος “ραν. Ζεὺς δὲ μὴ δυνάμενος ἀνα- 
νεῦσαι παραγίνεται εἰς τὸν θάλαμον αὐτῆς ἐφ᾽ 
ἅρματος ἀστραπαῖς ὁμοῦ καὶ βρονταῖς, καὶ κεραυ- 
Ἃ @ N Ἁ 3 
νὸν inaw. Σεμέλης δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον ἐκλιπούσης, 
e A A 9 A 9 [ον Ν 
ἑξαμηνιαῖον τὸ βρέφος ἐξαμβλωθὲν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς 
ἁρπάσας ἐνέρραψε τῷ μηρῷ. ἀποθανούσης δὲ 
εμέλης, αἱ λοιπαὶ Κάδμου θυγατέρες διήνεγκαν 
λόγον, συνηυνῆσθαι θνητῷ τινι Σεμέλην καὶ 

UA c \ ¢ 1 Ν “A > 
καταψεύσασθαι Διός, καὶ «ὅτι;») διὰ τοῦτο éxe- 
ραυνώθη. κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τὸν καθήκοντα 
Διόνυσον γεννᾷ Ζεὺς λύσας τὰ ῥάμματα, καὶ 
δίδωσιν Ἑρμῇ. ὁ δὲ κομίζει πρὸς ᾿Ινὼ καὶ 
᾿Αθάμαντα καὶ πείθει τρέφειν ὡς κόρην. ἀγα- 
νακτήσασα δὲ “Ἥρα μανίαν αὐτοῖς ἐνέβαλε, καὶ 
᾿Αθάμας μὲν τὸν πρεσβύτερον παῖδα Λέαρχον ὡς 
ἔλαφον θηρεύσας ἀπέκτεινεν, ᾿Ινὼ δὲ τὸν Μελι- 


1 ὅτι inserted by Hercher. 





1 For the loves of Zeus and Semele and the birth of Dio- 
nysus, see Hesiod, Theog. 940-942 ; Euripides, Bacchae, 1 sqq., 
242 sqq., 286 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 2. 2 8ᾳ., v. 52.2; 
Philostratus, Imag. i. 13; Pausanias, iii. 24. 3, ix. 5. 2; 
Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xiv. 325 (who copies Apollodorus 
without mentioning him); Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. ii. 
25 (44); Lucian, Dial. deorum, ix.; Nonnus and Nicetas, in 
Westermann’s Mythographi Graeci, Appendix Narrationum, 
Ixxi. p. 385 ; Ovid, Metamorph. iii. 259 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 
167 and 179; Fulgentius, Mytholog. ii. 15; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statius, Theb. i. 12; Scriptores rerum mythica- 
rum Latini, ed.G. H. Bode, vol.i. pp. 38 sqg., 102 (First Vati- 
can Mythographer, 120; Second Vatican Mythographer, 79). 

3 So the infant Dionysus is described by the Scholiast on 


318 








THE LIBRARY, III. wW. 3 


_Hera.! Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever 
she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he 
would come to her as he came when he was wooing 
Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal 
chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunder- 
ings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele 
expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth- 
month abortive child? from the fire, sewed it in his 
thigh. On the death of Semele the other daughters 
of Cadmus spread a report that Semele had bedded 
with a mortal man, and had falsely accused Zeus, 
and that therefore she had been blasted by 
thunder. But at the proper time Zeus undid the 
stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted 
him to Hermes. And he conveyed him to Ino 
and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as 
a girl.8 But Hera indignantly drove them mad, and 
Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and 
killed him,‘ and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling 


Homer, Jl. xiv. 325, who however may be copying Apollo- 
dorus, though he refers to the Bacchae of Euripides. But 
Lucian (Dial. deorum. ix. 2) and Nonnus (in Westermann’s 
Mythographi Graeci, p. 385) speak of the infant as a seventh- 
month child at birth. | 

3 So Achiiles is said to have been dressed in his youth as a 
girl at the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros. See below, 
iii. 13. 8 note. These traditions may embody reminiscences 
of an old custom of dressing boys as girls in order to avert 
‘the evil eye. See my article, ‘‘ The Youth of Achilles,” The 
Classical Review, vii. (1893), pp. 292 sqg., and my note on 
Pausanias, i. 22. 6. 

* Compare Pausanias, i. 44. 7, ix. 34. 7; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 229; Schol. on Homer, Od. v. 334; Hyginus, 
Fab. 2and 4; Ovid, Fasti, vi. 489 sqqg.; id. Metamorph. iv. 
512 sqq.; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. i. 12; Servius, 
on Virgil, Aen. v. 241; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 102 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 
79). 

319 


APOLLODORUS 


κέρτην εἰς “πεπυρωμένον λέβητα ῥίψασα, εἶτα 
βαστάσασα μετὰ νεκροῦ τοῦ παιδὸς ἥλατο κατὰ 
βυθοῦ. καὶ Λευκοθέα μὲν αὐτὴ καλεῖται, Πα- 
λαίμων δὲ ὁ παῖς, οὕτως ὀνομασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν 
πλεόντων: τοῖς χειμαζομένοις γὰρ βοηθοῦσιν. 
ἐτέθη δὲ ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ <o>? ἀγὼν τῶν ᾿Ισθμίων, 
Σισύφου θέντος. Διόνυσον δὲ Ζεὺς εἰς ἔριφον 
ἀλλάξας τὸν Ἥρας θυμὸν ἔκλεψε, καὶ λαβὼν 
αὐτὸν ἙἭ ρμῆς πρὸς νύμφας ἐκόμισεν ἐν Νύσῃ 
κατοικούσας τῆς ᾿Ασίας, ἃς ὕστερον Ζεὺς κατα- 
στερίσας ὠνόμασεν ‘Tdéas. 


1 βυθοῦ ES: βυθῶν A. 2 ὁ inserted by Hercher. 


1 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 229; Scholiast 
on Pindar, Isthm., Argum. p. 514, ed. Boeckh. + 

2 On Ino and Melicertes see also Pausanias, i. 42. 6, i. 44. 
7 8ᾳ., ii. 1. 8, iv. 34. 4; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 107, 229-231 ; Scholiast on Homer, Jl. 
vili. 86, and on Od. v. 334; Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 
1284; Hyginus, Fab. 2and 4; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 519-542 ; 
id. Fastt, vi. 491 sqqg.; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. v. 241; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. 1. 12; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 102 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 79). 

58. On the foundation of the Isthmian games in honour of 
Melicertes, see Pausanias, i. 44. 8, ii. 1. 3; Scholiasts on 
Pindar, Isthm., Argum. pp. 514, 515, ed. Boeckh ; Scholiasts 
on Euripides, Medea, 1284; Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 
ii, 34, p. 29, ed. Potter; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38: Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 107, 229-231 ; Hyginus, Fab. 2. 

4 Dionysus bore the title of Kid. See Hesychius, s.v. 
Ἔριφος ὁ Διόνυσος; Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. ᾿Ακρώρεια. When 
the gods fled into Egypt to escape the fury of Typhon, 
Dionysus is said to have been turned into a goat. See Anto- 
ninus Liberalis, Transform. 28; Ovid, Metamorph. v. 39; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 29 (First Vatican Mythographer, 86). As a god of fertility, 
Dionysus appears to have been conceived as embodied, now 


320 








THE LIBRARY, III, ιν. 3 


cauldron,! then carrying it with the dead child she 
sprang into the deep. And she herself is called 
Leucothoe, and the boy is called Palaemon, such 
being the names they get from sailors; for they 
succour storm-tossed mariners.? And the Isthmian 
games were instituted by Sisyphus in honour of 
Melicertes.2 But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera 
by turning Dionysus into a kid,‘ and Hermes took 
him and brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at 
Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into 
stars and named them the Hyades.® 


in the form of a goat, now in the form of a bull; and his 
worshippers accordingly entered into communion with him 
by rending and devouring live goats and bulls. See Spirits 
of the Corn and of the Wild, i. 12 sqq., ii. 1 sqgg. The goat 
was the victim regularly sacrificed in the rites of Dionysus, 
because the animal injured the vine by gnawing it ; but the 
reason thus alleged for the sacrifice may have been a later — 
‘interpretation. See Virgil, Georg. ii. 380-384, who refers 
the origin both of es ae and of comedy to these sacrifices 
of goats in honour of the wine-god. Compare Varro, Rerum 
Rusticarum, i. 2. 19; Ovid, Fast, i. 353 sqqg.; Cornutus, 
Theologiae Graecae Compendium, 30; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. iii. 118. 

5 Apollodorus seems here to be following Pherecydes, who 
related how the infant Dionysus was nursed by the Hyades. 
See the Scholiast on Homer, Jl. xviii. 486; Hyginus, Astro- 
nom. ii. 21; Scholiast on Germanicus, Aratea (in Martianus 
Capella, ed. Fr. Eyssenhardt, p. 396); Fragmenta Histori- 
corum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, i. 84. Frag. 46. Nothing 
could be more appropriate than that the god of the vine 
should be nursed by the nymphs of the rain. According to 
Diodorus Siculus (iii. 59. 2, iii, 64. 5, iii. 65. 7, 11]. 66. 3), 
Nysa, the place where the nymphs reared Dionysus, was in 
Arabia, which is certainly not a rainy country; but he 
admits (iii. 66. 4, iii. 67.5) that others placed Nysa in Africa, 
or, as he calls it, Libya, away in the west beside the great 
ocean. Herodotus speaks of Nysa as ‘‘in Ethiopia, above 
igypt” (ii. 146), and he mentions ‘‘the Ethiopians who 


321 


VOL. 1, Y 


4 


APOLLODORUS 


Αὐτονόης δὲ καὶ ᾿Αρισταίου παῖς ᾿Ακταίων 
ἐγένετο, ὃς τραφεὶς παρὰ Χείρωνι κυνηγὸς ἐδι- 
δάχθη, καὶ ἔπειτα ὕστερον᾽' ev τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι 
κατεβρώθη ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων κυνῶν. καὶ τοῦτον 
ἐτελεύτησε τὸν τρόπον, ὡς μὲν ᾿Ακουσίλαος λέγει, 
μηνίσαντος τοῦ Διὸς ὅτι ἐμνηστεύσατο Σεμέλην, 
ὡς δὲ οἱ πλείονες, ὅτι τὴν “Αρτεμιν λουομένην 
εἶδε. καί φασι τὴν θεὸν παραχρῆμα αὐτοῦ “τὴν 
μορφὴν εἰς ,ἔλαφον ἀλλάξαι, καὶ τοῖς ἑπομένοις 
αὐτῷ πεντήκοντα κυσὶν ἐμβαλεῖν λύσσαν, ὑφ᾽ ὧν 
ah ἄγνοιαν ἐβρώθη. ἀπολομένου" δὲ ᾿Ακταίω- 
νος ὃ οἱ κύνες ἐπιξητοῦντες τὸν δεσπότην κατω- 
ρύοντο, καὶ ζήτησιν “ποιούμενοι παρεγένοντο 
ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ Χείρωνος ἄντρον, ὃς εἴδωλον κατε- 
σκεύασεν ᾿Ακταΐωνος, ὃ καὶ τὴν λύπην αὐτῶν 
ἔπαυσε. 


[τὰς ὀνόματα τῶν ᾿Ακταίωνος κυνῶν ἐκ TOV... 
οὕτω 
δὴ νῦν καλὸν σῶμα περισταδόν, ἡ ἠύτε θῆρος, 


τοῦδε δάσαντο κύνες κρατεροί. πέλας ΤΑρκεναῦ 


πρώτη. 


1 ἔπειτα ὕστερον ES. ἔπειτα is apparently omitted in the 
other MSS. 

3 ἀπολομένου R: ἀπολλυμένου A.’ 

3 *Antalwvos ESA : ᾿Ακταίονος Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker. 

4 The passage enclosed in square brackets, which contains 
a list of Actaeon’s dogs, has probably been interpolated from 
some other source. It is are τε in the Vatican Epitome 
(E) and the Sabhaitic fragments (δ. 

᾿ Ἄρκενα A: “Apxva Aegius, Hayne, Westermann, Miller, 
a “Apxuca Scaliger: “Apy:a Mitscherlich: “AAnawa 

erg 


322 


THE LIBRARY, III. rv. 4 


Autonoe and Aristaeus had a son Actaeon, who was 
bred by Chiron to be a hunter and then afterwards 
was devoured on Cithaeron by his own dogs.1 He 
perished in that way, according to Acusilaus, because 
Zeus was angry at him for wooing Semele; but 
according to the more general opinion, it was because 
he saw Artemis bathing. And they say that the 
goddess at once transformed him into a deer, and 
drove mad the fifty dogs in his pack, which de- 
voured him unwittingly. Actaeon being gone, the 
dogs sought their master howling lamentably, and in 
the search they came to the cave of Chiron, who 
fashioned. an image of Actaeon, which soothed their 
grief. 


The names of Actaeon’s dogs from the.... 
So 
Now surrounding his fair body, as it were that of a 
beast, 


The strong dogs rent it. Near Arcena first. 


dwell about sacred Nysa and hold the festivals in honour of 
Dionysus” (iii. 97). But in fact Nysa was sought by the 
ancients in many different and distant lands and was probably 
mythical, perhaps invented to explain the name of Dionysus. 
See Stephanus Byzantius and Hesychius, 8.0. Nica; A.Wiede- 
mann, on Herodotus, ii. 146; T. W. Allen and E. EK. Sikes, on 

Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, i. 8. p. 4. ὶ 
1 As to Actaeon and his dogs, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
3-5 ; Nonnus, Dionys. v. 287 sqq. ; Palaephatus, De incredib. 
3; Nonnus, in Westermann’s Mythographi Graeci, Appendix 
Narrationum, 6, p. 360; Hyginus, Fab. 181; Ovid, Meta- 
morph, iii. 138 8q.; Fulgentius, Mytholog. iii. 3; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latium, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 103 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 81). Hyginus and Ovid give 

lists of the dogs’ names. 

323 

y 2 


APOLLODORUS 


... μετὰ ταύτην ἄλκιμα τέκνα, 
> 
Λυγκεὺς καὶ Badios! πόδας aivetos, ἠδ᾽ ᾿Αμά- 
ρυνθος.---- 
καὶ τούτους ὀνομαστὶ διηνεκεως κατέλεξε 
‘ f ᾽ ’ » \ 3 , 3 
καὶ τότε ᾿Ακταίων ἔθανεν Διὸς ἐννεσίῃσι. 
πρῶτοι γὰρ μέλαν αἷμα πίον“ σφετέροιο ἄνακτος 
Σπαρτός τ᾽ "Ὡμαργόςδ τε Βορῆς τ᾽ αἰψηροκέ- 
λευθος. 
οὗτοι δ᾽ ὁ ᾿Ακταίου πρῶτοι φάγον αἷμα 7 ἔλαψαν. 
τοὺς δὲ μέτ᾽ ἄλλοι πάντες ἐπέσσυθενβΒ ἐμμε- 
3 ’ 4 A 5 4 WwW 9 ’ 
ἀργαλέων ὀδυνῶν ἄκος ἔμμεναι ἀνθρώποισιν. 


a N φ Ἁ 3 , ’ 
Υ. Διόνυσος δὲ εὑρετὴς ἀμπέλου γενόμενος, 
Ἥρας μανίαν αὐτῷ ἐμβαλούσης περιπλανᾶται 


1 Βαλίος Mitscherlich: βανός A. 

2 καὶ τούτους ὀνομαστὶ διηνεκέως κατέλεξε Scaliger: καὶ obs 
ὀνομαστὶ διήνεγκεν. .., ὡς καταλέξῃ Wagner. 

3 καὶ τότε ᾿Ακταίων ἔθανεν Διὸς ἐννεσίῃσι Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker (except that he reads αἰνεσίῃσι for 
ἐννεσίῃσι). ἔθανεν is Aegius’s correction of the MS. reading 
κτεῖναι (A) or κτεῖνε (PR°). Wagner edits the passage thus: 

.. τότ᾽ ᾿Ακταῖον κτεῖναι Διὸς aivecinos. Bergk proposed to 


read xreivay for κτεῖναι or κτεῖνε. 4 πίον Scaliger: ἀπὸ A. 
5 "Ouapyos Bekker: ὧν ἀργὸς A: Otapyos Heyne: “Ὅμαργος 
Bergk. 6 οὗτοι δ᾽ R: οὗ δ᾽ Α. 


7 ἔλαψαν Ruhnken: ἔδαψαν A. 
8 ἐπέσσυθεν Scaliger: ἐπέσσυθον A. 


1 As to the discovery of the vine by Dionysus and the 
wanderings of the god, see Diodorus Siculus, iii. 62 sq., iv. 
1. 6 8q., iv. 2. 5 sqqg.; Strabo, xv. 1. 7-9, pp. 687 sg. The 
story of the rovings of Dionysus, and in particular of his 
journey to India, was probably suggested by a simple 
observation of the wide geographical diffusion of the vine. 
Wherever the plant was cultivated and wine made from the 

rapes, there it would be supposed that the vine-god must 

ave tarried, dispensing the bce or the bane of his gifts to 


324 


———— CNS il, ke ey 


THE LIBRARY, III. 1v. 4-v, 1 


.... after her a mighty brood, 
Lynceus and Balius goodly-footed, and Amaryn- 
thus.— 
And these he enumerated continuously by name. 
And then Actaeon perished at the instigation of Zeus. 
For the first that drank their master’s black blood 
Were Spartus and Omargus and Bores, the swift on 
the track. 
These first ate of Actaeon and lapped his blood. 
And after them others rushed on him eagerly.... 
To be a remedy for grievous pains to men. 


V. Dionysus discovered the vine,! and being 
driven mad by Hera? he roamed about Egypt and 


mortals. There seems to be some reason to think that the 
original home of the vine was in the regions to the south of 
the Black Sea, the Caucasus, and the Caspian Sea, where the 
plant still grows wild ‘‘ with the luxuriant wildness of a 
tropical creeper, clinging to tall trees and producing abundant 
fruit without pruning or cultivation.” See A. de Candolle, 
Origin of Cultivated Plants (London, 1884), pp. 191 sqq. 
Compare A. Engler, in Victor Hehn, Kulturpfianzen und 
Hausthiere in Pe Ubergang aus Asien’ (Berlin, 1902), 
»p. 85 sqqg. But these regions are precisely those which 
ionysus was supposed to have traversed on his journeys, 
Certainly the idea of the god’s wanderings cannot have been 
suggested, as appears to be sometimes imagined, by the 
expedition of Alexander the Great to India (see F. A. Voigt, 
in W. H. Roscher’s Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologte, 
i. 1087), since they are described with geographical precision 
by Euripides, who died before Alexander the Great was born. 
In his famous play, The Bacchae (vv. 13-20), the poet intro- 
duces the god himself describing his journey over Lydia, 
Phrygia, Bactria, Media, and all Asia. And by Asia the 
poet did not mean the whole continent of Asia as we under- 
stand the word, for most of it was unknown to him; he meant 
only the southern portion of it from the Mediterranean to the 
Indus, in great part of which the vine appears to be native. 
2 Compare Euripides, Cyclops, 3 sq. 


325 


APOLLODORUS | 


Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Συρίαν. καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον 
Πρωτεὺς αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς Αἰγυπτίων, 
= Q 3 7 “A ’ 3 A 

αὖθις δὲ eis Κύβελα τῆς Φρυγίας ἀφικνεῖται, 
κἀκεῖ καθαρθεὶς ὑπὸ Ῥέας καὶ τὰς τελετὰς ἐκμα- 
θών, καὶ λαβὼν παρ᾽ ἐκείνης τὴν στολήν, [ἐπὶ 
"Ivdovs]! διὰ τῆς Θράκης ἠπείγετο. Λυκοῦργος 
δὲ παῖς Δρύαντος, ᾿Ηδωνῶν βασιλεύων, οἱ Στρυ- 
μόνα ποταμὸν παροικοῦσι, πρῶτος ὑβρίσας ἐξέ- 
βαλεν αὐτόν. καὶ Διόνυσος μὲν εἰς θάλασσαν 

A , \ ’ 4 ᾽ \ 
πρὸς Θέτιν τὴν Νηρέως κατέφυγε, Βάκχαι δὲ 
ἐγένοντο αἰχμάλωτοι καὶ τὸ συνεπόμενον Σατύ- 

a ᾽ Aa @ e , v4 

pov πλῆθος αὐτῷ. αὖθις δὲ ai Βάκχαι ἐλύθησαν 
ἐξαίφνης, Λυκούργῳ δὲ μανίαν ἐνεποίησε Διόνυ- 
σος. ὁ δὲ μεμηνὼς Δρύαντα τὸν παῖδα, ἀμπέλου 
νομίζων κλῆμα κόπτειν, πελέκει πλήξας ἀπέ- 


1 ἐπὶ ᾿Ινδοὺς. These words are out of place here. Wagner 
is probably right in thinking that we should either omit 
them (with Hercher) or insert στρατεύσας after them, so as 
to give the meaning: ‘‘and after marching against the 
Indians he hastened through Thrace.” 

2 ἐνεποίητε Heyne: ἐποίησε A. 


1 The visit of Dionysus to Egypt was doubtless invented 
to explain the close resemblance which the ancients traced 
between the worships of Osiris and Dionysus. See Herodotus, 
ii. 42, 49, and 144; Diodorus Siculus, i. 11.3, i. 13. 5, i. 96. 5, 
iv. 1.6; Plutarch, 18ὲ8 et Osirts, 28, 34, and 35; Tibullus, 
i. 7.29 sqqg. For the same reason Nysa, the place where 
Dionysus was supposed to have been reared, was by some 
people believed to be in the neighbourhood of Egypt. See 
Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, i. 8 8q.; Diodorus Siculus, 
i. 15. 6, iv. 2. 3. 

2 For the association of Dionysus with Phrygia, see Euripi- 
des, Bacchae, 58 sq., 78 8qq., where the chorus of Bacchanals 
is represented escorting Dionysus from the mountains of 
Phrygia to Greece. According to one account, Dionysus was 


326 


THE LIBRARY, III. v. 1 


Syria. At first he was received by Proteus, king of 
Egypt,) but afterwards he arrived at Cybela in 
Phrygia.2_ And there, after he had been purified by 
Rhea and learned the rites of initiation, he received 
from her the costume and hastened through Thrace 
against the Indians. But Lycurgus, son of Dryas, 
was king of the Edonians, who dwell beside the 
river Strymon, and he was the first who insulted and 
expelled him.’ Dionysus took refuge in the sea with 
Thetis, daughter of Nereus, and the Bacchanals were 
taken prisoners together with the multitude of Satyrs 
that attended him. But afterwards the Bacchanals 
were suddenly released, and Dionysus drove Lycur- 
gus mad. And in his madness he struck his son 
Dryas dead with an axe, imagining that he was 
lopping a branch of a vine, and when he had cut off 


reared by the great Phrygian goddess Rhea (Stephanus 
Byzantius, 8.v. Mdoravpa). These legends were probably 
intended to explain the resemblances between the Bacchic 
and the Phrygian religions, especially in respect of their wild 
ecstatic and orgiastic rites. 

8 For the story of the hostility of Lycurgus to Dionysus, 
see Homer, Il. vi. 129 sqq., with the Scholia; Sophocles, 
Antigone, 955 sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 273; 
Hyginus, Fab. 132; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 14; Scrtp- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. 1. p. 39 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 122). According to Sophocles, 
it would seem that Lycurgus suffered nothing worse at the 
hands of his subjects than imprisonment in a cave, where his 
frenzy gradually subsided. According to Hyginus, Servius, 
and the First Vatican Mythographer, the furious king, in 
attempting to cut down the vines, lopped off one of his own 
feet or even both his legs. It appears to be a common belief 
that a woodman who cuts a sacred tree with an axe wounds 
himself in so doing. See W. Mannhardt, Baumkultus, pp. 
36 sq. It is said that when the missionary Jerome of Prague 
was preaching to the heathen Lithuanians and persuading 
them to cut down their sacred wvods, one of the converts, 


327 


APOLLODORUS 


κτεινε, καὶ ἀκρωτηριάσας αὐτὸν ἐσωφρόνησε.1 
τῆς δὲ γῆς ἀκάρπου μενούσης, ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς 
καρποφορήσειν αὐτήν, ἂν θανατωθῇ Λυκοῦργος. 
"Hédwvol δὲ ἀκούσαντες εἰς τὸ Παγγαῖον αὐτὸν 


1 ἐσωφρόνησε Aegius: ἐσωφρόνισε A. 


moved by his exhortation, struck at an ancient oak with an 
axe, but wounded himself in the legs and fell to the ground. 
See Aeneas Sylvius, Opera (Bale, 1571), p. 418 [wrongly 
numbered 420]. The accident to this zealous convert closely 
resembles the one which is said to have befallen the Edonian 
king in a similar attempt on the sacred vine. 

1 Greek murderers used to cut off the extremities, such as 
the ears and noses, of their victims, fasten them on a string, 
and tie the string round the necks and under the armpits of 
the murdered men. One motive assigned for this custom, and 
probably the original one, was the wish by thus mutilating 
the dead man to weaken him so that he, or rather his ghost, 
could not take vengeance on his murderer (iva, φασίν, ἀσθενὴς 
γένοιτο πρὸς τὸ ἀντειτίσασθαι τὸν φονέα, Scholiast on Sophocles, 
Electra, 445 ; διὰ τούτων ὥσπερ τὴν δύναμιν ἐκείνων [scil. τῶν 
ἀναιρεθέντων] ἀφαιρούμενοι, διὰ τὸ μὴ παθεῖν ἐς ὕστερόν τι δεινὸν 
παρ᾽ ἐκείνων, Suidas, 8.0. μασχαλισθῆναι). On this barbarous 
custom see the Scholiast on Sophocles, ζ.6.; Suidas, Ζ.6.; 
Hesychius and Photius, Lexicon, 8.v. μασχαλίσματα ; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. iv. 477. According to one 
account (Scholiast on Sophocles, J.c.), the murderer fastened 
the extremities of his victim about his own person, but the 
better attested and more probable account 1s that he tied 
them about the mutilated body of his victim. Compare 
E. Rohde, Psyche®, i. 322-326; R. C. Jebb, on Sophocles, 
Electra, 445, with the Appendix, PP. 211 sq. The practice is 
perhaps illustrated by an original drawing in the Ambrosian 
manuscript of the Jliad, which represents the Homeric 
episode of Dolon (Zl. x. 314 8qq.); in the drawing the corpse 
of the slain Dolon is depicted shorn of its feet and hands, 
which lie beside it, while Ulysses holds Dolon’s severed head 
in his hand. See Annalz del? Insututo dt Correspondenza 
Archeologica (Rome, 1875), tav. d’agg. R.; A. Baumeister, 


328 





THE LIBRARY, III. v. 1 


his son’s extremities,! he recovered his senses.2 But 
the land remaining barren, the god declared oracu- 
larly that it would bear fruit if Lycurgus were put 
to death. On hearing that, the Edonians led him to 


Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, i. 460 sq., fig. 506. 
It appears to be a widespread belief that the ghost of one who 
has died a violent death is dangerous to his slayer, but that 
he can be rendered powerless for mischief by maiming his 
body in such a way as would have disabled him in life. For 
example, some of the Australian aborigines used to cut off the 
thumbs of the right hands of dead enemies to prevent their 
ghosts from throwing spears. See A. Oldfield, ‘‘The Abo- 
rigines of Australia,” Transactions of the Ethnological Society 
of London, iii. (1865) p. 287. In Travancore the spirits of 
murderers who have been hanged are thought to be very 
mischievous ; hence, in order to prevent them from doing 
harm, it used to be customary to cut off the heels of the 
criminal with a sword or to hamstring him as he swung on 
the gallows. SeeS. Mateer, The Land of Charity (London, 
(1871), pp. 203 8g. In Armenia, when a person falls sick soon 
after the death of amember of the family, it is supposed that 
the sickness is caused by the dead man, who cannot rest in 
his grave until he has drawn away one of his kinsfolk to the 
spirit land. To prevent this catastrophe, the body of the 
deceased is disinterred and decapitated, and to make assurance 
doubly sure the head is smashed or a needle is stuck into it 
and into the heart. See Manuk Abeghian, Der armenische 
Volksglaube (Leipsic, 1899), p. 11. In some parts of West 
Africa it is similarly customary to disinter and decapitate a 
corpse of a person whose ghost is supposed to be causing sick- 
ness, ‘‘ because the deceased, having his head cut off, will not 
have the same strength as before, and consequently will not 
be in a position to trouble him (the patient).” See J. B. 
Labat, Relation Historique de (Ethiopie Occidentale (Paris, 
1732), i. 208. 

2 So Orestes, driven mad by the Furies of his murdered 
mother, is said to have recovered his senses on biting off one 
of his own fingers (Pausanias, viii. 34. 2). By the sacrifice he 
may be supposed to have appeased the anger of his mother’s 

host, who was thought to be causing his madness. Compare 
olk-lore in the Old Pontanent 111. 240 sq. 
329 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀπαγαγόντες ὄρος ἔδησαν, κἀκεῖ κατὰ Διονύσου 
βούλησιν ὑπὸ ἵππων διαφθαρεὶς ἀπέθανε. 
Διελθὼν δὲ Θράκην [καὶ τὴν ᾿Ινδικὴν ἅπασαν, 
στήλας ἐκεῖ στήσας}ὔ; ἧκεν εἰς Θήβας, καὶ τὰς 
γυναῖκας ἠνάγκασε καταλιπούσας τὰς οἰκίας 
βακχεύειν ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι. Πενθεὺς δὲ γεννη- 
θεὶς ἐξ ᾿Αγανῆς ᾿Εχίονι, παρὰ Κάδμου εἰχηφὼς 
τὴν βασιλείαν, διεκώλυς ταῦτα γίνεσθαι, καὶ 
παραγενόμενος εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα τῶν Βακχῶν κατά- 
σκοπος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς ᾿Αγανῆς κατὰ μανίαν 
ἐμελίσθη" ἐνόμισε γὰρ αὐτὸν θηρίον εἶναι. δεί- 
Eas δὲ Θηβαίοις ὅτι θεός ἐστιν, ἧκεν εἰς “Apyos, 
κἀκεῖ 5 πάλιν οὐ τιμώντων αὐτὸν ἐξέμηνε τὰς 
γυναῖκας. αἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι τοὺς ἐπιμαστιδίους 
ἔχουσαιβϑ παῖδας τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν ἐσιτοῦντο. 
βουλόμενος δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Ικαρίας εἰς Νάξον διακο- 
μισθῆναι, Tuppnvav λῃστρικὴν ἐμισθώσατο τρι- 
npn. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐνθέμενοι Νάξον μὲν παρέπλεον, 
ἠπείγοντο δὲ εἰς τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἀπεμπολήσοντες. 
ὁ δὲ τὸν μὲν ἱστὸν' καὶ τὰς κώπας ἐποίησεν ὄφεις, 
τὸ δὲ σκάφος ἔπλησε κισσοῦ καὶ βοῆς αὐλῶν" οἱ 
δὲ ἐμμανεῖς γενόμενοι κατὰ τῆς θαλάττης ἔφυγον 
1 The words enclosed in brackets are probably an inter- 


polation, as Heyne thought. Hercher omits them. 


2 κἀκείνων Eberhard. 
ὃ ἔψουσαι A. Ludwich, perhaps rightly. But we should 


expect ἑψήσασαι. 
ἱστὸν Aegius: ἰσθμὸν Α. 





1 The king thus done to death was perhaps supposed to die 
in the character of the god ; for Dionysus εἰ τινι was said to 
have been rent in pieces by the Titans. See Adonis, A tts, 
Osiris, 3rd ed. ii. 98 sg.; Spirits of the Oorn and of the Wild, 
1. 24 eq. 

339° 





THE LIBRARY, III. v. 1-3 


Mount Pangaeum and bound him, and there by the 
will of Dionysus he died, destroyed by horses.? 
Having traversed Thrace and the whole of India 
and set up pillars there,2 he came to Thebes, and 
forced the women to abandon their houses and rave 
in Bacchic frenzy on Cithaeron. But Pentheus, 
whom Agave bore to Echion, had succeeded Cadmus 
in the kingdom, and he attempted to put a stop to 
these proceedings. And coming to Cithaeron to spy 
on the Bacchanals, he was torn limb from limb by 
his mother Agave in a fit of madness; for she 
thought he was a wild beast. And having shown 
the Thebans that he was a god, Dionysus came to 
Argos, and there again, because they did not honour 
him, he drove the women mad, and they on the 
‘mountains devoured the flesh of the infants whom 
they carried at their breasts. And wishing to be 
ferried across from Icaria to Naxos he hired a pirate 
ship of Tyrrhenians. But when they had put him 
on board, they sailed past Naxos and made for 
Asia, intending to sell him. Howbeit, he turned 
the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel 
with ivy and the sound of flutes. And the pirates 
went mad, and leaped into the sea, and were turned 


* Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiltades, viii. 582 sqq. 

3 In these lines Apollodorus has summarized the argument 
of the Bacchae of Euripides ; for the death of Pentheus, see 
vv. 1043 sqg. Compare Hyginus, Fab. 184; Ovid, Meta- 

h. iii. 511 844.» especially 701 sqq.; Scriptores rerum 
mahicn acarum Latins, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 103 (Second 
Vatican Mythographer, 83). Aeschylus wrote a tragedy on 
the subject of Pentheus (T'ragicorum mice Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 60 q.). 

‘The reference is to the madness “of the daughters of 
Proetus. See above, ii. 2. 2 note. 


331 


APOLLODORUS 


καὶ ἐγένοντο δελφῖνες. ὡς δὲ! μαθόντες αὐτὸν 
θεὸν ἄνθρωποι ἐτίμων, ὁ δὲ ἀναγαγὼν ἐξ “ Ardov 
τὴν μητέρα, καὶ προσαγορεύσας Θυώνην, μετ᾽ 
αὐτῆς εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀνῆλθεν. 

1 ὡς δὲ Miiller, Westermann: ὧδε Heyne: ὡς δὲ Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner. 


1 The story of Dionysus and the pirates is the theme of the 
Homeric Hymn No. VII. Τὸ Dionysus. Compare Ovid, Meta- 
morph. iii. 581 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 134; td. Astronomn. ii. 17; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. i. 67; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 39, 133 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 123; Second Vatican Mythographer, 171) 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 4. Dionysus is said 
to have gone down to hell to fetch up his mother Semele at 
Lerna, where he plunged into the Alcyonian Lake, a pool 
which was supposed to be bottomless and therefore to afford 
an easy access to the nether world. See Pausanias ii. 37. 5; 
and for a description of the pool as it is at the present time, 
see my commentary on Pausanias, vol. v. pp. 604 sq. Never 
having been in hell before, Dionysus did not know how to go 
there, and he was reduced to the necessity of asking the 
way. Acertain Prosymnus pointed it out to the deity on 
condition of receiving a certain reward. When Dionysus 
returned from the lower world, he found that his guide 
had died in the meantime; but he punctually paid the 
promised reward to the dead man at his grave with the 
help of a branch of fig wood, which he whittled into an 
appropriate shape. This story was told to explain the 
similar implements which figured prominently in the pro- 
cessions of Dionysus. See Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 
ii. 34, pp. 29 sg., ed. Potter; Nonnus, in Westermann’s 
Mythographi Graect, Appendix Narrationum. xxii. 1, Ὁ. 368; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 212; Arnobius, Adversus 
Nationes, v.28; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 5. Pausanias calls 
the god’s guide Polymnus, unless that form of the name is 
the mistake of a copyist for Prosymnus, as seems to be 
suggested by the epithet Prosymna, which was applied to 
Demeter in the sacred grove at Lerna, where Dionysus also 
had an image. See Pausanias, ii. 37.1. However, Hyginus 
gives Hypolipnus as the name of the guide to hell. Every 
year the descent of the god through the deep water was 


332 





THE LIBRARY, III. v. 3 


into dolphins. Thus men perceived that he was a 
god and honoured him; and having brought up his 
mother from Hades and named her Thyone, he 
ascended up with her to heaven.? | 


celebrated with nocturnal rites on the reedy margin of the 
pool (Pausanias, ii. 37. 6). The pious Pausanias shrank from 
divulging the nature of the rites; but from Plutarch we 
learn that a lamb was thrown into the lake as an offering to 
the warder of hell, while on trumpets hidden in the god’s 
leafy emblems the buglers blew blasts which, startling the 
stillness and darkness of night, were believed to summon up 
the lost Dionysus from the watery depths. See Plutarch, 
Isis et Osiris, 35. Perhaps in answer to this bugle call an 
actor, dressed in the vine-god’s garb, may have emerged 
dripping from the pool to receive the congratulations of the 
worshippers on his rising from the dead. However, accord- 
ing to others, the resurrection of Dionysus and his mother 
took place, not in the gloomy swamp at Lerna, but on the 
beautiful, almost landlocked, bay of Troezen, where now- 
adays groves of oranges and lemons, interspersed with the 
dark foliage of tall cypresses, fringe the margin of the calm 
blue water at the foot of the rugged mountains. See Pau- 
sanias, ii. 31. 2. Plutarch has drawn a visionary picture of 
the scene of the ascension. It was, he says, a mighty chasm 
like the caves sacred to Bacchus, mantled with woods and 
green grass and blooming flowers of every sort, and exhaling 
a delicious, an intoxicating, perfume, while all about it the 
souls of the departed circled and stooped upon the wing like 
flights of birds, but did not dare to cross its tremendous 
depth. It was called the Place of Forgetfulness. See Plu- 
tarch, De sera numinis vindicta, 22, pp. 565 sq. A pretty 
story was told of the device by which Dionysus induced the 
rim warden of the dead to release the soul of his mother 
rom the infernal gaol. It is said that Hades consented to 
set her free provided that her son would send of his best 
beloved to replace her shade in the world of shadows. Now 
of all the things in the world the dearest to Dionysus were 
the ivy, the vine, and the myrtle; so of these he sent the 
- myrtle, and that is why the initiated in his rites wreathed 
their brows with myrtle leaves. See Scholiast on Aristo- 
phanes, Frogs, 330. The harrying of hell is the theme of 
Aristophanes’s amusing comedy The Frogs. 


333 


4 


oT) 


APOLLODORUS 


Ὁ δὲ Κάδμος μετὰ ‘A pyovias Θήβας ἐκλιπὼν 
πρὸς ᾿Εγχελέαςϊ παραγίνεται. τούτοις δὲ ὑπὸ 
Ἰλλυριῶν πολεμουμένοις ὁ θεὸς ἔχρησεν ᾽Ιλλυ- 
ριῶν κρατήσειν, ἐὰν ἡγεμόνας Κάδμον καὶ ‘Appo- 
νίαν ἔχωσιν. οἱ δὲ πεισθέντες ποιοῦνται κατὰ 
Ἰλλυριῶν ἡγεμόνας τούτους καὶ κρατοῦσι. καὶ 
βασιλεύει Κάδμος ᾿Ιλλυριῶν, καὶ παῖς ᾿Ιλλυριὸς 
αὐτῷ γίνεται. αὖθις δὲ μετὰ ‘Appovias εἰς δρά- 
κοντα μεταβαλὼν εἰς Ἡλύσιον πεδίον ὑπὸ Διὸς 
ἐξεπέμφθη. 

Πολύδωρος δὲ Θηβῶν βασιλεὺς γενόμενος Νυκ- 

, a ͵ ~ Ὡς ὃ , , 
τηΐίδα γαμεῖ, Νυκτέως <tod>? Χθονίου θυγατέρα, 
καὶ γεννᾷ Λάβδακον. οὗτος ἀπώλετο, μετὰδ 
Πενθέα ἐκείνῳ φρονῶν παραπλήσια. καταλε- 
πόντος δὲ Λαβδάκου παῖδα ἐνιαυσιαῖον Λάιον, 
τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀφείλετο Λύκος, ἕως οὗτος ἦν παῖς, 
ἀδελφὸς ὧν Νυκτέως. ἀμφότεροι δὲ [ἀπὸ Ev- 


1 ᾿Εγχελέας R: ἀγχελέας Α.  * rod inserted by Aegius. 
3 κατὰ Siebelis. 


1 As to the departure of Cadmus and Harmonia to Illyria 
and their transformation into snakes in that country, where 
their tomb was shown in later ages, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon. iv. 516 sqq.; Dionysius Periegetes, Orbis Descriptio, 
390 sqq., with the commentary of Eustathius on v. 391; 
Strabo, i. 2. 39, p. 46, vii. 7. 8, p. 326; Pausanias, ix, 5. 3; 
Athenaeus, xi. 5, p. 4628; Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. Auppd- 
χιον ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, iv. 393 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. 
iv. 563-603; Hyginus, Fab. 6; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Theb. iii. 290; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latint, 
ed. ἃ. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 48 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
150). Euripides mentions the transformation of the couple 
into snakes, but without speaking of their banishment to 
Illyria (Bacchae, 1530 sq.), probably because there is a long 


334 


THE LIBRARY, III. v. 4-5 


But Cadmus and Harmonia quitted Thebes and 
went to the Encheleans. As the Encheleans were 
being attacked by the Illyrians, the god declared by 
an oracle that they would get the better of the 
Illyrians if they had Cadmus and Harmonia as their 
leaders. They believed him, and made them their 
leaders against the Illyrians, and got the better of 
them. And Cadmus reigned over the I}lyrians, and 
a son Illyrius was born to him. But afterwards he 
was, along with Harmonia, turned into a serpent 
and sent away by Zeus to the Elysian Fields.! 

Polydorus, having become king of Thebes, married 
Nycteis, daughter of Nycteus, son of Chthonius, and 
begat Labdacus, who perished after Pentheus because 
he was like-minded with him.? But Labdacus having 
left a one-year-old son, Laius, the government was 
usurped by Lycus, brother of Nycteus, so long as 
Laius was a child. Both of them® had fled from 


lacuna in this part of the text. According to Hyginus, the 
transformation of the two into serpents was a punishment 
inflicted by Ares on Cadmus for killing his sacred dragon 
which guarded the spring at Thebes, which Hyginus absurdly 
calls the Castalian spring. It is a common belief, especially 
among the Bantu tribes of South Africa, that human beings 
at death are turned into serpents, which often visit the old 
home. There is some reason to think that the ancestors of 
the Greeks may have shared this widespread superstition, of 
which the traditional transformation of Cadmus and Har- 
monia would thus be an isolated survival. See Adonis, Aitis, 
Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 82 846. 

2 Compare Euripides, Phoentssae, 8; Pausanias ii. 6. 2, 
ix. 5. 4 84. Apollodorus implies that Labdacus was mur- 
dered by the Bacchanals because he set himself against the 
celebration of their orgiastic rites. But there seems to be no 
express mention of his violent death in ancient writers. 

ὃ That is, the two brothers Lycus and Nyeteus. 


335 


APOLLODORUS 


, 1 ’᾽ 3 \ ’ 3 ’ Ἁ 
βοίας}]; φυγόντες, ἐπεὶ Φλεγύαν ἀπέκτειναν τὸν 
“Apeos καὶ Δωτίδος τῆς Βοιωτίδος, ‘Tpiav? κατῴώ- 
κουν, καὶ .. .8 διὰ τὴν πρὸς Πενθέα οἰκειότητα 
3 ’ a e \ 4 ’ f 
ἐγεγόνεσαν πολῖται. αἱρεθεὶς οὖν Λύκος πολέ- 

ς ἃ ’ 3 Ἅθρε 4 a ὃ ’ὔ Ἁ 
μαρχος ὑπὸ Θηβαίων ἐπέθετοἠ τῇ δυναστείᾳ, καὶ 
βασιλεύσας ἔτη εἴκοσι,δ φονευθεὶς ὑπὸ Ζήθου καὶ 
? 4 VA 3 » »ν VA 2 ’ 
Αμφίονος θνήσκει δι’ αἰτίαν τήνδε. ᾿Αντιόπη 

4 4 ’ ὡς 4 \ [οὶ ς 
θυγάτηρ ἦν Νυκτέως" ταύτῃ Ζεὺς συνῆλθεν. ἡ 


δὲ ὡς ἔγκυος ἐγένετο, τοῦ πατρὸς ἀπειλοῦντος εἰς 


Σικυῶνα ἀποδιδράσκει πρὸς “Emwréa καὶ τούτῳ 
γαμεῖται. Νυκτεὺς δὲ ἀθυμήσας ἑαυτὸν φονεύει, 
δοὺς ἐντολὰς" Λύκῳ παρὰ ᾿Επωπέως καὶ παρὰ 
᾿Αντιόπης λαβεῖν δίκας. ὁ δὲ στρατευσάμενος 
Σικυῶνα χειροῦται, καὶ τὸν μὲν ᾿᾽Επωπέα κτείνει, 
τὴν δὲ ᾿Αντιόπην ἤγαγεν αἰχμάλωτον. ἡ δὲ ἀγο- 


1 ἀπὸ EvBolas A. These words are deleted by Hercher 
and Wagner. Heyne also preferred to omit them. See 
exegetical note. 53. Ὑρίαν Heyne: Συρίαν A. 

3 There seems to be a lacuna here, which Heyne proposed 
to supply by the words ἐκεῖθεν ἐλθόντες eis Θήβας. I translate 
accordingly. 

4 ἐπέθετο Εἰ : ἐπετίθετο A. 5 εἴκοσι A: δεκαοκτώ KE. 


6 ἐντολὰς ERS: ἐντολὴν A. 


1 This Phlegyas is supposed to be Phlegyas, king of Orcho- 
menus, whom Pausanias (ix. 36. 1) calls a son of Ares and 
Chryse. If this identification is right, the words ‘‘from 
Euboea”’ appear to be ou as Heyne pointed out, since 
Orchomenus is not in Euboea but in Boeotia. But there were 
many places called Euboea, and it is possible that one of 
them was in Boeotia. If that was so, we may conjecture 
that the epithet ‘‘ Boeotian,” which, applied to Dotis, seems 
superfluous, was applied by Apollodorus to Euboea and has 
been misplaced by a copyist. If these conjectures are 
adopted, the text will read thus: ‘‘ Both of them fled from 
Euboea in Boeotia because they had killed Phlegyas, son of 


336 





THE LIBRARY, III. v. 5 


Euboea because they had killed Phlegyas, son of 
Ares and Dotis the Boeotian,! and they took up 
their abode at Hyria, and thence having come to 
Thebes, they were enrolled as citizens through their 
friendship with Pentheus. So after being chosen 
commander-in-chief by the Thebans, Lycus com- 
passed the supreme power and reigned for twenty 
years, but was murdered by Zethus and Amphion 
for the following reason. Antiope was a daughter 
of Nycteus, and Zeus had intercourse with her.? 
When she was with child, and her father threatened 
her, she ran away to Epopeus at Sicyon and was 
married to him. In a fit of despondency Nycteus 
killed himself, after charging Lycus to punish 
Epopeus and Antiope. Lycus marched against 
Sicyon, subdued it, slew Epopeus, and led Antiope 
away captive. On the way she gave birth to two 


Ares and Dotis, and they took up their abode at Hyria.” 
As to the various places called Euboea, see Stephanus 
Byzantius, 3.v. Εὔβοια ; W. Pape, Worterbuch der griechischen 
Kigennamen, 8.0. Εὔβοια. 

With the following story of Antiope and Dirce compare 
Pausanias, ii. 6. 1 sqq., ix. 25.3; J. Malalas, Chronographia, 
ii. pp. 45-49, ed. L. Dindorf; Scholiast on Apollonius Rho- 
dius, Argon. iv. 1090; Nicolaus Damascenus, frag. 11, in 
Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 
365 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 7 and 8; Scriptores rerum mythi- 
carum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 32, 99 sg. (First 
Vatican Mythographer, 97; Second Vatican Mythographer, 
74). Euripides wrote a tragedy Antiope, of which Hyginus 
(Fab. 8) gives a summary. Many fragments of the play 
have been preserved. See Tragicorum Graecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck,*® pp. 410 8δᾳᾳ. In his version of the 
story Apollodorus seems to have followed Euripides. The 
legend is commemorated in the famous group of statuary 
called the Farnese bull, which is now in the museum at 
Naples. See A. Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen 
Altertums, i. 107, fig. 113. 

337 


VOL. I. Ζ 


APOLLODORUS 


μένη δύο γεννᾷ παῖδας ἐν ᾿Ελευθεραῖς τῆς Βοιω- 
τίας, obs ἐκκειμένους εὑρὼν βουκόλος ἀνατρέφει, 
καὶ τὸν μὲν καλεῖ Ζῆθον τὸν δὲ ᾿Αμφίονα. Ζῆθος 
μὲν οὖν ἐπεμελεῖτο βουφορβίων, ᾿Αμφίων δὲ 
κιθαρῳδίαν ἤσκει, δόντος αὐτῷ λύραν “Ε;ρμοῦ. 
᾿Αντιόπην δὲ ἠκίζετο Λύκος καθείρξας καὶ ἡ τού- 
του γυνὴ Δίρκη" λαθοῦσα δέ ποτε, τῶν δεσμῶν 
αὐτομάτως" λυθέντων, ἧκεν ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν παίδων 
ἔπαυλιν, δεχθῆναι πρὸς αὐτῶν θέλουσα. οἱ δὲ 
ἀναγνωρισάμενοι τὴν μητέρα, τὸν μὲν Λύκον 
κτείνουσι, τὴν δὲ Δίρκην δήσαντες ἐκ ταύρον 
ῥίπτουσι θανοῦσαν εἰς κρήνην τὴν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης 
καλουμένην Δίρκην. παραλαβόντες δὲ τὴν δυνα- 
στείαν τὴν μὲν πόλιν ἐτείχισαν, ἐπακολουθησάν- 
tov τῇ ᾿Αμφίονος λύρᾳ τῶν λίθων, Λάιον δὲ 
ἐξέβαλον. ὁ δὲ ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ διατελῶν ἐπιξε- 
νοῦται Πέλοπι, καὶ τούτου παῖδα Χρύσιππον 
ὡρματοδρομεῖν διδάσκων ἐρασθεὶς ἀναρπάζξει. 

1 βουφορβίων KS: βουφοραίων A. 

2 αὐτομάτως Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher: αὐτομάτων ESA, Wagner. 


1 Compare Pausanias, ix. 5. 7 eq. The two brothers are 
said to have quarrelled, the robust Zethus blaming Amphion 
for his passionate addiction to music and urging him to 
abandon it for what he deemed the more manly pursuits of 
agriculture, cattle-breeding and war. The gentle Amphion 
yielded to these exhortations so far as to cease to strum the 
lyre. See Dio Chrysostom, Or. lxxili. vol. ii. p. 254, ed. 
Ἢ Dindorf ; Horace, Hpist. i. 18. 41-44; Tragicorum Grae- 
corum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 414-416, frag. 184-188. 
The discussion between the two brothers, the one advocating 
the practical life and the other the contemplative or artistic, 
seems to have been famous. It is illustrated by a fine relief 
in which we see Amphion standing and holding out his lyre 
eagerly for the admiration of his athletic brother, who sits 


338 


gy ce Ss ΕἾΡΑ, 





THE LIBRARY, IIL v. 5 


sons at Eleurethae in Boeotia. The infants were 
exposed, but a neatherd found and reared them, 
and he called the one Zethus and the other 
Amphion. Now Zethus paid attention to cattle- 
breeding, but Amphion practised min&trelsy, for 
Hermes had given him ἃ lyre.1_ But Lycus and his 
wife Dirce imprisoned Antiope and treated her 
despitefully. Howbeit, one day her bonds were 
loosed of themselves, and unknown to her keepers 
she came to her sons’ cottage, begging that they 
would take herin. They recognized their mother, 
and slew Lycus, but Dirce they tied to a bull, and 
flung her dead body into the spring that is called 
Dirce after her. And having succeeded to the 
sovereignty they fortified the city, the stones follow- 
ing Amphion’s lyre*?; and they expelled Laius.8 
He resided in Peloponnese, being hospitably received 
by Pelops; and while he taught Chrysippus, the son 
of Pelops, to drive a chariot, he conceived a passion 
for the lad and carried him off.4 ΄" 


regarding it with an air of smiling disdain. See W. H. 
Roscher, Leatkon der griech. und rém. Mythologie, i. 311. 

2 Compare Homer, Od. xi. 260-265 (who does not mention 
the miracle of the music); Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. i. 
735-741 ; Pausanias, ix. 5. 6-8; Propertius, i. 9. 10, iv. 2. 
3 8q.; Horace, Odes, iii. 11. 2, Ars Poetica, 394-396. Apol- 
lonius represents Zethus staggering under the load of a 
mountain, while Amphion strolls along drawing a cliff twice 
as large after him by singing to his golden lyre. He seems to 
have intended to suggest the feebleness of brute strength by 
comparison with the power of genius. 

3 As to the banishment and restoration of Laius, see Pau- 
sanias, ix. 5.6 and 9; Hyginus, Fab. 9. 

4 Compare Athenaeus, xiii. 79, pp. 602 sq., who says that 
Laius carried off Chrysippus in his chariot to Thebes. Chry- 
sippus is said to have killed himself for shame. See the 
Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 14760. 


339 


6 


APOLLODORUS 


Γαμεῖ δὲ Ζῆθος μὲν Θήβην, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ἡ πόλις 
Θῆβαι, ᾿Αμφίων δὲ Νιόβην τὴν Ταντάλου, ἣ 
γεννᾷ παῖδας μὲν ἑπτά, Σίπυλον ὐπίνυτον 
Ἰσμηνὸν Δαμασίχθονα ᾿Αγήνορα Φαίδιμον Tav- 
ταλον, θυγατέρας δὲ τὰς ἴσας, ᾿Εθοδαΐαν (ἢ ὥς 
τινες Νέαιραν) Κλεόδοξαν ᾿Αστυόχην Φθίαν 
Πελοπίαν ᾿Αστυκράτειαν ᾽Ὧγυγίαν. Ἡσίοδος δὲ 


1 Kor the story of Niobe and her children, see Homer, 
Iliad, xxiv. 6U2 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 74; Pausanias, 
i. 21. 3, ii. 21.9, v. 11.2, ν. 16. 4, viii. 2.5 and 7; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiltades, iv. 416 sqqg.; Ovid, Metamorph. vi. 146 sqq.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 9 and 11; Lactantius Placidus on Statius, 
Theb. iii. 191; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 50 (First Vatican Mythographer, 156). 
Great diversity of opinion prevailed among the ancients with 
regard to the number of Niobe’s children. Diodorus, Ovid, 
Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, and the First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher agree with Apollodorus as to the seven sons and 
seven daughters of Niobe, and from the Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoenissae, 159, we learn that Aeschylus, Euripides, 
and Aristophanes in lost plays adopted the same numbers, 
but that Pherecydes agreed with Homer in reckoning six 
sons and six daughters, while Hellanicus allowed the lady 
no more than four sons and three daughters. On the 
other hand, Xanthus the Lydian, according to the same 
Scholiast, credited her with a score of children, equally 
divided between the two sexes. Herein he probably fol- 
lowed the authority of Hesiod (see Apollodorus, below), 
and the same liberal computation is said to have been 
accepted by Bacchylides, Pindar, and Mimnermus, while 
Sappho reduced the figure to twice nine, and Aleman to ten 
all told (Aulus Gellius, xx. 70; Aelian, Varta Historia, xii. 
36). Aeschylus and Sophocles each wrote a tragedy Neobe, 
of which some fragments remain. See Tragicorum Grae- 
corum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 50 sqq., 228 sg.; The 
Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Peason, il. 94 sqq., frag. 
442-451. The subject is rendered famous by the fine group 
of ancient statuary now in the Uffizi gallery at Florence. See 


340 








THE LIBRARY, III. v. 6 


Zethus married Thebe, after whom the city of 
Thebes is named; and Amphion married Niobe, 
daughter of Tantalus,! who bore seven sons, Sipylus, 
Eupinytus, Ismenus, Damasichthon, Agenor, Phae- 
dimus, Tantalus, and the same number of daughters, 
Ethodaia (or, as some say, Neaera), Cleodoxa, 
Astyoche, Phthia, Pelopia, Astycratia, and Ogygia. 
But Hesiod says that they had ten sons and ten 


A. Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, iii. 
1674 sqq. Antiquity hesitated whether to assign the group 
to Scopas or Praxiteles (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxvi. 28), and 
modern opinion is still divided on the qugstion. See my note 
on Pausanias, ii. 29. 9 (vol. 111. p. 201). The pathetic char- 
acter of the group may perhaps be held to speak in favour of 
Scopas, who seems to have excelled in the portrayal of the 
sterner, sadder emotions, while Praxiteles dwelt by preference 
on the brighter, softer creations of the Greek religious 
imagination. This view of the sombre cast of the genius of 
Scopas is suggested by the subjects which he chose for the 
decoration of the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea (Pausanias, 
‘vili. 45. 5-7), and by the scanty remains of the sculptures 
which have been found on the spot. See my commentary on 
Pausanias, vol. iv. pp. 426 sgg. However, the late historian 
of Greek sculpture, Professor M. Collignon, denied that the 
original of this famous group, which he regarded as a copy, 
was either by Scopas or Praxiteles. He held that-it belongs 
to an Asiatic school of sculpture characterized by Peete 
grouping, and that it could not have been executed before the 
third century B.c. To the same school he would assign 
another famous group of sculpture, that of Dirce and the bull 
(above, iii. 5. 5 note). See M. Collignon, Histoire de la 
Sculpture Grecque (Paris, 1892-1897), ii. 532 sqqg, The tomb 
of the children of Niobe was shown at Thebes (Pausanias, 
ix. 16.7; compare Euripides, Phoentssae, 159 sq.) ; but ac- 
cording to Statius (Theb. vi. 124 sq.) the Mater Dolorosa 
carried the ashes of her dead children in twice six urns to 
be buried on her native Mount Sipylus. Thus the poet 
dutifully follows Homer in regard to the number of the 
children. 


. 341 


"“APOLLODORUS 


δέκα μὲν υἱοὺς. δέκα δὲ θυγατέρας, Ἡρόδωρος 1 δὲ 
δύο μὲν ἄρρενας τρεῖς δὲ θηλείας, “Ὅμηρος δὲ && 
μὲν υἱοὺς ἕξ δὲ θυγατέρας φησὶ γενέσθαι. εὔτεκ- 
νος δὲ οὖσα Νιόβη τῆς Λητοῦς εὐτεκνοτέρα εἶπεν 
ὑπάρχειν: Λητὼ δὲ ἀγανακτήσασα τήν τε “Ap- 
τεμιν καὶ Tov ᾿Απόλλωνα Kat αὐτῶν παρώξυνε, 
καὶ τὰς μὲν θηλείας ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκίας κατετόξευσεν 
Αρτεμις, τοὺς δὲ ἄρρενας κοινῇ πάντας ἐν Κιθαι- 
pave ᾿Απόλλων κυνηγετοῦντας ἀπέκτεινεν. ἐσώ- 
θη δὲ τῶν μὲν ἀρρένων ᾿Αμφίων, τῶν δὲ θηλειῶν 
Χλωρὶς ἡ πρεσβυτέρα, ἣἧ Νηλεὺς συνῴκησε. 
κατὰ δὲ Τελέακιλλαν ἐσώθησαν ᾿Αμύκλας 5 καὶ 
Μελίβοια, ἐτοξεύθη δὲ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ ᾿Αμφίων. 
αὐτὴ δὲ Νιόβη Θήβας ἀπολιποῦσα πρὸς τὸν 
πατέρα Τάνταλον ἧκεν εἰς Σίπυλον, κἀκεῖ Διὶ 
εὐξαμένη τὴν μορφὴν εἰς λίθον μετέβαλε, καὶ 
χεῖται δάκρυα νύκτωρ καὶ μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν τοῦ λίθου. 

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ᾿Αμφίονος τελευτὴν Λάιος τὴν 
βασιλείαν παρέλαβε. καὶ γήμας θυγατέρα Μενοι- 
κέως, ἣν ἔνιοι μὲν ᾿Ιοκάστην ἔνιοι δὲ ᾿Επικάστην 
λέγουσι, χρήσαντος τοῦ θεοῦ μὴ γεννᾶν (τὸν 


: Ἡρόδωρος Aegius : ἡρόδοτος A. 
2 ᾿Αμύκλας A, Westermann, Miiller, Wagner: ᾿Αμύκλα 
Heyne, Bekker, Hercher. 


1 Compare Pausanias, ii, 2]. 9, v. 16. 4, according to whom 
Meliboea was the original name of Chloris; but she turned 
pale with fear at the slaughter of her brothers and sisters, 
and so received the name of Chloris, that is, the Pale 
Woman. As to the marriage of Chloris with Neleus, see 
Homer, Od. xi. 281 sqq. 

2 The ancients differed as to the death of Amphion. 
According to one account, he went mad (Lucian, De salta- 
tione, 41), and in attempting to attack a temple of Apollo; 


342 : 





THE LIBRARY, III, v. 6-7 


daughters; Herodorus that they had two male 
children and three female; and Homer that they 
had six sons and six daughters. Being blessed with 
children, Niobe said that she was more blessed with 
children than Latona. Stung by the taunt, Latona 
incited Artemis and Apollo against them, and 
Artemis shot down the females in the house, and 
Apollo killed all the males together as they were 
hunting on Cithaeron. Of the males Amphion alone 
was saved, and of the females Chloris the elder, 
whom Neleus married. But according to Telesilla 
there were saved Amyclas and Meliboea,! and 
Amphion also was shot by them.? But Niobe her- 
self quitted Thebes and went to her father Tantalus 
at Sipylus, and there, on praying to Zeus, she was 
transformed into a stone, and tears flow night and 
day from the stone. | 

After Amphion’s death Laius succeeded to the 
kingdom. And he married a daughter of Menoe- 
ceus; some say that she was Jocasta, and some that 
she was Epicasta.2 The oracle had warned him not 


doubtless in order to avenge the death of his sons on the 
divine murderer, he was shot dead by the deity (Hyginus, 
Fab. 9). According to Ovid (Metamorph. vi. 271 8q.), he 
stabbed himself for grief. 

3 For the tragic story of Laius, Jocasta or Epicasta, and 
their son Oedipus, see Homer, Od. xi. 271-280, with the 
Scholiast on v. 271; Euripides, Phoentssae, 1-62; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 64; Pausanias, ix. 2. 4, ix. 5. 10 8q., x. 5. 3 86. ; 
Scholiast on Euripides, Phoentasae, 1760; Hyginus, Fab. 66 
and 67. In Homer the mother of Oedipus is named Epi- 
casta ; later writers call her Jocasta. The mournful tale of 
Oedipus is the subject of Sophocles’s two great tragedies, the 
Oedipus Tyrannus and the Oedipus Coloneus. It is also 
the theme of Seneca’s tragedy Oedipus. From the Scholiast 
on Homer (l.c.) we learn that the story was told by Andro- 
tion. Apollodorus’s version of the legend closely follows 


343 


APOLLODORUS 


γεννηθέντα yap πατροκτόνον ἔσεσθαι) ὁ δὲ οἰνω- 
θεὶς συνῆλθε τῇ γυναικί. καὶ τὸ γεννηθὲν ἐκθεῖναι 
δίδωσι νομεῖ, περόναις διατρήσας τὰ σφυρά. ἀλλ᾽ 
οὗτος μὲν ἐξέθηκεν εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα, ἸΤολύβου δὲ 
’ a , , \ fo 
βουκόλοι, tod Κορινθίων βασιλέως, τὸ βρέφος 
εὑρόντες πρὸς τὴν αὐτοῦ γυναῖκα Περίβοιαν ἤνεγ- 
ς 3 [οἷ e 4 \ ’ 
καν. ἡ δὲ ἀνελοῦσα ὑποβάλλεται, καὶ θεραπεύ- 
σασα τὰ σφυρὰ Οἰδίπουν καλεῖ, τοῦτο θεμένη τὸ 
ὄνομα διὰ τὸ τοὺς πόδας ἀνοιδῆσαι. τελειωθεὶς 
δὲ ὁ παῖς, καὶ διαφέρων τῶν ἡλίκων ῥώμῃ, διὰ 
φθόνον 5 ὠνειδίζετο ὑπόβλητος. ὁ δὲ πυνθανό- 
μενος παρὰ τῆς Περιβοίας μαθεῖν οὐκ ἠδύνατο" 
ἀφικόμενος δὲ εἰς Δελφοὺς περὶ τῶν ἰδίων ἐπυνθά- 
veto γονέων. ὃ δὲ θεὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν πατρίδα 
μὴ πορεύεσθαι: τὸν μὲν γὰρ πατέρα φονεύσειν, 
τῇ μητρὶ δὲ μιγήσεσθαι. τοῦτο ἀκούσας, καὶ 
4 2 φ f a 4 4 \ 
νομίξων ἐξ ὧν ἐλέγετο γεγεννῆσθαι," KopivOov μὲ 
ἀπέλιπεν, ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος δὲ διὰ τῆς Φωκίδος φερό- 
μενος συντυγχώνει κατά τινα στενὴν ὁδὸν ἐφ᾽ 
ἅρματος ὀχουμένῳ Λαΐῳ. καὶ Πολυφόντου (κῆρυξ 
1 ῥώμῃ BE: ἐν ῥώμῃ A. 2 φθόνον E: φόνον A. 
3 παρὰ E: περὶ A. 
4 γεγεννῆσθαι Εἰ, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 68: γεγενῆσθαι A. 


* TloAupdvrou ... κελεύοντος E: Πολυφόντῃ ... καὶ κελεύ- 
σαντος A. 





Sophocles and is reproduced by Zenobius (Centé. ii. 68) in a 
somewhat abridged form with certain verbal changes, but 
as usual without acknowledgment. Some parallel stories 
occur in the folk-lore of other peoples. See Appendix, 
‘*The Oedipus Legend.” 

1 Sophocles calls her Merope (Ocdipus Tyrannus, 775), 
and so does Seneca (Oedipus, 272, 661, 802). But, according 
to Pherecydes, the wife of Polybus was Medusa, daughter 
of Orsilochus (Scholiast on Sophocles, l.c.). 


344 








THE LIBRARY, III. v. 7 


to beget a son, for the son that should be begotten 
would kill his father; nevertheless, flushed with 
wine, he had intercourse with his wife. And when 
the babe was born he pierced the child’s ankles 
with brooches and gave it to a herdsman to ex. 
pose. But the herdsman exposed it on Cithaeron ; 
and the neatherds of Polybus, king of Corinth, found 
the infant and brought it to his wife Periboea.4 
She adopted him and passed him off as her own, 
and after she had healed his ankles she called 
him Oedipus, giving him that name on account of 
his swollen feet.2 When the boy grew up and 
excelled his fellows in strength, they spitefully 
twitted him with being supposititious. He _ in- 
quired ot Periboea, but could learn nothing; so 
he went to Delphi and inquired about his true 
parents. The god told him not to go to his native 
land, because he would murder his father and lie 
with his mother. On hearing that, and believing 
himself to be the son of his nominal parents, 
he Jeft Corinth, and riding in a chariot through 
Phocis he fell in with Laius driving in a chariot 
in a certain narrow road.’ And when Polyphontes, 


2 The name Oedipus was interpreted to mean ‘swollen 
foot.” As to the piercing of the child’s ankles, see Sophocles, 
Oedipus Tyrannus, 718; Euripides, Phoenissae, 26 sq. ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 64. 1; Pausanias, x. 5.3; Hyginus, Fab. 
66 ; Seneca, Oedipus, 812 sq. 

* The ‘‘narrow road” is the famous Cleft Way (Pausa- 
nias, x. 5. 3 84.) now called the Cross-road of Megas (Stavro- 
dromi tou Mega), where the road from Daulis and the road 

‘from Thebes and Lebadea meet and unite in the single road 
ascending through the long valley to Delphi. At this point 
the pass, shut in on either hand by lofty and precipitous 
mountains, presents one of the wildest and grandest scenes 
in all Greece; the towering cliffe of Parnassus on the 


345 





ΟΌ 


APOLLODORUS 


δὲ οὗτος Fv Λαΐου) κελεύοντος ἐκχωρεῖν καὶ δι᾽ 
ἀπείθειαν καὶ ἀναβολὴν κτείναντος τῶν ἵππων 
τὸν ἕτερον, ἀγανακτήσας Οἰδίπους καὶ IloAv- 
φόντην καὶ Λάιον ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ παρεγένετο εἰς 
Θήβας. Λάιον μὲν οὖν θάπτει βασιλεὺς Πλαται- 
ἕων } Δαμασίστρατος, τὴν δὲ βασιλείαν Κρέων ὁ 
Μενοικέως παραλαμβάνει. τούτου δὲ βασιλεύ- 
οντος οὐ μικρὰ συμφορὰ κατέσχε Θήβας. ἔπεμψε 
γὰρ Ἥρα Σφίγγα, ἣ ia Ke: ᾿Εχίδνης ἢ ἦν πατ- 
ὃς δὲ Τυφῶνος, εἶχε δὲ “πρόσωπον μὲν γυναικός, 
στῆθος δὲ καὶ βάσιν καὶ οὐρὰν λέοντος καὶ πτέ- 
ρυγας ὄρνιθος. μαθοῦσα δὲ αἴνιγμα παρὰ μουσῶν 
ἐπὶ τὸ Φίκιον ὅ ὄρος ἐκαθέξετο, καὶ τοῦτο προὕὔτεινε 
Θηβαίοις. ἦν δὲ τὸ αἴνιγμα- τί ἐστιν ὃ “μίαν 
ἔχον φωνὴν 2 τετράπουν καὶ δίπουν καὶ τρίπουν 
1 πλαταιέων Εἰ : πλατυμέων Α. Wagner reports πλατυμέων 
to be the reading of E. But this is apparently a misprint 
for A. See Heyne ad. l.: ‘‘ Πλατυμέων vitiose omnes codd.” 
5 φωνὴν A: μορφὴν Ε. The reading φωνή 18 supported Ὁ 
the Argument to Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus (p. 6 6 
Jebb), the Argument to Euripides, Phoenissae, and the 
Scholium on verse 50 (Scholia in Euripidem, ed. E. Schwartz, 
vol. i. pp. 243 sg. 256), Athenaeus, x. 83, p. 456 B, and the 
Palatine Anthology, xiv. 64, in all of w ich eee the 


oracle is quoted with φωνή instead of μορφή. the other 
hand the reading μορφή is supported by some MSS. of 


' Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 7, though the editor, Miiller, 


prints φωνή in the text. 


northern side of the valley are truly sublime. Not a trace of 
human habitation is to be seen. All is solitude and silence, 
in keeping with the tragic memories of the spot. Compare 
my commentary on Pausanias, x. 5. 3 (vol. v. pp. 231 sg.). ᾿ 
As to the Cleft Way or Triple Way, as it was also called, and 
the fatal encounter of the father and son at it, see Sophocles, 
Oedipus Tyrannus, 715 sqq., 1398 sq¢. ; Euripides, Phaowisoas, 
37 sqq.; Seneca, Oedipus, 276 844. 
1 Compare Pausanias, ix. 5. 4. 


346 








THE LIBRARY, III. v. 7-8 


the herald of Laius, ordered him to make way and 
killed one of his horses because he disobeyed and 
delayed, Oedipus in a rage killed both Polyphontes 
and Laius, and arrived in Thebes. Laius was buried 
by Damasistratus, king of Plataea,! and Creon, son of 
Menoeceus, succeeded to the kingdom. In his reign 
a heavy calamity befell Thebes. For Hera sent the 
Sphinx,? whose mother was Echidna and her father 
Typhon; and she had the face of a woman, the 
breast and feet and tail of a lion, and the wings of a 
bird. And having learned a riddle from the Muses, 
she sat on Mount Phicium, and propounded it to the 
Thebans. And the riddle was this:—What is that 
which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed 


2 As to the Sphinx and her riddle, see Hesiod, Theog. 
326 sq. (who says that she was the offspring of Echidna ani 
Orthus) ; Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 391 sqg.; Euripides, 
Phoenissae, 45 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 64. 3 sq.; Pau- 
sanias, ix. 26. 2-4; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 
45; Hyginus, Fab. 67; Seneca, Oedipus, 92 sqq. The 
riddle is quoted in verse by several ancient writers. See 
Athenaeus, x. 81, Ὁ. 4568; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 7; Anthologia Palatina, xiv. 64; Argument to 
Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, p. 6, ed. R. C. Jebb; Argu- 
ment to Euripides, Phoenissae, and Scholiast on td. v. 50 
(Scholia in Huripiden, ed. E. Schwartz, vol. i. pp. 243 sq. 
256). Outside of Greece the riddle seems to be current in 
more or less similar forms among various peoples. Thus it is 
reported among the Mongols of the Selenga (R. G. Latham, 
Descriptive Ethnology, i. 325), and in Gascony (J. F. Bladé, 
Contee populaires de la Gascogne, i. 3-14). Further, it has 
been recently recorded, in a form precisely similar to the 
Greek, among the tribes of British Central Africa: the mis- 
sionary who reports it makes no reference to the riddle of 
the Sphinx, of which he was apparently ignor@t. See 
Donald Fraser; Winning a primitwe people (London, 1914), 
p. 171, ‘‘What 18 tt that goes on four legs in the morning, on 
two at midday, and on three in.the evening? .Answer:. A 
man, who crawls on hands and knees in childhood, walks 
erect when grown, and with the aid of a stick in his old age.” 


547 


APOLLODORUS 


γίνεται; χρησμοῦ δὲ Θηβαίοις ὑ ὑπάρχοντος τηνι- 
καῦτα ἀπαλλαγήσεσθαι τῆς Σφιγγὸς ἡ ἡνίκα ἂν τὸ 
αἴνιγμα λύσωσι, συνιόντες εἰς ταὐτὸ" πολλάκις 
ἐξήτουν 7 τί τὸ λεγόμενόν ἐστιν, ἐπεὶ 8 δὲ μὴ 
εὕρισκον, ἁρπάσασα ἕνα κατεβίβρωσκε. πολλῶν " 
δὲ ἀπολομένων, καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον Αἵμονος τοῦ 
Κρέοντος, κηρύσσει Κρέων τῷ τὸ αἴνυγμα λύσοντιδ 
καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ τὴν Λαΐου δώσειν γυναῖκα. 
Οἰδίπους δὲ ἀκούσας ἔλυσεν, εἰπὼν τὸ αἴνιγμα τὸ 
ὑπὸ τῆς “Σφυγγὸς λεγόμενον ἄνθρωπον. εἶναι" γίνε- 
σθαι ὁ γὰρ τετράπουν ρέφος 6 ὄντα Ἷ τοῖς τέτταρσιν 
ὀχούμενον κώλοις, τελειούμενονϑ δὲ δίπουν," γηρῶν- 
τὰ δὲ τρίτην προσλαμβάνειν βάσιν τὸ βάκτρον. ἡ 
μὲν οὖν Σφὶγξ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀκροπόλεως ἑαυτὴν ἔρρι- 
ψεν, Οἰδίπους δὲ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν παρέλαβε 
καὶ THY μητέρα ἔγημεν ἀγνοῶν, καὶ παῖδας ἐτέκ- 
νωσεν ἐξ αὐτῆς Πολυνείκη "Ὁ καὶ ᾿Ετεοκλέα, Ouya- 
τέρας δὲ ᾿Ισμήνην καὶ ᾿Αντεγόνην. εἰσὶ δὲ οἱ 
γεννηθῆναι τὰ τέκνα φασὶν ἐξ Εὐρυγανείας αὐτῴ 
τῆς Ὑπέρφαντος.."; φανέντων δὲ ὕ ὕστερον τῶν λαν- 
θανόντων, ᾿Ιοκάστη μὲν ἐξ ἀγχόνης ἑαυτὴν ἀνήρ- 

1 συνιόντες εἰς ταὐτὸ E: καὶ συνιόντες εἰς αὐτὸ A. 

2 ξζήτουν E: ἐζήτει A. 

3 ἐπεὶ Heyne, Miiller, Wagner: ἐπὰν EA, Westermann, 
Bekker. 4 πολλῶν I: πολλάκις A. 

5 λύσοντι EA, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 68 : λύσαντι Hercher. 

6 γίνεσθαι E: γεννᾶσθαι A: γεννᾶσθαι « μὲν:- Bekker. 

7 ὄντα EK, Wagner: wanting in A. 

8 τελειούμενον δὲ τὸν ἄνθρωπον A, Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker: τὸν ἄνθρωπον omitted in E and by Hercher 
and Wagner. 9 δίπουν « εἶναι: Bekker. 

10 πολυνείκη A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher: roAuvelicny E, Zenobius (Cent. ii. 68), Wagner. Both 
forms are attested by ancient writers. See W. Pape, 


Worterbuch der ‘griechischen Higennamen’, ¢.v. , Πολυνείκην. 
1. ὔπέρφαντος Aegius : i A. : 


348 





THE LIBRARY, III. v. 8-9 


and two-footed and three-footed? Now the Thebans 
were in possession of an oracle which declared that 
they should be rid of the Sphtnx whenever they had 
read her riddle; so they often met and discussed 
the answer, and when they could not find it the 
Sphinx used to snatch. away one of them and gobble 
him up. When many had perished, and last of all 
Creon’s son Haemon, Creon made proclamation that 
to him who should read the riddle he would give both 
the kingdom and the wife of Laius. On hearing that, 
Oedipus found the solution, declaring that the riddle 
of the Sphinx referred to man; for as a babe he is 
four-footed, going on four limbs, as an adult he is 
two-footed, and as an old man he gets besides a third 
support in a staff. So the Sphinx threw herself from 
the citadel, and Oedipus both succeeded to the 
kingdom and unwittingly married his mother, and 
begat sons by her, Polynices and Eteocles, and 
daughters, Ismene and Antigone.! But some say the 
children were borne to him by Eurygania, daughter 
of Hyperphas.?, When the secret afterwards came to 
light, Jocasta hanged herself in a noose,’ and Oedipus 

1 Compare Euripides, Phoentssae, 55 sqq. ; Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, iv, 64. 4; Hyginus, Fad. 67. 

2 This account is adopted by Pausanias (ix. 5. 10 sg.) and 
by the Scholiast on Euripides (Phoenissae, 1760), who cites 
Pisander as his authority. According to another version, 
Oedipus, after losing Jocasta, married Astymedusa, who 
falsely accused her stepsons of attempting her virtue. See 
Scholiast on Homer, Jl. iv. 376; Eustathius on Homer, d.c., 
p. 369; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 53. 

3 Compare Homer, Od. xi. 277 sqg.; Sophocles, Oedipus 
Tyrannus, 1235 sqqg. According to Seneca, in one passage 
(Oedipus, 1034 sqq.), Jocasta stabbed herself to death on 
the discovery of her incest. But Euripides makes Jocasta 
survive her two sons and stab herself to death on 
their dead budies. See Euripides, Phoenissae, 1455~-1459. 
Herein he was perhaps followed by Seneca in his tragedy 


349 


APOLLODORUS 


τησεν, Οἰδίπους δὲ Tas ὄψεις τυφλώσας ἐκ Θηβῶν 
ἠλαύνετο, ἀρὰς τοῖς παισὶ θέμενος, of τῆς πόλεως 
αὐτὸν ἐκβαλλόμενον θεωροῦντες οὐκ ἐπήμυναν. 
παραγενόμενος δὲ σὺν ᾿Αντιγόνῃ τῆς ᾿Αττικῆς εἰς 
Κολωνόν, ἔνθα τὸ τῶν Εὐμενίδων ἐστὶ τέμενος, 
καθίζει ἱκέτης, προσδεχθεὶς ὑπὸ Θησέως, καὶ pet 
οὐ πολὺν χρόνον ἀπέθανεν. : 

VI. Ἐτεοκλῆς δὲ καὶ Πολυνείκης περὶ τῆς 
βασιλείας συντίθενται πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ αὐτοῖς 
δοκεῖ τὸν ἕτερον παρ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν ἄρχειν. τινὲς μὲν 
οὖν λέγουσι πρῶτον ἄρξαντα Πολυνείκη ῖ παρα- 
δοῦναι pet ἐνιαυτὸν τὴν βασιλείαν ᾿ΕΣτεοκλεῖ, 
τινὲς δὲ πρῶτον Ereoxréa ἄρξαντα 3 μὴ βούλεσ- 
θαι παραδοῦναι τὴν βασιλείαν. φυγαδευθεὶς οὖν 
Πολυνείκης ἐκ Θηβῶν ἧκεν εἰς “Apyos, τόν τε 


1 ἄρξαντα Πολυνείκη Hercher, Wagner: ἄρξαντος Πολυ- 


νείκους 
2 Ἐτεοκλέα ἄρξαντα Faber, Hercher, Wagner: éreoxdAéous 


ἄρξαντος A. 





Phoenissae, for in the fragments of that play (vv. 443 844.) 
Seneca represents Jocasta attempting to make peace between 
Eteocles and Polynices on the battlefield ; but the conclusion 
of the play is lost. Similarly Statius describes how Jocasta 
vainly essayed to reconcile her warring sons, and how she 
stabbed herself to death on learning that they had fallen by 
each other’s hands. See Statius, Theb. vii. 474 sqq., xi. 634 80. 

‘A curious and probably very ancient legend assigned ἃ 
different motive for the curses of Oedipus. It is said that 
his sons used to send him as his portion the shoulder of 
every sacrificial victim, but that one day by mistake they 
sent him the haunch (ἰσχίον) instead of the shoulder, which 
so enraged him that he cursed them, praying to the gods 
that his sons might die by each other’s hands. This story 
was told by the author of the epic Thebaid. See Scholiast 
on Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, 1375; Zenobius, Cens. Υ. 


35° ° 





THE LIBRARY, IIL. v. 9-vi. 1 


was driven from Thebes, after he had put out his 
eyes and cursed his sons, who saw him cast out of 
the city without lifting a hand to help him.! And 
having come with Antigone to Colonus in Attica, 
where is the precinct of the Eumenides, he sat down 
there as a suppliant, was kindly received by Theseus, 
and died not long afterwards.” 

VI. Now Eteocles and Polynices made a compact 
with each other concerning the kingdom and re- 
solved that each should rule alternately for a year 
at a time.* Some say that Polynices was the first 
to rule, and that after a year he handed over the 
kingdom to Eteocles; but some say that Eteocles 
was the first to rule, and would not hand over 
the kingdom. So, being banished from Thebes, 
Polynices came to Argos, taking with him the 


43. <A different cause of his anger is assigned by Athenaeus 
(xi. 14, pp. 465 sq.), also on the authority of the author of 
the Thebaid. 

3 The coming of Oedipus and Antigone to Colonus Hippius 
in Attica, together with the mysterious death of Oedipus, 
are the subject of Sophocles’s noble tragedy, Oedipus Colo- 
meus, As to the sanctuary of the Ieurianiiles see that play, 
vv. 36 sqq. The knoll of Colonus is situated over a mile from 
Athens, and it is doubtful whether the poet intended to 
place the death and burial of Oedipus at Colonus or at 
Athens itself, where in later times the grave of Oedipus was 
shown in a precinct of the Eumenides, between the Acropolis 
and the Areopagus (Pausanias, i. 28. 7); See my notes on 
Pausanias, i. 28. 7, i. 30. 2, vol. ii. pp. 366 eg., 393 aq. ; 
R. C. Jebb, on Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, pp. xxx. 846. 

2 That is, they were to reign in alternate years. Compare 
Euripides, Phoentssae, 69 8ᾳᾳ., 473 sqq. 3° Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 65.1; Zenobius, Cent. i. 30; Hyginus, Fab. 67; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 48 sq. (First Vatican Mythographer, 152). In this and 
the sequel Zenobius (l.c.) closely follows Apollodorus and 
probably copied from him. 


351 


APOLLODORUS 


ὅρμον Kal Tov πέπλον ἔχων. ἐβασίλευε δὲ" Apyous 
“Adpactos ὁ Ταλαοῦ' καὶ τοῖς τούτου βασιλείοις 
νύκτωρ προσπελάζει, καὶ συνάπτει μάχην Τυδεῖ 
τῷ Οἰνέως φεύγοντι Καλυδῶνα. γενομένης δὲ 
ἐξαίφνης βοῆς ἐπιφανεὶς "Adpactos διέλυσεν av- 
τούς, καὶ μάντεώς τινος ὑπομνησθεὶς λέγοντος 
αὐτῷ κάπρῳ καὶ λέοντι συζεῦξαι τὰς θυγατέρας, 
ἀμφοτέρους εἵλετο νυμφίους" εἶχον γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν 
ἀσπίδων ὁ μὲν κάπρου προτομὴν ὁ δὲ λέοντος. 
γαμεῖ δὲ Δηιπύλην μὲν Τυδεὺς ᾿Αργείην δὲ Πολυ- 
νείκης, καὶ αὐτοὺς "Αδραστος ἀμφοτέρους εἰς τὰς 
πατρίδας ὑπέσχετο κατάξειν. καὶ πρῶτον ἐπὶ 
Θήβας ἔσπευδε στρατεύεσθαι, καὶ τοὺς ἀριστέας 
συνήθροιζεν. 

᾿Αμφιάραος δὲ ὁ ᾿Οικλέους,; μάντις ὧν καὶ 
προειδὼς ὅτι δεῖ πάντας τοὺς στρατευσαμένους 
χωρὶς ᾿Αδράστου τελευτῆσαι, αὐτός τε WKVEL στρα- 
τεύεσθαι καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀπέτρεπε. Πολυνείκης 
δὲ ἀφικόμενος πρὸς Ἶφιν τὸν ᾿Αλέκτορος ἠξίουν 
μαθεῖν πῶς ἂν ᾿Αμφιάραος ἀναγκασθείη στρα- 


1 "ρικλέους Aegius: ἰοκλέους A. 


1 That is, the necklace and the robe which Cadmus had 
given to Harmonia at their marriage. See above, iii. 4. 2. 

2 See above i. 8. 5. 

3 Adrastus received the oracle from Apollo. -See Euripides, 
Phoenissae, 408 sqq., Suppltants, 132sqq. In these passages 
the poet describes the nocturnal brawl between the two 
exiled princes at the gate of the palace, and their reconcilia- 
tion by Adrastus. Compare Zenobius, i. 30; Hyginus; Fab. 
69 ; and the elaborate description of Statius, Theb. i. 370 sqq. 
The words of the oracle given to Adrastus are quoted by the 
Scholiast on Euripides, Phoentssae, 409. According to one 

nterpretation the boar on the shield of Tydeus referred to 


352 


THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 1-2 


necklace and the robe.1 The king of Argos was 
Adrastus, son of Talaus; and Polynices went up 
to his palace by night and engaged in a fight with 
Tydeus, son of Oeneus, who had fled from Caly- 
don.? At the sudden outcry Adrastus appeared 
and parted them, and remembering the words of 
a certain seer who told him to yoke his daughters 
in marriage to a boar and a lion,* he accepted them 
both as bridegrooms, because they had on their 
shields, the one the forepart of a boar, and the 
other the forepart of a lion.t And Tydeus married 
Deipyle, and Polynices married Argia®; and 
Adrastus promised that he would restore them both 
to their native lands. And first he was eager to 
march against Thebes, and he mustered the chiefs. 
But Amphiaraus, son of Oicles, being a seer and 
foreseeing that all who joined in the expedition 
except Adrastus were destined to perish, shrank 
from it himself and discouraged the rest. However, 
Polynices went to Iphis, son of Alector, and begged 
to know how Amphiaraus could be compelled to go 


the Calydonian boar, while the lion on the shield of Poly- 
nices referred to the lion-faced sphinx. Others preferred to 
suppose that the two chieftains were clad in the skins of a 
boar and a lion respectively. See Scholiast on Euripides, 
l.c.; Hyginus, Fab. 69. 

4 As to the devices which the Greeks painted on their 
shields, as these are described by ancient writers or depicted 
in vase-paintings, see G. H. Chase, ‘‘The Shield Devices of the 
Greeks,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. xiii. 
pp. 61-127. From the evidence collected in this essay (pp. 98 
and 112 eq.) it appears that both the boar and the lion are 
common devices on shields in vase-paintings. 

5 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 3; Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoentssae, 409; Hyginus, Fab. 69; Statius, Theb. 
li. 201 sgq. 


353 
VOL. I. AA 





APOLLODORUS 


τεύεσθαι: ὁ δὲ εἶπεν εἰ λάβοι τὸν ὅρμον Ἐριφύλη. 
᾿Αμφιάραος μὲν οὖν ἀπεῖπεν Βριφύλῃ παρὰ Πολυ- 
νείκους δῶρα λαμβάνειν, Πολυνείκης δὲ δοὺς αὐτῇ 
τὸν ὅρμον ἠξίου τὸν ᾿Αμφιάραον πεῖσαι στρατεύειν. 
ἦν γὰρ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ" γενομένης γὰρ αὐτῆς * πρὸς 
Ν 4 3 Ἁ φ 8 
Αδραστον, διαλυσάμενος ὦμοσε, περὶ ὧν «ἂν; 
? ’ 4 ’ὔ 3 A δ 
Αδράστῳ " διαφέρηται, διακρίνειν ᾿Εριφύλῃ  συγ- 
ωὡρῆσαι. ὅτε οὖν ἐπὶ Θήβας ἔδει στρατεύειν, 
Αδράστου μὲν παρακαλοῦντος ᾿Αμφίαράον δὲ 
ἀποτρέποντος, Ἐριφύλη τὸν ὅρμον λαβοῦσα ἔπεε- 
σεν αὐτὸν σὺν ᾿Αδράστῳ δ στρατεύειν. ᾿Αμφεά- 
ραος δὲ ἀνάγκην ἔχων στρατεύεσθαι τοῖς παεσὶν 
ἐντολὰς ἔδωκε τελειωθεῖσι τήν τε μητέρα κτείνειν 
καὶ ἐπὶ Θήβας στρατεύειν. 

ἼΑδραστος δὲ συναθροίσας «στρατὸν; σὺν ἧγε- 
μόσιν ἑπτὰ πολεμεῖν ἔσπευδε Θήβας. οἱ δὲ ἡγε- 
μόνες ἦσαν οἵδε: “Adpactos Ταλαοῦ, ᾿Αμφιάραος 

1 ταύτῃ Heyne: ταύτης A. 

2 αὐτῆς corrupt: αὐτῷ μάχης Bekker: αὐτῷ διαφορᾶς 
Hercher. Perhaps we should read: αὐτῷ πρὸς "Αδραστον 
διαφορᾶς. I have translated accordingly. Heyne conjectured 
μάχης, ἔριδος, or ἀμφισβητήσεως for αὐτῆς. Sommer con- 
jectured στάσεως, which is perhaps supported by Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 65. 6, ᾿Αμφιαράονυ πρὸς “Adpacrov στασιάζοντος. 

8 ἂν inserted by Bekker. 

4 ᾿Αδράστῳ Emperius, Hercher, Wagner: “Adpacros A, 
Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

δ᾽ ξριφύλῃ V: ἐριφύλην A. 

6 αὐτὸν σὺν ᾿Αδράστῳ Wagner: τὸν ὦ ἄδραστων PR: τῷ 
ἀδράστῳ C: τὸν ΓΑδραστον Heyne (regarding the words as an 
interpolation), Westermann (preferring to read τῷ ᾿Αδράστῳ 
συστρατεύειν) : τὸν ἄνδρα Commelinus, Bekker, Hercher. 

7 στρατὸν a conjecture οὗ Heyne, accepted by Hercher and 
Wagner. 





1 For the story of the treachery of Eriphyle to her hus- 
band Amphiaraus, see also Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 5 sq. ; 


354 


THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 2-3 


to the war. He answered that it could be done if 
Eriphyle got the necklace. Now Amphiaraus had 
forbidden Eriphyle to accept gifts from Polynices ; 
but Polynices gave her the necklace and begged 
her to persuade Amphiaraus to go to the war; for 
the decision lay with her, because once, when a 
difference arose between him and Adrastus, he had 
made it up with him and sworn to let Eriphyle decide 
any future dispute he might have with Adrastus.? 
Accordingly, when war was to be made on Thebes, and 
the measure was advocated by Adrastus and opposed 
by Amphiaraus, Eriphyle accepted the necklace and 
persuaded him to march with Adrastus. Thus forced 
to go to the war, Amphiaraus laid his commands on 
his sons, that, when they were grown up, they should 
slay their mother and march against Thebes. 

Having mustered an army with seven leaders, 
Adrastus hastened to wage war on Thebes. The 
leaders were these?: Adrastus, son of Talaus; 


Pausanias, v. 17. 7 8g., ix. 41. 2; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 
326 (who refers to Asclepiades as his authority); Hyginus, 
Fab. 73; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. δ, Η. 
Bode, vol. i. p. 49 (First Vatican Mythographer, 152). The 
story is alluded to but not told by Homer (Od. xi. 326 sq., 
xv. 247), Sophocles (Hlectra, 836 sqq.), and Horace (Odes, 
iii. 16. 11-13). Sophocles wrote a tragedy EHriphyle, which 
was perhaps the same as his Epigont. See The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 129 sqq. 

2 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 6; Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 326; Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ix. 13 (30). 
As the sister of Adrastus (see above, i. 9. 13) and the wife of 
Amphiaraus, the traitress Eriphyle might naturally. seem 
well qualified to act as arbiter between them. 

δ For lists of the seven champions who marched against 
Thebes, see Aeschylus, Seven agatnst Thebes, 375 8ᾳᾳ.; 
Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, 1309 sqg.; Euripides, Phoe- 
nissae, 1090 sqq. and Suppliants, 857 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 65.7; Hyginus, Fab. 70. 


355 


AA 2 


APOLLODORUS 


Ὀικλέους, Καπανεὺς ‘Imaovoou, Ἵππομέδων “A pe- 
4 « \ A e A > 
στομάχου, οἱ δὲ λέγουσι Ταλαοῦ. οὗτοι μὲν ἐξ 
ἼΑργους, Πολυνείκης «δὲ; Οἰδίποδος ἐκ Θηβῶν, 
Τυδεὺς Οἰνέως Αἰτωλός, Παρθενοπαῖος Μελα- 
νίωνος ᾿Αρκάς. τινὲς δὲ Τυδέα μὲν καὶ ἸΤολυ- 
νείκην οὐ καταριθμοῦσι, συγκαταλέγουσι δὲ τοῖς 
e \ 3 7 ” 4 
ἑπτὰ ᾿Ετέοκλον Ἴφιος καὶ Μηκιστέα. 
Παραγενόμενοι δὲ εἰς Νεμέαν, ἧς ἐβασίλευε 
Λυκοῦργος, ἐζήτουν ὕδωρ. καὶ αὐτοῖς ἡγήσατο 
aA na ¢ a 
τῆς ἐπὶ κρήνην ὁδοῦ Ὑψιπύλη, νήπιον παῖδα 
[ὄντα] ᾿Οφέλτην ἀπολιποῦσα, ὃν ἔτρεφεν Evpv- 
δίκης ὄντα καὶ Λυκούργου. αἰσθόμεναι γὰρ at 


1 "οικλέους Aegius: loxAgovs Α. 83 δὲ inserted by Bekker. 
3 ὄντα omitted by Hercher. 


1 The place of Eteoclus among the Seven Champions is 
recognized by Aeschylus (Seven against Thebes, 458 sqq.), 
Sophocles (Oedipus Coloneus, 1316), and Euripides in one 
play (Suppliants, 871 sqq.), but not in another (Phoentssae, 
1090 sqg.); and he is omitted by Hyginus (Fab. 70). His 
right to rank among the Seven seems to have been acknow- 
ledged by the Argives themselves, since they included his 
portrait in a group of statuary representing the Champions 
which they dedicated at Delphi. See Pausanias, x. 10. 3. 

2 Brother of Adrastus. See i. 9. 13. 

3 As to the meeting of the Seven Champions with Hypsi- 
pyle at Nemea, the death of Opheltes, and the institution of 
the Nemean games, see Scholia on Pindar, Nem., Argument, 

Ρ 424 sq. ed. Boeckh ; Bacchylides, Hpinic. viii. [ix.] 10 eqq.; 
δ ement of Alexandria, Protrept. ii. 34, p. 29, ed. Potter, with 
the Scholiast ; Hyginus, Fab. 74 and 273; Statius, Theb. 
iv. 646—vi. ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iv. 717; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latin, ed. G. H. Bode. vol. i. 
p. 123 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 141). The institution 
of the Nemean games in honour of Opheltes or Archemorus 
was noticed by Aeschylus in a lost play. See Tragt 
Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck’, p. 49. The judges at 
the Nemean games wore dark-coloured robes in mourning, it 


356 








THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 3-4 


Amphiaraus, son of Oicles; Capaneus, son of Hip- 
ponous; Hippomedon, son of Aristomachus, but 
some say of Talaus. These came from Argos; but 
Polynices, son of Ocdipus, came from Thebes; 
Tydeus, son of Oeneus, was an Aetolian; Partheno- 
paeus, son of Melanion, was an Arcadian. Some, 
however, do not reckon Tydeus and Polynices 
among them, but include Eteoclus, son of Iphis,! 
and Mecisteus? in the list of the seven. 

Having come to Nemea, of which Lycurgus was 
king, they sought for water; and Hypsipyle showed 
them the way to a spring, leaving behind an infant 
boy Opheltes, whom she nursed, a child of Eury- 
dice and Lycurgus.? For the Lemnian women, after- 


is said, for Opheltes (Scholiast on Pindar, Nem., Argum. 
p. 425, ed. Boeckh); and the crown of parsley bestowed on 
the victor is reported to have been chosen for the same sad 
reason (Servius, on Virgil, Hcl. vi. 68). However, according 
to another account, the crowns at Nemea were originally 
made of olive, but the material was changed to parsley after 
the disasters of the Persian war (Scholiast on Pindar, l.c.). 
The grave of Opheltes was at Nemea, enclosed by a stone 
wall; and there were altars within the enclosure (Pau- 
sanias, ii. 15, 3). Euripides wrote a tragedy Hypsipyle, 
of which many fragments have recently been discovered in 
Egyptian papyri. See Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck?, pp. 594 sqq.; A.S. Hunt, Tragicorum Grae- 
corum Fragmenta Papyracea nuper reperta (Oxford, no 
date, no pagination). In one of these fragments (col. iv. 27 sq.) 
it is said that Lycurgus was chosen from all Asopia to be the 
warder (xAndovxos) of the local Zeus. There were officials 
bearing the same title (κλειδοῦχοι) at Olympia (Dittenberger, 
Sylloge Inscrvptionum Graecarum, vol. ii. p. 168, No. 1021) 
in Delos (Dittenberger, Orientis Graect Inscriptiones Selec- 
tae, vol. i. p. 252, No. 170), and in the worship of Aescula- 
pius at Athens (E.8. Roberts and E. A. Gardner, Introduction 
to Greek Epigraphy, Part ii. Ρ' 410, No. 157). The duty 
from which they took their title was to keep the keys of the 


357 


on 


APOLLODORUS 


Λήμνιαι ὕστερον Θόαντα σεσωσμένον ἐκεῖνον μὲν 
ἔκτειναν, τὴν δὲ Ὕψιπύλην ἀπημπόλησαν: διὸ 
πραθεῖσα! ἐλάτρευε παρὰ Λυκούργῳ. δεικνυνούσης 
δὲ τὴν κρήνην, ὁ παῖς ἀπολειφθεὶς ὑπὸ δράκοντος 
διαφθείρεται. τὸν μὲν οὖν δράκοντα ἐπιφανέντες 
οἱ μετὰ ᾿Αδράστου κτείνουσι, τὸν δὲ παῖδα θάπ- 
τουσιν. ᾿Αμφιάραος δὲ εἶπεν ἐκείνοις τὸ σημεῖον 
, 4 Ν \ “ 3 

τὰ μέλλοντα προμαντεύεσθαι" τὸν δὲ παῖδα ᾽Αρ- 
χέμορον ἐκάλεσαν.Σ οἱ δὲ ἔθεσαν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ τὸν 
τῶν Νεμέων ἀγῶνα, καὶ ἵππῳ μὲν ἐνίκησεν 
ἼΑδραστος, σταδίῳ δὲ ᾿Ετέοκλος, πυγμῇ Τυδεύς, 
ν 8 δί "A / 3 la A a 
ἅλματιβ καὶ δίσκῳ ᾿Αμφιάραος, ἀκοντίῳ Aao- 
δοκος, πάλῃ Πολυνείκης, τόξῳ Παρθενοπαῖος. 

ς @ 3 \ A ἢ 

Ὡς δὲ ἦλθον εἰς τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα, πέμπουσε 
Τυδέα προεροῦντα ᾿Ετεοκλεῖ τῆς βασιλείας * 
παραχωρεῖν Πολυνείκει, καθὰ συνέθεντο. μὴ προσ- 
ἔχοντος δὲ ᾿Εττεοκλέους, δεάπειραν τῶν Θηβαίων 


1 πραθεῖσα Heyne (who also conjectured τρέφουσα or τρο- 
φεύουσα) : πραφεῖσα P: τραφεῖσα A. 

3 δκάλεσεν Hercher. 

3 ἅλματι Valckenar, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ἅρματι A, 
Heyne, Westermann. 

4 τῆς βασιλείας Hercher: τὴν βασιλείαν Heyne, Wester- 
hea Miller, Bekker, Wagner (following apparently the 

ss 


temple. A fine relief in the Palazzo Spada at Rome represents 
the serpent coiled round the dead body of the child Opheltes 
and attacked by two of the heroes, while in the background 
Hypsipyle is seen retreating, with her hands held up in horror 
ee her pitcher lying at her feet. See W. H. Roscher, 
Lexikon der griech. und rém. Mythologie, i. 473; A. 
Baumeister, Denkmdler des kilassischen Alteritums, i. 113, 
fig. 119. The death of Opheltes or Archemorus is also the 
subject of a fine vase-painting, which shows the dead boy 
lying on a bier and attended by two women, one of whom is 


358 





THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 4-5 


wards learning that Thoas had been saved alive,} 
put him to death and sold Hypsipyle into slavery: 
wherefore she served in the house of Lycurgus as a 
purchased bondwoman. But while she showed the 
spring, the abandoned boy was killed by a serpent. 
When Adrastus and his party appeared on the 
scene, they slew the serpent and buried the boy; 
but Amphiaraus told them that the sign foreboded 
the future, and they called the boy Archemorus.? 
They celebrated the Nemean games in his honour; 
and Adrastus won the horse race, Eteoclus the foot 
race, Tydeus the boxing match, Amphiaraus the 
leaping and quoit-throwing match, Laodocus the 
javelin-throwing match, Polynices the wrestling 
match, and Parthenopaeus the archery match. 

When they came to Cithaeron, they sent Tydeus 
to tell Eteocles in advance that he must cede the 
kingdom to Polynices, as they had: agreed among 
themselves. As Eteocles paid no heed to the 


about to crown him with a wreath of myrtle, while the other 
holds an umbrella over his head to prevent, it has been 
suggested, the sun’s rays from being defiled by falling on a 
corpse. Amongst the figures in the painting, which are identi- 
fied by inscriptions, is seen the mother Eurydice standing in 
her palace between the suppliant Hypsipyle on one side and 
the dignified Amphiaraus on the other. See E. Gerhard, 
** Archemoros,” Gesammelie Abhandlungen (Berlin, 1866— 
1868), i. 5 sqq., with Abbildungen, taf. i.; K. Friederichs, 
Praciteles und die Ntwobegruppe (Leipzig, 1855), pp. 123 sqq.; 
A. Baumeister, op. cit. i. 114, fig. 120. 

1 See above, i. 9. 17. 

2 That is, ‘‘beginner of doom”; hence ‘‘ ominous,” 
‘‘foreboding.” The name is so interpreted by Bacchylides 
(Epinic. viii. 14, σᾶμα μέλλοντος φόνου), by the Scholiast on 
Pindar (Nem., Argum. pp. 424 sq. ed. Boeckh), and by 
Lactantius Placidus in his commentary on Statius (Theb. iv. 
717). 


359 


APOLLODORUS 


Τυδεὺς ποιούμενος, καθ᾽ ἕνα προκαλούμενος πάν- 
των περιεγένετο. οἱ δὲ πεντήκοντα ἄνδρας ὁπλί- 
σαντες ἀπιόντα ἐνήδρευσαν αὐτόν' πάντας δὲ 
αὐτοὺς χωρὶς Μαίονος ἀπέκτεινε, κἄπειτα ἐπὶ τὸ 
στρατόπεδον ἦλθεν. 

6 ᾿Αργεῖοι δὲ καθοπλισθέντες προσήεσαν τοῖς 
τείχεσι, καὶ πυλῶν ἑπτὰ οὐσῶν “Adpactos μὲν 
παρὰ τὰς Ὁμολωίδας πύλας ἔστη, Καπανεὺς δὲ 
παρὰ τὰς ᾿Ωγυγίας, ᾿Αμφιάραος δὲ παρὰ τὰς 
Προιτίδας, Γἵππομέδων δὲ παρὰ τὰς ᾿Ογκαΐδας,; 
Πολυνείκης δὲ παρὰ τὰς ὙὝΨίστας, Παρθενοπαῖος 
«δὲ» παρὰ τὰς ᾿Ηλέκτρας, Τυδεὺς δὲ παρὰ τὰς 
Κρηνίδας. καθώπλισε δὲ καὶ ᾿Ετεοκλῆς Θηβαίους, 
καὶ καταστήσας ἡγεμόνας ἴσους ἴσοις ἔταξε, 
καὶ was ἂν περιγένοιντο τῶν πολεμίων ἐμαντεύετο. 

7 ἦν δὲ παρὰ Θηβαίοις μάντις Τειρεσίας Evnpous 
καὶ Χαρικλοῦς νύμφης, ἀπὸ γένους Οὐδαίου τοῦ 
Σπαρτοῦ, γενόμενος τυφλὸς τὰς ὁράσεις. οὗ περὶ 
τῆς πηρώσεως καὶ τῆς μαντικῆς λέγονται λόγοι 
διάφοροι. ἄλλοι μὲν γὰρ αὐτὸν ὑπὸ θεῶν φασι 
τυφλωθῆναι, ὅτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἃ κρύπτειν 
ἤθελον ἐμήνυε, Φερεκύδης δὲ ὑπὸ ᾿Αθηνᾶς αὐτὸν 

1 ᾽ογκαΐδας Aegius: ὀχνηίδας A. 
3 δὲ inserted by Heyne. 


1 For the embassy of Tydeus to Thebes and its sequel, see 
Homer, Jl. iv. 382-398, v. 802-808, with the Scholiast on 
v. 376; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65.4; Statius, Theb. ii. 307 eqq. 

? The siege of Thebes by the Argive army under the Seven 
Champions 18 the subject of two extant Greek tragedies, the 
Seven against Thebes of Aeschylus, and the Phoenitssae of 
Euripides. In both of them the attack on the seven gates 
by the Seven Champions is described. See the Seven against 

hebes, 375 sqq.; Phoentssae, 105 sqq., 1090 sqq. The siege 
is also the theme of Statius’s long-winded and bombastic 


360 








THE LIBRARY, IN. νι. 5-7 


message, T'ydeus, by way of putting the Thebans td 
the proof, challenged them to single combat and 
was victorious in every encounter; and though the 
Thebans set fifty armed men to lie in wait for him 
as he went away, he slew them all but Maeon, and 
then came to the camp.} 

Having armed themselves, the Argives approached 
the walls?; and as there were seven gates, Adrastus 
was stationed at the Homoloidian gate, Capaneus at 
the Ogygian, Amphiaraus at the Proetidian, Hippo- 
medon at the Oncaidian, Polynices at the Hypsistan,® 
Parthenopaeus at the Electran, and Tydeus at the 
Crenidian.* Eteocles on his side armed the Thebans, 
and having appointed leaders to match those of the 
enemy in number, he put the battle in array, and 
resorted to divination to learn how they might over- 
come the foe. Now there was among the Thebans 
a soothsayer, Tiresias, son of Everes and a nymph 
Chariclo, of the family of Udaeus, the Spartan,’ and 
he had lost the sight of his eyes. Different stories 
are told about his blindness and his power of sooth- 
saying. For some say that he was blinded by the 
gods because he revealed their secrets to men. But 
epic, the Thebaid. Compare also Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 
7-9; Pausanias, i. 39. 2, ii. 20. 5, viii. 25. 4, x. 10.3; Hygi- 
nus, Fab. 69, 70. The war was also the subject of two lost 
poems of the same name, the Thebaid of Callinus, an early 
elegiac poet, and the Thebaid of Antimachus, a contem- 

rary of Plato. See Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. 

. Kinkel. pp. 9 844., 275 sqq. As to the seven gates of 
Thebes, see Pausanias, ix. 8. 4-7, with my commentary 
(vol. iv. pp. 35 sqq.). The ancients were not entirely agreed 
as to the names of the gates. 

δ That is, ‘‘the Highest Gate.” 

+ That is, ‘‘the Fountain Gate.” 

5 That is, one of the Sparti, the men who sprang from the 
dragon’s teeth sown by Cadmus. See above, iii. 4. 1. ὲ 

361 


APOLLODORUS 


τυφλωθῆναι" οὖσαν yap τὴν Χαρικλὼ προσφιλῆ 
τῇ ᾿Αθηνᾷ!. . . γυμνὴν ἐπὶ πάντα ἰδεῖν, τὴν δὲ 
ταῖς χερσὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ καταλαβο- 
μένην πηρὸν ποιῆσαι, Χαρικλοῦς δὲ δεομένης 
ἀποκαταστῆσαι πάλιν τὰς ὁράσεις, μὴ δυναμένην 
τοῦτο ποιῆσαι, τὰς ἀκοὰς διακαθάρασαν πᾶσαν 
ὀρνίθων φωνὴν ποιῆσαι συνεῖναι, καὶ σκῆπτρον 
αὐτῷ δωρήσασθαι κράνειον,Σ ὃ φέρων ὁμοίως τοῖς 
βλέπουσιν ἐβάδιζεν. ᾿Ἡσίοδος δέ φησιν ὅτι θεα- 


1 The lacuna was indicated by Heyne, who proposed to 
restore the passage as follows: οὖσαν yap τῇ Χαρικλοῖ προσ- 
φιλῆ τὴν ᾿Αθηνᾶν αὐτὸν γυμνὴν ἐπιστάντα (or ἐπιβάντα) ἰδεῖν, 
“ΕἘῸΣ Athena was a friend οὗ Chariclo, and he came upon 
her and saw her naked.” This gives the requisite sense, 
and probably represents very nearly the σὰν er reading of 
the passage. he friendship of Athena for the nymph 
Chariclo, the mother of Tiresias, is mentioned to explain 
ες τ νου which Tiresias had of seeing the goddess 
naked. 

2 ταῖς χερσὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ καταλαβομένην. These 
words have been wrongly suspected or altered by the editors. 
Heyne proposed to omit τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς as a gloss or to re- 
write the passage thus: τὴν δὲ ταῖς χερσὶ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ 
ὕδωρ καταβαλοῦσαν πηρὸν ποιῆσαι. Worcher wrote: τὴν δὲ 
ταῖς χερσὶ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ λαβομένην πηρὸν ποιῆσαι. They 
all apparently suppose that the goddess blinded Tiresias by 
scratching out his eyes. But she simply held her hands over 
the eyes of the prying intruder, and the mere touch of her 
divine fingers sutficed to blind him for ever. Compare Plato, 
Theaetetus, Ὁ. 165 BC: τί γὰρ χρήσει ἀφύκτῳ ἐρωτήματι, τὸ 
λεγόμενον ἐν φρέατι συνεχόμενος, ὅταν ἐρωτᾷ ἀνέκπληκτος (un- 
abashed) ἀνήρ, καταλαβὼν τῇ χειρὶ σοῦ τὸν ἕτερον ὀφθαλμόν, 
εἰ ὁρᾷς τὸ ἱμάτιον τῷ κατειλημμένῳ; If any change were 
desirable, it would be καταλαβοῦσαν for καταλαβομένην, but 
even this is not necessary. Compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iii. 37. 5 κατελάβοντο δεσμοῖς τὸ στόμιον (the mouth of a 
serpent’s den). 

3 κράνειον Aegius, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: κυάνειον EA, 
Commelinus, Gale, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 


362 





THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 7 


Pherecydes says that he was blinded by Athena!; 
for Chariclo was dear to Athena. . . and Tiresias 
saw the goddess stark naked, and she covered his 
eyes with her hands, and so rendered him sightless. 
And when Chariclo asked her to restore his sight, 
she could not do so, but by cleansing his ears she 
caused him to understand every note of birds; and 
she gave him a staff of cornel-wood,? wherewith he 
walked like those who see. But Hesiod says that he 


1 The blinding of Tiresias by Athena is described by Calli- 
machus in his hymn, The Baths of Pallas. He tells how the 
nymph Chariclo, mother of Tiresias, was the favourite atten- 
dant of Athena, who carried her with her wherever she went, 
often mounting the nymph in her own car. One summer day, 
when the heat and stillness of noon reigned in the mountains, 
the goddess and the nymph had stripped and were enjoying 
a cool plunge in the fair-flowing spring of Hippocrene on 
Mount Helicon. But the youthful Tiresias, roaming the 
hills with his dogs, came to slake his thirst at the bubbling 
spring and saw what it was not lawful to see. The goddess 
cried out in anger, and at once the eyes of the intruder were 
quenched in darkness. His mother, the nymph, reproached 
the goddess with blinding her son, but Athena explained 
that she had not done so, but that the laws of the gods 
inflicted the penalty of blindness on anyone who beheld an 
immortal without his or her consent. To console the youth 
for the loss of his sight the goddess promised to bestow on 
him the gifts of prophecy and divination, long life, and after 
death the retention of his mental powers undimmed in the 
world below. See Callimachus, Baths of Palias, 57-133. In 
this account Callimachus probably followed Pherecydes, who, 
as we learn from the present passage of Apollodorus, assigned 
the same cause for the blindness of Tiresias. It is said that 
Erymanthus, son of Apollo, was blinded because he saw 
Aphrodite bathing. See Ptolemaeus Hephaest. Nov. Hist, i. 
in Westermann’s Mythographi Graeci, p. 183. 

2 According to the MSS., it was a blue staff. See Critical 
Note. As to the cornel-tree in ancient myth and fable, see 
C. Boetticher, Der Baumkultus der Hellenen (Berlin, 1856), 


pp. 130 sqq. 
363 


APOLLODORUS 


σάμενος περὶ Κυλλήνην ὄφεις συνουσιάξοντας 
καὶ τούτους τρώσας ἐγένετο ἐξ ἀνδρὸς 1 γυνή, 
πάλιν δὲ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ὄφεις παρατηρήσας συνου- 
σιάξοντας ἐγένετο ἀνήρ. διόπερ ἽἭἭρα καὶ Ζεὺς 


1 ἀνδρὸς E: ἀνδρῶν A. 





1 This curious story of the double change of sex ex- 
rienced by Tiresias, with the cause of it, is told also by 
Phiegon, Mirabilia, 4; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 683; 
Eustathius on Homer, Od. x. 492, p. 1665; Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. x. 494; Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 17 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. iii. 316 sqqg.; Hyginus, Fab. 75; Lactan- 
tius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. ii. 95; Fulgentius, Mytho- 
log. ii. 8; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. 
Bode, vol. i. pp. 5, 104, 169 (First Vatican Mythographer, 16; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 84; Third Vatican mes 
apher, iv. 8). Phlegon says that the story was told by 
Fresiod, Dicaearchus, Clitarchus, and Callimachus. Hea 
with Apollodorus, Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, aad the 
Second ἐγαύϊοδῃ Mythographer in laying the scene of the 
incident on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia; whereas Eustathius 
and Tzeizes lay it on Mount Cithaeron in Boeotia, which is 
‘more appropriate for a Theban seer. According to Eusta- 
thius and Tzetzes, it was by killing the female snake that 
Tiresias became a woman, and it was by afterwards killing 
the male snake that he was changed back into a man. — 
According to Ovid, the seer remained a woman for seven 
ears, and recovered his male sex in the eighth; the First 
Vatican Mythographer says that he recovered it after eight 
years; the Third Vatican Mythographer affirms that he 
recovered it in the seventh year. All the writers I have 
cited, except Antoninus Liberalis, record the verdict of 
Tiresias on the question submitted to him by Zeus and Hera, 
though they are not all agreed as to the precise mathematical 
proportion expressed in it. Further, they all, except Anto- 
ninus Liberalis, agree that the blindness of Tiresias was a 
punishment inflicted on him by Hera (Juno) because his 
answer to the question was displeasing to her. According to 
Phlegon, Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, and the Second 


364 


THE LIBRARY, IIL νι. 7 


beheld snakes copulating on Cyllene, and that having 
wounded them he was turned from a man into a 
woman, but that on observing the same snakes 
copulating again, he became a man.! - Hence, when 


Vatican Mythographer the life of Tiresias was prolonged by 
Zeus (Jupiter) so as to last seven ordinany lives. 

The notion that it is unlucky to see snakes coupling appears 
to be widespread. In Southern India ‘‘the sight of two 
snakes coiled round each other in sexual congress is con- 
sidered to portend some great evil” (E. Thurston, Héhno- 
graphic Notes in Southern India, Madras, 1906, p. 293). The 
Chins of North-eastern India think that ‘‘one of the worst 
omens that it is possible to see is two snakes copulating, and 
a man who sees this is not supposed to return to his house or 
to speak to anyone until the next sun has risen” (Bertram 
S. Carey and H. N. Tuck, The Chin Hills, vol. i. Rangoon, 
1896, p. 199). ‘‘It is considered extremely unlucky for a 
Chin to come upon two snakes copulating, and to avoid ill- 
fortune he must remain outside the village that night, with- 
out eating cooked food; the next morning he may proceed 
to his house, but, on arrival there, must kill a fowl and, if 
within his means, hold a feast. If a man omits these pre- 
cautions and is found out, he is liable to pay compensation 
of a big mythun, a pig, one blanket, and one , whatever 
his means, to the first man he brings ill-luck to by talking to 
him. Before the British occupation, if the man, for any 
reason, could not pay the compensation, the other might 
make a slave of him, by claiming a pig whenever one of his 
daughters married” (W. R. Head, Haka Chin Customs, 
Rangoon, 1917, p. 44). In the Himalayas certain religious 
ceremonies are prescribed when a person has seen snakes 
coupling (Journal of the Astatic Soctety of Bengal, 1884, 

t. 1. p. 101; the nature of the ceremonies is not described). 
Pn Timorlaut, one of the East Indian Islands, it is deemed 
an omen of great misfortune if a man dreams that he sees 
snakes coupling (J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige 
rassen tusschen Seiebes en Papua, The Hague, 1886, p. 285). 
Similarly in Southern India there prevails ‘‘a superstitious 
belief that, if a person sees two crows engaged in sexual 
congress, he will die unless one of his relations sheds tears. 
To avert this catastrophe, false news as to the death are sent 


365 


APOLLODORUS 


ἀμφισβητοῦντες πότερον τὰς γυναῖκας ἢ τοὺς 
ἄνδρας ἥδεσθαι μᾶλλον ἐν ταῖς συνουσίαις συμ- 
βαίνοι, τοῦτον ἀνέκριναν. ὁ δὲ ἔφη δέκα μοιρῶν 
περὶ τὰς συνουσίας οὐσῶν τὴν μὲν μίαν ἄνδρας 
ἥδεσθαι, τὰς δὲ ἐννέα ' γυναῖκας. ὅθεν “Ἥρα μὲν 
αὐτὸν ἐτύφλωσε, Ζεὺς δὲ τὴν μαντικὴν αὐτῷ 
ἔδωκεν. 

[τὸ ὑπὸ Τειρεσίου λεχθὲν πρὸς Δία καὶ Ἥραν: 
οἵην μὲν μοῖραν δέκα μοιρῶν τέρπεται ἀνήρ, 
τὰς δὲ δέκ᾽ ἐμπίπλησι γυνὴ τέρπουσα νόημα. 3 

ἐγένετο δὲ καὶ πολυχρόνιος. 

Οὗτος οὖν Θηβαίοις μαντενομένοις 3 εἶπε νική- 
σειν, ἐὰν Μενοικεὺς ὁ Κρέοντος “Apes σφάγιον 
αὑτὸν ἐπιδῷ. τοῦτο ἀκούσας Μενοικεὺς ὁ Κρέ- 
οντος ἑαυτὸν πρὸ τῶν πυλῶν ἔσφαξε. μάχης δὲ 
γενομένης οἱ Καδμεῖοι μέχρι τῶν τειχῶν συνε- 
διώχθησαν, καὶ Καπανεὺς ἁρπάσας κλίμακα ἐπὶ 
τὰ τείχη δι’ αὐτῆς ἀνήει, καὶ Ζεὺς αὐτὸν κεραυνοῖ. 
τούτου δὲ γενομένου τροπὴ " τῶν ᾿Αργείων γίνεται. 
ὡς δὲ ἀπώλλυντο πολλοί, δόξαν ἑκατέροις τοῖς 

1 δέκα... τὴν μὲν μίαν... τὰς δὲ ἐννέα Barth, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner: δεκαεννέα. .. τὰς μὲν ἐννέα... τὰς δὲ 
δέκα A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller. 

2 These verses are probably interpolated. They are re- 

eated by the Scholiast on Homer, Od. x. 494, and by 
zetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 683. 

3 μαντενομένοις Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: μαντευ- 

duevos A, Westermann, Miiller. 


4 τροπὴ Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: τρόπαιον A, 
Westermann. 





by the post or telegraph, and subsequently corrected by a 
letter or telegram announcing that the individual is alive” 
(E. Thurston, op. cit. p. 278). A similar belief as to the dire 
effect of seeing crows coupling, and a similar mode of averting 


366 


THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 7-8 


Hera and Zeus disputed whether the pleasures of 
love are felt more by women or by men, they referred 
to him for a decision. He said that if the pleasures 
of love be reckoned at ten, men enjoy one and 
women nine. Wherefore Hera blinded him, but 
Zeus bestowed on him the art of soothsaying. 


The saying of Tiresias to Zeus and Hera. 
Of ten parts a man enjoys one only ; 
But a woman enjoys the full ten parts in her heart.! 


He also lived to a great age. 

So when the Thebans sought counsel of him, he 
said that they should be victorious if Menoeceus, son 
of Creon, would offer himself freely as a sacrifice to 
Ares. On hearing that, Menoeceus, son of Creon, 
slew himself before the gates.?. But a battle having 
taken place, the Cadmeans were chased in a 
crowd as far as the walls, and Capaneus, seizing a 
ladder, was climbing up it to the walls, when Zeus 
smote him with a thunderbolt.2 When that befell, 
the Argives turned to flee. And as many fell, 


the calamity, are reported in the Central Provinces of India 

(M. R. Pedlow, ‘‘ Superstitions among Hindoos in the Central 

Provinces,” The Indian Antiquary, xxix. Bombay, 1900, 
88 


Pa These lines are also quoted by Tzetzes (Schol. on 
Lycophron, 683) from a poem M reer ie they are cited 
also by the Scholiast on Homer, Od. x. 494. 

2 As to the voluntary sacrifice of Menoeceus, see Euri- 
pides, Phoentssae, 911 sqq.; Pausanias, ix. 25.1; Cicero, 
Tuscul. Disput. i. 48.116; Hyginus, Fab. 68 ; Statius, Theb. 
x. 589 sqq. 

3 As to the death of Capaneus, compare Aeschylus, Seven 
against Thebes, 423 «qq.; Euripides, Phoenissae, 1172 sqq. ; 
id. Suppliants, 496 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65.8; Hyginus, 
Fab. 71; Statius, Theb. x. 827 sqq. 


367 


APOLLODORUS 


a 3 fo] ’ a 
στρατεύμασιν ᾿Ετεοκλῆς καὶ ἸΤολυνείκης περὶ τῆς 
βασιλείας μονομαχοῦσε, καὶ κτείνουσιν ἀλλήλους. 
καρτερᾶς δὲ πάλιν γενομένης μάχης οἱ ᾿Αστακοῦ 
παῖδες ἤἠρίστευσαν" Ἴσμαρος μὲν γὰρ Ἱππομέδοντα 
ἀπέκτεινε, Λεάδης δὲ Ετέοκλον, ᾿Αμφίδικος δὲ Παρ- 
θενοπαῖον. ὡς δὲ Εὐριπίδης φησί, Παρθενοπαῖον 
ὁ Ποσειδῶνος παῖς Περικλύμενος ἀπέκτεινε. Με- 
λάνιππος δὲ ὁ λοιπὸς τῶν ᾿ΑστακοῦΣ παίδων εἰς 

lA , ς a \ 

τὴν γαστέρα Τυδέα τιτρώσκει. ἡμιθνῆτος δὲ 
αὐτοῦ κειμένου παρὰ Διὸς αἰτησαμένη ᾿Αθηνᾶ 
φάρμακον ἤνεγκε, Sv οὗ ποιεῖν ἔμελλεν ἀθάνατον 
αὐτόν. ᾿Αμφιάραος δὲ αἰσθόμενος τοῦτο, μισῶν 
Τυδέα ὅτι παρὰ τὴν ἐκείνον γνώμην εἰς Θήβας 
ἔπεισε τοὺς ᾿Αργείους στρατεύεσθαι, τὴν Μελα- 
νίππου κεφαλὴν ἀποτεμὼν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ [τετρω- 
σκόμενος δὲ Τυδεὺς ἔκτεινεν αὐτόν]. ὁ δὲ διελὼν 
3 A 

τὸν ἐγκέφαλον ἐξερρόφησεν. ὡς δὲ εἶδεν ᾿Αθηνᾶ, 
μυσαχθεῖσα τὴν εὐεργεσίαν ἐπέσχε τε καὶ ἐφθόν- 

1 ῬΑστακοῦ Aegius: ἀστυάγους A. 

2 "Αστακοῦ Westermann, Miiller, Hercher, Wagner: ἀστυ- 
dyous A. Aegius, Commelinus, Gale, Heyne, and Bekker 
omit the noun, reading simply τῶν παίδων. 

3 τιτρωσκόμενος δὲ Τυδεὺς ἔκτεινεν αὐτόν. These words are 


pee an interpolation, as Heyne rightly observed. 
hey are omitted by Hercher. 


1 As to the single combat and death of Eteocles and 
Polynices, see Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 804 sqq.; 
Kuripides, Phoentssae, 1356 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 8; 
Pausanias, ix. 5. 12; Hyginus, Fab. 71; Statius, Theb. xi. 
447-579. 

3 ae to Statius (Theb. ix. 455-539), Hippomedon 
was overwhelmed by a cloud of Theban missiles ater being 
nearly drowned in the river Ismenus. 

3 As to the death of Parthenopaeus, see Euripides, Phoe- 
nissae, 1153 sqq. In the Thebard, also, Periclymenus was 


368 








THE LIBRARY, III. νι. 8 - 


Eteocles and Polynices, by the resolution of both 
armies, fought a single combat for the kingdom, 
and slew each other.1_ In another fierce battle 
the sons of Astacus did doughty deeds; for 
Ismarus slew Hippomedon,? Leades slew Eteoclus, 
and Amphidocus slew Parthenopaeus. But Euripides 
says that Parthenopaeus was slain by Pericl